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Full text of "A directory for the navigation of the Indian Archipelago, China, and Japan, from the straits of Malacca and Sunda, and the passages east of Java. To Canton, Shanghai, the Yellow Sea, and Japan, with descriptions of the winds, monsoons, and currents, and general instructions for the various channels, harbours, etc"

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Honorary Member of the Societa Geografica Italiana. 





Tais volume may be considered as a sequel to our Sailing Directory for the 
Ind'an Ocean, which describes all the coasts and islands between the Cape 
of Good Hope and the Straits of Malacca and Sunda, the great, westward 
portals of the vast archipelago which is described in the present work. 
Although each book is complete in itself, still tliey may be taken together 
as the modern representative of our old "Oriental Navigator," which was 
first issued from this house by the predecessors of the present publisher, in 
1775, a fourth edition being completed in 1808. The arrangement of that 
quarto volume is very much the same as that now followed in these two 
•works ; and, as is stated in the Preface to the Indian Ocean Directory, was 
copied, with most of its matter, from the Oriental Navigator, by the late 
Captain James Horsburgh, in the first edition of his work, published in 
1809—11. Captain Horsburgh died in May, 1836. 

This Directory completes the series of those drawn up or edited by the 
writer. Those for the North Atlantic and South Atlantic Oceans, embracing 
all the area northward, between Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope ; 
those for the Indian Ocean and Indian Archipelago giving all the countries 
between the Cape of Good Hope and the North of China, while the circuit 
is completed by the Directories for the Pacific Ocean. These last named 
works were designed by the author 20 years ago ; and, with the exception of 
this book, all have been before the world for some years, and, it is hoped, 
have done good service. They were drawn up from materials scattered 
over a wide range of literature, and the collection of which involved much 
labour and research. 

This book differs in some degree from the others, for a considerable por- 
tion of it is taken from the " Pilots," published by the Hydrographic oflB.ce, 
so carefully compiled, chiefly by Commander John W. King, P.N., and 
embracing all the information given by former works, combined with the 
recent observations of many naval officers. 

For the China Sea and Coast of China we are thus indebted to these 
Admiralty works, and we fuUy acknowledge our indebtedness to them. In 


many parts we have somewhat curtailed the details, without, it is hoped, 
impairing their utility to the Mercantile Marine. 

The other portions of this book have been derived from various and 
numerous sources, the chief of which we may briefly indicate, proceeding in 
the geographic order in which the book is arranged. 

The Strait of Malacca was partially surveyed, by direction of the East 
India Company, by Captains Moresby, Ward, and Moore, and part of the 
Sands by Captain Daniel Ross. The labours of these zealous officers, in the 
early days of hydrography as at present understood, have been alluded to 
in the introductory remarks to the Indian Ocean Directory. The northern 
part of the Sumatra coast was re-examined by Commander Fell, under the 
same auspices, in 1851 — 8. Subsequently to this the Sumatran side was 
surveyed by Lieutenant Jackson, in 1860. 

The second great entrance to the Indian Archipelago— the Strait of Sunda 

lias been well surveyed by the Dutch ; and it is to this nation, and the 

zeal and talent of their officers, that we are largely indebted for our exact 
acquaintance with the hydrography of the archipelago ; and, also, it may be 
at once stated, that larger portions of the ensuing work are dei^ved from the 
same sources. 

Subsequent to the cession of Java, and other possessions, to the Dutch 
nation, after the vigorous policy inaugurated by Sir Stamford Raffles during 
the British occupation of that fine island, the queen of the archipelago, very 
much attention was paid by the Netherlands officers to the acquisition of 
knowledge in almost every branch of science relating to their extensive 
territories ; and, however much may have been said as to their exclusive 
policy, it is certain that a vast amount of knowledge, and the records of the 
experience of a large number of most competent observers, was given to the 
world ; but their memoirs being too frequently in the Dutch language, one 
not universally understood, they were left unheeded by those most interested 
in them, and thus it became a general opinion that this enterprising nation 
desired to keep the information that was acquired under these auspices to 
itself. Of late years this opinion has been fully met, and it is now accorded 
that no country has done better service to science. 

For hydrography, the establishment of the Commission for the improve- 
in nt of the Indian sea charts, at Batavia, under the enlightened Governor- 
General, the Baron Van der Capellen, in 1821, a period when our naiitical 
surveys were first being commenced on a more extended s ale, has led to 
great results. They are detailed generally in the ensuing pages ; but ic is 
desired that every acknowledgement of our obligations to the labours of 
this commission should be given. They are continued to this day, and are 
constantly adding to our stock of information. The works of Capt.-Lieut. 
Baron Peter Melvill van Carnbee have been alluded on page 150 hereafter. 
It is to this young officer, perhaps, more than any other individual, that we 


owe a connected view of the labours of the commission to which he was 
secretary, as well as one of its most active surveyors. 

The Strait of Sunda, as before said, was surveyed by Lieuts. Rietveld and 
Boom, in 1848, and since that time many additional observations have been 
added for its improvement. Of the North Coast of Java we have surveys of 
some minuteness, executed by Lieutenants Escher, Eschauzier, Staring, 
Eietveld, Boom, and others, which are generally sufficient for navigation. 

A portion of the Java Sea is still incomplete on the charts, and is imper- 
fectly described, and dependant on old observations ; but the part between 
the Straits of Sunda, comprising the Thousand Islands, &c., has been more 
recently examined. Banka Strait has been excellently surveyed by Lieuts. 
Stanton and Eeed, E.N., in H.M.S. Saracen, in 1859-60; and this important 
service has discovered a more direct and open channel through this great 
highway. The charts and directions for the strait leave little to be desired. 
Gaspar Strait, as now shown, is from the survey by the U.S. officers, in 
1854. Carimata Strait, the easternmost of the western passages between 
Sumatra and Borneo, is still unsurveyed, although many of its dangers and 
features were fixed by Captains Eoss and Maughan. 

The labyrinth of islands and passages to the north-westward, the channels 
leading to Singapore, have not been completely and systematically surveyed, 
but the charts and directions are now so far complete that the main routes 
are quite sufficiently known and described for safe navigation. Lieutenants 
Melvill van Carnbee, Blommendal, and Edeling, have executed considerable 
portions, and their charts have been improved, especially Ehio Strait, by the 
examination of Lieuts. Eeed and Stanton, E.N. 

Singapore Strait was surveyed by a very zealous officer, J. T. Thompson, 
Esq., F.E.G-.S., the government surveyor at Singapore, and the constructor 
of those excellent monitors the Horsburgh and Eaffles Lighthouses, which 
mark its East and West entrances. A portion of this important strait has 
since been re-surveyed by Lieuts. Eeed and Eichards, E.N. 

The Gulf of Siam, which has been very imperfectly laid down on our 
charts, was well surveyed, and its dangers and main features accurately de- 
lineated in H.M.S. Saracen, commanded by Staff-Commander J. Eichards, a 
coast line of 1,000 miles in extent in the short space of twenty months, in 
1856 — 8, a work which reflects much ci'cdit on its author. Cambodia, or 
Lower Cochin China, was also surveyed by the same officers. Of the coast 
of the Annamite empire, which now belongs to the French, our knowledge 
is less perfect. The Gulf of Tong King and Hainan Island are also mainly 
dependent upon the former surveys of Daniel Eoss and other officers, im- 
proved by the observations of Mr. Kerr, E.N. 

The western shores of the great island of Borneo are well laid down and 
described. A large portion of it was suiveyed, minutely and excellently, 
by Sir Edward Belcher, and other parts were completed by Lieut. D. M. 


Gordon, partially so by Capt. Drink water Bethune, and of late some points 
have been revisited by the Admiralty surveyors, conducted by Commander 

Palawan, and some of the islands North of Borneo, were elaborately 
surveyed and profusely described by Captain Bate. The western coast of 
the Philippine Islands have been generally laid down from the surveys of 
various Spanish officers. 

The China Sea is perhaps the locality where hydrography has made the 
greatest changes of late years. Up to 1862 the charts of this great highway 
exhibited a labyrinth of detached shoals, scattered about without order or 
connection, laid down from the isolated observations of zealous officers of the 
East India service, many of which are now difficult of recognition, from the 
vague manner of their announcement. The increasing importance of the 
China commerce, and the advance in the sailing powers of the ships em- 
ployed in it, caused this great sea to be much more frequented than in former 
years. Since the year above named, Commander Peed, with a moderate 
staff, in H.M.S. Rifleman, has examined the outer line of dangerous shoals 
■which limit the two great channels, which are separated by a vast range of 
dangerous coral reefs and shoals, leaving the clear main channel to the 
north-west, and the Palawan Channel to the south-east of them perfectly 
free from danger for those vessels which beat up or down the China Sea by 
either passage in the opposite monsoons. In the work these dangers are 
fully described and enumerated. 

The Eastern Passages are less known, and their hydrography, generally, 
is less advanced than in other parts. A great portion of the islands, claimed 
by the Dutch, are, with the exception of their noble possessions in Java, 
more or less under the control of native chiefs, and therefore their commerce, 
in a European sense, is of minor importance ; therefore they have attracted 
less attention. Still very much has been done by the Dutch officers. 

Of Java we have before spoken. Of the volcanic range, to the eastward, 
the coasts have been surveyed by various officers, under the direction of the 
Commission at Batavia ; and the account of its navigation was drawn up by 
Mr. J. Swart and Melvill van Carnbee. 

The remarkable island of Celebes is, in many parts, very vaguely repre- 
sented, but its main points are well fixed and delineated. Thus Makassar, 
its chief port, was surveyed by Sir Edward Belcher, as were the ports at its 
N.E. end. The remainder of its coasts rest on the more vague authorities 
of Dutch travellers and voyagers, and, for the great Southern Gulf of Buni, 
on the single voyage of Rajah Sir James Brooke. The groups to the east- 
ward of this are also but indifferently known, although there are several 
tracks of eminent voyagers which have served to correct the main points 
and features. Of these, the surveys of Lieut. Gregory of the Dutch navy, 
with thoae of M.M. Kolff, Mudera, Miiller, and other Dutch officers, may 


be enumerated. The celebrated Dumont D'Urville also made a cruise 
through a portion of the archipelago and settled many of its points. To 
these may be added the names of Sir Edward Belcher, Owen Stanley, and 
other British, officers, so that although as a whole our charts and directions 
may be somewhat defective, they are still sufficient for the general purposes 
of navigation. 

The coast of China is of vastly greater importance to commerce now 
that its ports and coasting trade are open to the world. The British 
Government, alive to the importance of this, commissioned those two 
well-known officers (now Admirals) R, CoUinson, C.B., and Kellett, to 
replace the vague outlines left to us by the Jesuits in the first part of the 
last century, as alluded to on page 940 hereafter. The most important 
result of this extensive and difficult enterprise has been to give to every 
one a complete picture of the labyrinthine coast of this great empire, as 
perfect as of any other portion of the globe. Many minor features have 
been added to this great achievement, a portion of which was attained 
under difficult and perplexing circumstances. The directions drawn up 
appeared at first in the Chinese Repository, but have been followed im- 
plicitly in this work. 

The foregoing brief and imperfect enumeration of the authorities upon 
which the physical portion of this book rests, will show how laborious and 
extensive must be the operations which can bring together such a mass of 
materials as is here given. 

The Editor feels it due to his readers to state, as has been before alluded 
to, that a large portion has been already found to his hands and purpose, 
and he has only to unite these scattered memoirs into one more complete 
work by filling up the vacancies from the many sources which it is hoped, 
as it is intended, are acknowledged throughout. 

London^ March 1, 1869. 

The foregoing preface to the first edition was written before a descrip- 
tion of the Japanese Archipelago was added to this work. For this 
description we are indebted to the China Sea Directory, Vol. IV., and 
recent reports from H.M. surveying vessels. Previous to 1867, the shores 
of Japan were represented in our charts from the descriptions of its own 
ingenious geographers. In the year 1867, Commander Brooker commenced 
an examination of its coasts in H.M.S. Sylvia, and was succeeded in the 
year 1869 by Commander St. John, who continued the survey without inter- 
ruption till the year 1872, when the -Sy^i'^a was ordered home for repairs, 

viii PREFACE. 

and did not return to Japan till July, 1871, since which time she has 
remained as a surveying ship on the Japanese coasts. Of late years 
some surveying operations have also been carried on by the Japanese 

New and important information has been gained from the operations 
carried on in H.M. surveying vessels Rifleman and Nassau. In the former 
of these vessels, Staff-Commander J.W. Reed, after carefully examining the 
dangers in the China Sea, surveyed Balabac Strait and its approaches, and 
added to the completeness of the survey of Singapore Strait. In the years 
1870 — 1872, Commander W. Chimmo, in H.M.S. Nassau, was employed in 
the Sulu and adjacent seas. The hostility of the natives, however, prevented 
a complete survey of the Sulu Archipelago. In the year 1877, the Nassau, 
under Commander Napier, E.N., was engaged in examining the many 
dangers recently reported as lying near the shore by vessels engaged in 
trade between the treaty ports of China. 

H.M.S. Challenger, with the Deep-sea Exploring Expedition on board, be- 
tween August, 1874, and March, 1875, was some months in the archipelago ; 
and from several books edited by the officers, and from official reports, much, 
has been taken to add to the completeness of the ensuing descriptions. The 
places visited in the passage from Torres Strait to Hong Kong were the 
Arru and Ki Islands, Banda, Amboina, and Ternate in the Molucca Sea ; 
Samboangan, Iloilo, and Manila in the Philippines. In returning, the vessel 
passed through the Philippine Archipelago eastward of Mindoro and Zebu, 
and westward and southward of Mindanao, thence to the Admiralty Islands 
N.E. of New Guinea, before proceeding to the northward to Yokohama. 

The above labours of our own government, and those of the Spanish and 
Dutch governments, have afforded most of the newly incorporated informa- 
tion in this book ; but no trouble has been spared to make the work 
complete up to the date of issue by the careful examination of all other 
available sources of information. 

London, September, 1878. 






(This Table will serve as an Index to the work arranged geographically. 
The Diagrams facing the title will also serve as an index.) 


I. Winds and Seasons 1 

General systems of the Winds and Monsoons, 1, 2 ; Eainfall, 3 ; Malacca 
Strait, 5 ; Water-spouts, 6 ; Singapore, 9 ; Banka Strait, 13 ; Java Sea, 
&c,, 14 ; Siam, &c., 16 ; Eastern Passages, 18. 

II. Currents 25 

General Remarks, 25 ; Malacca and Singapore Straits, 26 ; Siam and China 
Sea, 28 ; Eastern Passages, 30. 

IIL Tides and Tide Table 32-38 

IV. Temperature 39-40 

V. Magnetic Variation 41 


1. The Atlantic to the Strait of Sunda 

2. Southern India to the Straits of Malacca 

3. Straits of ]\Ialacca to Southern India 

4. Sunda Strait to Banka Strait 

5. Banka Strait to Sunda Strait 
I. A. 




VASSAGES— continued. 

6. Banka Strait to Singapore 

7. Singapore to Hong Kong 

8. Hong Kong to Singapore 

9. Singapore to the Gulf of Siam and to Saigon 

10. Gulf of Slam to Sin'japore 

11. Saigon to Singapore 

12. Eastern lioute to Singapore 

13. Eastern Routes to China . 

14. China to the Bay of Bengal 
lo. Passages hetween Australia and China 

16. Between the North Coiist of Australia and Singapore 

17. From China Homewards 

18. Currents and Passages against the Monsoon in the China Sea 

19. Passages along the Coast of China . 

20. Passages between China and Japan . . 






Eastern Coast, 107 ; Pulo Penang, 107 ; Perak, 112 ; Salangore, 119 ; Ma- 
lacca, 130 ; Carimon Islands, 136 ; Coast of Sumatra, 137 ; Pulo Brasae 
Lighthouse, 138. 



The Java Coast, 151 ; First Point Lighthouse, 154 ; Anjer, 162 ; The Coast 
of Sumatra, 165; Krakaloa, 173; S.E. Coast of Sumatra, 179; Direc- 
tions, 179—180. 



Sumatra Coast, 181 ; Banka Strait, 187 ; Lucipara Island, 192 ; Palembang, 
196 ; Coast of Banka, 199 ; Kalian Point, 210 ; Mintok, 210 ; Stanton 
and Lucipara Channels, 215 ; Directions, 217 ; Lucipara Channel, 219 ; 
Northern Coast of Banka, 224. 





Choice of Banki, or Gaspar Strait, 227 ; Dangers Southward of Gaspar 
Strait, 229 ; Macclesfield Channel, 234 ; Directions, 239 ; Clements 
Channel, 244 ; Stolze Channel, 249 ; North-eust Coast of Banka, 260 ; 
Dangers North and N.W. of Gaspar Strait, 264 ; Directions, 268. 



South Coast of Billiton, 273 ; Islands and Dangers in the Fairway, 275 ; 
West Coast of Borneo, 281 ; Directions, 293. 



1. Detached Islands and Rocks. 

Detached Islands and Rocks, 295 ; Islands, &c., between Borneo and 
(Singapore Strait, 304. 

2. Rhio Strait 312 

General Description, 312; West side of the Strait, 313; East side of the 
Strait, 319 ; Directions, 326. 

3. Varella and Durian Straits 334 

Coast of Sumatra, &c., 334 ; Southern Entrances, 344 ; Directions north- 
ward, 350 ; Directions southward, 353. 



North side of the Strait, 358; Raffles Lighthouse, 361 ; South side of the 
Strait, 362 ; Directions, 364 ; Singapore, 366 ; Singapore New Harbour, 
374 ; Singapore Strait, Eastern Part, 381 ; Horsburgh Lighthouse, 388; 
Directions, 390 ; South side of Eastern part of the Strait, 392 ; Direc- 
tions, 395. 



East Coast of Malay Peninsula, 400 ; East Coast of the Gulf, 412; Bang- 
kok, 425. 





1. Cochin China, 428 ; Camhodia River, 430 ; Don-nai or Saigoa River, 
432 ; Saigon, 437 ; Directions, 438. 

2. The Gulf of Ton-King, 456 ; River Lacht Huen, 461 ; Haiphong, 462. 

3. Coast of China and Hainan Island, 468 ; Pakhoi, 468 ; Hainan Island, 
471 ; Hoihow, 473. 



Tanjong Datu, 481 ; Sarawak or Kuching, 482 ; Bruni River, 490 ; Lahuan, 
494 ; Victoria Harhour, 496 ; Ambong Bay, 506. 




Balamhangan, &c , 513; Banguey South Channel, 517; Balabac Strait, 
522 ; North Balabac Strait, 536 ; Palawan West Coast, 539 ; North Coast, 
566 ; East Coast of Palawan, 567 


Calamianes, 586 ; Mindoro West Coast, 589 ; Luzon S.W. Coast, 594 ; 
Manila, 595 -^ Cape Bojeador, 605 ; Pirataa Island and Reef, 606. 



Anamba Islands, 610 ; Natuna Islands, 613 ; Shoals on eastern side of Main 
Route, 621 ; Islands and Dingers in the Fairway of the Main Route, 631 ; 
Paracel Islands and Reefs, 611 ; Macclesfield Bank, 645 ; Palawan Pas- 
Ba'j;e, 648 ; Dangers on its western side, 654 ; on the eastern aide, 056 ; 
Shual:* uoar the Main Route, 062 ; Shoals near the Palawan Route, 001. 






Java, 670; North Coast, 672 ; Batavia, 677 ; Saniarang, 693 ; Sourabaj'a, 
696 ; Madura Island, 705 ; Madura Strait, 711 ; Probolingo, 715 ; South 
Coaat of Java, 718 ; Tjilatjap, 724. 

The Java Sea, 735 ^ Thousand Islands, 736 ; South Coast of Borneo, 739. 



Baly Island, 742 ; Baly Strait, 748 ; Banjoewangie, 751 ; Lombok Island, 
754 ; Alias Strait, 759 ; Sumbawa Island, 761 ; Sapi Strait, 766 ; Man- 
garai Strait, 769 ; Floris Island, 769 ; Suinba or Sandalwood Island, 
775 ; Strait of Floris, 778 ; Solor Strait, 779 ; Allor or Maurissa Strait, 
780; Strait of Pantar, 781; Ombay Passage, 782; Wetta Island, 
782 ; Island of Timor, 784 ; Kotti, 7»7. 



The Strait of Makassar, 793 ; East Coast of Borneo, 794 ; Island of 
Celebes, 801; Makassar, 803; North Coast of Celebe.s, 809; Boeton 
Island and Strait, 813; Salayar Island, 817; Postilions and Pater- 
nosters, 819. 

Molucca Islands, 820 ; Amboina, 825 ; Banda Islands, 829 ; Gunong Api, 

The Banda Sea, 834 ; Serwatty Islands, 836 ; Tenimber Islands, 840 ; 
Arru Inlands, 841 ; Ki Islands, 846; Arafura S-a, 84iS ; Ceram Laut, 
851 ; Western part of the Island of New Guinea, 855 ; Mysole, 858 ; 
Pitt Strait, 86u ; Waigiou, 861; Dampier Strait, S62 ; Pitt's Passage, 
865 ; Gilolo Passage, 807 ; Gebi, 869. 

Halmaheira«r Gilolo, 871 ; Morti, 873 ; The Molucca Islands, 874 ; Ter- 
nate, 874 ; ilolucca Passage or Sea, 879. 





Sangir, 882 ; The Sulu Archipelago, 884 ; Sulu, 889 ; Basilan, 892 ; 
The Strait of Basilan, 894. 

The Philippine Islands, 895 ; Mindanao, 896 ; Samboanga, 896 ; Samar, 
902 ; Strait of San Bernardino, 903 : Ticao, 904 ; Masbate, 905 ; Zebu, 
906; Negros, 908; Panay, 909 ; Iloilo, 910 ; Directions, 913. 

The Sulu Sea, 916; Snndakan Harbour, 917; Cac:aj'an de Sulu, 918; 
Mindoio, 924 ; South Coasts of Luzon, 926 ; East Coast of Luzon, 9^9 ; 
Babuyan Islands, 930 ; Bashi Islands, 93.7. 



Now Chow, 942 ; Naraoa, 946 ; Canton Pavers, 949 ; Macao, 952 ; La- 
drones, 954 ; Lema Islands, 960 ; Hong Kong, 9G3 ; Cap-Siug-Mun 
Passage, 969; Lintin, 970; Directions for Canton River, 971; Canton 
River, 9/9 ; Boca Tigris, 980 ; Whampoa, 983 ; Canton, 988 ; Si-kiang 
or West River, 990. 




Tathong Channel, 992 ; Mirs Bay, 996 ; Bias Baj', 999 ; River Han, 1010 ; 
Swatow, 1011; Namoa Island, 1012; Chapel Island Light, 1017; 
Amoy, 1019; Quemoy Island, 1023; Chiinmo Bay, 1024; Ocksou 
Lighthouse, 1027 ; White Dog Islands, 1030. 



Islands South of Formosa, 1033; East Coast of Formosa, 1034; West 
Coast of Formosa, 1036; Ta-kau-kon, 1038; Tamsui, 1043; Kelung 
Harbour, 1045 ; Islands N.E. of Formosa, 1047 ; Meiaco Sima Group, 
1048; Ykima Island, 1051. 

Pvacadorus, or Ponghou Archipelago, 10-51 ; Ponghou Harbour, 1054. 






River Min, 10.5fi ; Fuchan, 1060; Double Peak Island, 1064; Namquan 
Bay, 1066; Sheipii Road, 1073; Kweshan Islands, 107-5; Chusan Ar- 
chipelago, 1077 ; Chusan Island, 1083 ; Tae-shan Island, 1091 ; Vol- 
cano Islands, 1092 ; Gutzlaff Island, 1096. 

Yung River, 1098; Ningpo, 1099; Chapu, 1102; Hang-chu.fu, 1103. 

The Yang-tse Kiang, 1103; Main or Shawt-ishan Channel, 1106 ; South 
Entrance, 1108; Directions for Approaching, 1112; Wusung River, 
1117; Shanghai, 1122; Wusung to Hankow, 1126. 



General Description, Winds, &c., 11 28 ; The Yellow River, or Whang Ho, 
1131; Shantung Peninsula, 1138; Chifu, or Yentai Harbour, 1142; 
Teng-Chau, 1144; Strait of Pe-chili, 1145; Tatsing Ho, 1147; Pei 
Ho, 1147 ; Tientsin, 1147. 

Gulf of Liau-tung, 11.53; Great Wall, 1153; The Liau-ho, 1154; New 
Chwang, 1154; Bittern Shallows, 1158 ; Quang Tung Peninsula, 1159; 
The Korea, 1161 ; Port Hamilton, 1162. 



1. General Descrittion 1163 

Treaty Ports, 1165; Climate, 1165; The Japanese Current, or Kuro 
Siwo, 1167. 

2. South and East Coasts of the Archipelago 1168 

The Luchu Islands, 1168; A^an Diemen Strait, 1171; South and East 
Coasts of Kiusiu and Sikok, 1171 ; South-Kast Coast of Nipon, 1172; 
The Bay of Yedo, 1182; Yokohama, 1187; Volcanic Islets S.E. of 
Japan, 1192 ; The East Coast of Nipon, 1195. 

3. The Seto Uchi or Inland Sea 12oi 

The Boungo Channel, 1202 ; The Kii Channel, 1202 ; Lsumi Strait, 1207 ; 
Hiogo and Kobe, 1209; Harima Nada, 1211; Bingo Nada, 1213; 
Misima Nada, 1216; lyo Nada, 1217; Suwo NaJa, 1218; Simonoseki 
Strait, 1218. 

The Goto Islands and West Coasts of Kiusiu and Nipon 
Goto Islands, 1224 ; Meac Sima Group, 1229 ; Kosiki Islands, 1229 
Kagosima Gulf, 1231; Simabara Gulf, 1233; Nagasaki, 1239; Direc 
tions from Nagasaki to Simonoseki, 1241 ; West Coast of Nipon, 1244 
Port Niegata, 1246; Tsugar Strait, 1248; Hakodadi Harbour, 1250; 
Yezo Island, 1253. 





Geographic Terms.— Method of Spelling Oriental Names, 1255. 

Malay, Sixgapoue, Etc.— Malay Vocabulary, 1256; Money, 1257; Weights, 1257; 
Measures, 1258. 

SiAM— Geographic Tfrms, 1258; Money, 1259; Measures of Length, 1259; Capacity, 
1260; Weights, 1260. 

Cochin China (Anam).— Money, 1260; Measures and Weights, 1261, 1262. 

Netherlands' India.— Money, Weights, and Measures, 1262-1264. 

North- West Borneo. — Money and Weights, 1264. 

Philippine Islands. — Money, Weights, and Measures, 1265. 

China.— Glossary of Chinese Words, 1266; Money, 1266; Commercial Weights, 1268; 
Measures, 1268. 

Japan. — Glossary of Japanese Words, 1269; Money, 1270; Weights, 1270; Measures, 


1. Magnetic Variation, Indian Archipelago, with Index to Pages "j 

2. „ „ &c. , China and Japan „ „ J 

3. Wind Systems, April to September 

4. „ October to March 

5. Passages in the Indian Archipelago and China Sea 

6. Striit of Sunda 

7. Straits of Singapore, Durian, and Rhio ... 

8. Hong Kong ........ 

9. Amoy Harbour ....... 

10. Pescadore Islands - - - - - . * 

11. Yokohama Anchorage --..-. 

To face Title. 















Eastern Coast. 

Pulo Penang ; Fort Cornwallis - 
Binding Island, N.W. Id. offK.W. pt. 

„ Anchorage off North end 

„ Anchorage off S. end - 

„ S.E. point 

„ Port Pancore ; Police Station 
Pulo Katta ... 

One-fathom Bank Lighthouse - 
Malacca, flagstaff 
Pulo Pisang, lighthouse - 
Little Carimon Island, summit - 

Coast of Sumatra. 

Pulo Brasse Lighthouse - 

Achin River, East entrance point 

Pulo Way, N.AV. extreme 

Diamond Point, North extreme - 

Prauhila Point, extreme 

Lanksa Bay, Ujong Byan, N.W. point 

Ujong Tannang, extreme 

Dehli River, entrance 

Pulo Varela, summit 

Point Mattie, outer point 

Batu Barra River, entrance 

The Brothers, Pulo Pandan 

Assarhan River, entrance 

Reccan River, Pulo Lalang Besar 

Pulo Roupat, Ujong Bantan 

Pulo Bucalisse, Tanjong Jati, or N. pt. 

Siak River, entrance 

Campou River, entrance 

24 30 
'5 24 
14 35 

11 40 

10 50 

12 40 
9 10 

52 8 

11 30 
29 o 

5 45 o 

5 35 35 

5 54 iS 

5 16 o 

4 53 15 
4 36 30 
4 21 o 
3 48 28 
3 46 20 
3 22 o 
14 o 
25 5 


3 I 
2 12 

8 o 

36 30 
II 30 
43 o 











34 40 1 






37 55 1 

109 59 








































99 47 


















Bruce, 1875. 


Ward (corrected), 

Netherlands Go- 133 
vernmeut Sur- 139 
vey, 1872-1874 

Lieut. Jackson, 
I.N., I860* 



Rose & Moresby. I 146 

I. ▲. 



Coast of Java. 

Cape Sangian Sira, S.W. extreme 

Java Head, extremity 

First Point, Lighthouse 

Prince's Island, Southern Carpenter rock 

„ N.E. point 

„ S.W. point • 

Second Point, extremity 
Panter Reefs, North end 
Third Point, North extremity 
Fourth Point, Lightho. & Signal Station 
Anjer, flRgstaff . . . 

Thwart-the-Way, South point 
Great M( rak Island, West point 
St. Nicholas Point, extreme - 

Coast of Sumatra. 

Flat Point, West extreme 

Little Fortune Island, East point 

Rada Point, East extreme 

Keyser Island, or Labuan, S.E. end 

Borne, fort ... 

Kalang Bayang Harbour, Klappa Island 

Tikoes Point, extreme 

Telok Betong, Light column - 

Lagoendy Island, West extreme 

„ Soengal Id., S.E. pt. - 

Krakatoa Island, peak 2.623 feet 
Bezee Island, peak 2,825 feet - 
Sebuko Island, peak 1,416 ft. - 
Hog Point or Varkenshoek, extreme 
Zutphen Islands, Hout Island, S.E. pt. - 
St room Rock - - . 

Winsor Rock, 2f fathoms 
Pulo Logok ... 

North Island, centre 


East Coast of Sumatra. 

Jason Rock 

North "Watcher Island, Liirhthouse 

South Brother Island, South point 

Swallow Rock - . . 

Lynn Bank . _ . 

Brfiuwers Reefs, North reef - 

Clifton Reef 

Comara ileef - . . 

Ocean Mail Reef - . . 

Arend Bank, 4| fathoms 

Boreas Bank, 6 fathoms 

City of Carlisle Bank, South end 

52 o 
46 40 

44 30 
41 o 

30 45 
36 15 




3 10 
59 30 
55 45 
52 33 

58 30 
55 45 
57 30 
51 30 
32 20 
46 8 

49 o 
28 10 

50 45 
50 o 

9 o 

57 40 

53 15 

55 20 

54 20 

56 10 

53 30 
48 o 
42 o 

25 o 

13 30 
10 25 

17 40 

4 45 
56 o 

4 49 30 
4 18 o 

3 45 o 
3 44 o 

3 58 30 















14 45 1 





































104 53 










































































Dutch Surveys 

Dutch Charts. 




Dutch Charts. 







Banka Strait. 

, * 

, /, 

Lucipara Island . . - 

3 13 o 

106 13 



,. Point ... 

3 13 30 

106 3 30 



Eerste or First Point 

2 59 

106 2 30 



Tweede or Second Point 

2 41 

105 46 20 



Derde or Third Point 

2 23 

105 36 



Vierde or Fourth Point 

2 20 

105 13 



Batakarang Point - . - 

2 I 

104 50 


Baginda Point ... 

3 4 40 

106 44 

• ) 


Toboe All Fort 

3 48 

106 27 23 



Nangka Islands, West Rock - 

2 22 53 

105 44 50 


Monopin Hill ... 

2 I 45 

105 n 



Kalian Point, Lighthouse 


105 7 50 



Lucipara Lightve.-sel 

3 7 30 

106 5 40 



Banka, N. Coast, Melalu Point 

I 30 10 

105 37 50 



„ Highest peak of Gu- 

nong Marass 

I 51 

105 52 



„ Crassok Point 

I 28 30 

105 56 30 




Hancock Shoal ... 

3 34 20 

107 4 

American Survey 


Hippogriffe Shoal ... 

3 33 

106 53 40 



Turtle Shoal 

3 33 

107 5 40 



Larabe Shoal ... 

3 33 

107 10 

American Survey 


Sand Island ... 

3 29 

107 9 20 



Middle Reef 

3 27 30 

107 10 20 



Branding Breakers ... 

3 26 

107 9 30 



Fairlie Rock ... 

3 27 15 

106 59 



Shoal Water Island 

3 19 30 

107 II 45 



Eiiibleton Rock 

3 17 20 

107 10 



Entrance Point ... 

3 I 40 

106 53 10 



Pulo Lepar, light . . - 

5 26 30 

106 55 



Pulo Leat, Jelaka, light 

2 50 30 

107 I 30 



Brekat Point ... 

2 34 

106 50 



Akbar Shoal ... 

2 39 

107 II 

Akhar, 1843. 


Tree Island ... 

2 27 30 

106 57 

American Survey 


Gaspar Island, peak 

2 24 45 

107 3 20 



Low Island, centre . - - 

3 2 15 

107 7 45 



Saddle Island, centre 

3 r 40 

107 9 10 



South Island, centre 


107 12 40 



Table Island, centre 


107 15 



Hewett Shoal ... 

2 53 20 

107 10 40 



Pulo Leat, S.E. point 

2 54 30 

107 4 



Heroine Shoal, douUful 

3 37 

107 45 30 



Carnbee Rocks . . - 

3 33 30 

107 39 



Selio Island, South point 

3 14 

107 30 



Six Islands, Ross Island 


107 20 



Table or Klemar Island, summit 


107 15 



Hoog or High Island, centre - 

2 51 5 

107 19 



Tanjong Bienga, extreme 

2 34 40 

107 37 



N.E. Coast of Banka, Etc. 

Totawa Bank, Pulo Bocar - - J 

2 14 

106 31 

J. Robinson. 




Horse Eock . . - 

Fathool Barie Shoal, 2^ fathoms 
Djederika ShoaJ, 3 feet 
Palmer Eeef . - . 

Tanjong Eiah ... 

Dangers North and N.W. of Gaspar 

Canning Rock ... 

Pare Joie ... 

Belvedere Shoals, S.W. end - 

Dutch Shoal 

Magdalen Reef ... 

Laniick or Newland Reef 

Actfeon Rock . „ - 

Scheweningen Shoal 


Kebatoe or Shoe Island 
"White Island . - . 

Zephyr Rock - . . 

Karang Kawat, North Reef - 
„ South Reef - 

Katapang Island - - . 

Scharvogel Islands, East Island 
Discovery West Bank 

,, Reef - . . 

,, East Bank 
Lavender Bank . . . 

Cirencester Shoal - . . 

Bower Shoal . . . 

Osterly South Shoal 

Cirencester Bank - - . 

IMontaran Islands, East Island 
Catherine or Evans Reef 
Ontario Reef, centre 
Soruetou Island, West point - 
Carimata Island, peak 
Greig Shoal, 8 feet spot 
Columbus Shoal . . _ 

West Coast of Borneo. 

Sambar Point - - . 

Mount Minto - . . 

Succadana, centre of bay 

Pontianak River, entranee 

Tanjong INlampawa, extreme - 

Piilo Sitendang, centre 

Pulo Baroe, centre - . . 

Tanjong Batoe Blad, W. extr. of Borneo 

Sambas River, South point of entrance 

Tanjong Api ... 

Fox Shoal, West Rock • 

Ckmencia lieef - . . 

14 30 
4 o 
59 o 
54 o 
52 o 

2 22 40 
2 14 30 
2 10 40 
I 59 o 
I 50 40 

I 39 48 
I 19 12 

106 34 o 
ro6 27 o 
106 28 o 
106 27 30 
106 14 o 

107 13 o 

107 3 o 

106 59 o 

106 44 o 

106 59 30 

106 59 30 

106 37 58 

106 39 48 

3 47 45 
3 48 50 
3 48 20 

3 42 40 

3 44 10 

3 23 20 

3 17 
3 38 

3 35 45 

3 34 40 

3 24 5 

3 14 30 

3 28 45 

3 19 

3 14 30 

2 29 

2 31 30 

2 I 45 

I 42 

I 35 40 

53 30 


2 56 30 

2 14 

I 12 30 




36 15 

47 35 


I 56 36 


3 32 

3 24 


4 o 
3 20 
3 10 

7 30 
08 6 5 

07 55 30 

08 28 o 
08 44 30 

08 49 25 

09 12 35 
09 I 30 
08 59 o 
08 40 30 
08 37 o 
08 59 o 
08 51 40 
08 54 30 
08 39 o 
08 42 o 
08 52 30 
08 28 o 
08 16 o 

110 14 o 

no 3 40 

no o 10 

109 10 o 

108 54 o 

108 43 o 

108 43 40 

108 50 10 

108 59 o 

109 20 24 

J. Robinson. 



1 10 
1 10 

7 45 
7 45 

Scheweningen, 1870 

H.M.S. Nassau, 

Dutch Survey. 

H.M.S. Nassau, 

H.M.S. Stjlvia,\^Ti 
Dufch Survey. 
H.M.S. Sylvia, 

Dutch Surrey 

Croot, 1869. 

Dutch Survey. 



Sir E. Belcher. 




Mankap Island - - - 

Kumpal Island, West point 
Toekan Menskoedoe (Gilbert Rocks) 
Birds' Nest Islands, Boorong Island 
Ginting Island ... 
Pyramid Island, centre . 
Tallack Shoal - 
Maleden or filaleidong Island 
Panambungun Island, West point 
Masien Tiega Islands, West Island 


Toejoe Island, S.E. point 

Pule Joe . . - . 

Docan Island, centre 

Totj' Island, centre 

Taya Island, centre 

Ilchester Bank, centre - 

Pulo Sinkep, Boekoe or South point 

Linga Island, Diang or East point 

Linga, Dyak Town 

East Domino, centre 

Kintar Island, South high bluff. 
Rodong Island, peak 
Frederick iieef, centre . 
Gin or Great Islmd, Pulo Terobi 
Geldria Banks, Boat Rocks 
Pido Panjang, Passage Rock 
Bintang Island, Brakit point 

Islands between Borneo and Singa. 
PORE Strait. 

Dntu Island, peak ... 

Direction Island . - - 

Si. Barbe Island, N.E. hill 
Welstead Shoal .... 
St. Esprit Group, S.E. Island . 
S.W. Island . 
„ Head Island, S. point 

,, Hill on South end of 

largest island .... 
Green Island, centre . - - 

Ro iger Rock - . . - 

Tambelan Island, highest peak - 

„ North end, Observa. 

tory Station .... 
Europe Shoal, 3-fathom patch - 
Rocky Islets, northern - - . 

Gap Rock, summit ... 

St. Julian Island, summit 
Camels Hump Island, summit - 
Saddle Island „ . . 

Barren Island „ - - 

Victory Island ,, - 

St. I'ierre Rock « - - 

4 30 
47 40 
14 20 
29 30 

54 30 

1 9 10 
1 1.5 40 

43 30 
24 30 
39 50 
14 20 
13 40 
2 40 
24 12 
42 40 

49 40 

1 1 30 
1 14 30 

10 G 

14 39 

8 6 


SO 45 

33 1.5 

35 44 

37 31 
44 43 

41 15 

1 1 5 

1 27 
1 11 19 
1 11 9 
1 12 30 

55 40 

1 11 46 
1 19 21 
1 31 50 
1 34 46 
1 51 42 

110 13 

110 1 60 

109 57 

109 17 30 

109 4 

108 59 

109 6 
109 21 
109 9 

109 12 30 

105 20 
105 16 20 
105 38 30 
105 45 45 
104 54 
104 57 
104 22 
104 58 
104 33 30 
104 68 20 

104 46 

104 26 36 

105 9 
104 48 
104 56 45 
104 51 30 
104 35 

108 35 50 
108 1 53 
107 13 30 
107 63 
107 8 30 

106 58 15 

107 4 41 

107 50 
107 18 52 
107 31 12 
107 32 22 

107 24 10 
107 25 27 
107 13 
107 34 20 
106 43 30 

106 52 58 

107 2 17 
106 25 35 
106 18 40 

108 38 57 

Dutch Survey. 

M. D. Tallack. 
Dutch Survey. 











West Side. 

Missana Island, North point 

Niamok, South point 

Rodong Peak . - - 

Binan Island, South point 

Selanga Islands, largest - 

Oedik Island ... 

Pulo Rondo or Dumpo - 

East Bank, 10-feet patch 

Little Gurras Island, lighthouse - 

Moeboet Island, East point 

Sembolang Point, extreme 

Little Tiemara Island, N.E. end 

Sau Island, lighthouse on East point 

Malang Orang Shoal, centre 

Pan Reef Beacon, North end 

Little Pan Reef, centre - 

East Side. 

Talang Island, West point 
Siolon or Mantang Island, S.W. hill 
Rotterdam Reef . . - 

Pankel Island, South summit 
Dompa Island, West point 
Rhio, Fort Crown Prince 
Terkolei Island, lighthouse 
Isabella Shoal, West end 
Little Loban Island, West point 
Bintang Island, West point 

„ Subong Point, Andying Id. 


Tanjong Jaboeng, or Cape Bon, extreme 
Varella or Brahalla I., summit - 
Pollux Rock . . . . 

Sinkep Island, Boekoe or South point - 
Speke Rock . . . . 

Atkin Rock .... 

Alang Tiga Group, South Island 
Basso or Bakauw Point, extreme 

Baroe or Date Point, extreme - 

Ponoebo Island, West end 

Leda Rock - - - . 

Irene Rock, doubtful ... 
Allor Island - . . . 

Great Abang, North end 
Potona: Island, South end 
South Brother, centre ... 
Fiilse Durian, East point 
Little Durian, South point 

26 20 
20 20 
24 15 
27 32 
30 8 
32 10 
36 10 
40 35 
44 30 
49 15 
51 30 

56 45 

1 3 6 
1 8 30 
1 9 45 
1 11 12 

43 30 
44 45 
45 25 
49 30 
52 40 
56 36 
57 10 
57 30 

58 55 

1 4 5 
1 10 55 

48 10 
43 10 
33 30 
29 50 
24 5 
27 50 
36 20 
36 10 
33 30 
37 20 
43 25 

104 31 
104 33 45 
104 26 35 
104 27 50 
104 21 30 
104 18 20 
104 18 30 
104 21 5 
104 22 18 
104 18 12 
104 16 12 
104 12 25 
104 11 6 
104 9 40 
104 11 25 
104 9 18 

104 36 
104 31 
104 25 25 
104 21 40 
104 25 
104 26 35 
104 20 25 
104 15 15 
104 13 35 
104 13 
104 18 36 

104 22 10 
104 24 
104 29 
104 22 
104 6 
l(/4 3 
104 2 

103 45 10 

103 47 10 

104 23 10 













103 45 40 
103 41 50 
103 39 50 

Reed and Tizard 

Van Carnbee, 
Stanton, &c. 


Polphin Isl.'tnd, summit 

Sabon Island, Decpwater Point - 

Tiittle Carimon Island, N.E. point 

Pulo Doncan, centre 

Tree Island, centre ; beacon proposed 


Tanjong Bolus or Baru, extreme 
Carimon Islands, North Brother 

„ Little Carimon, N.E. point 
Coney Island, Raffles lighthouse • 
SINGAPORE, Fort FuUerton - 
Bintang Great HiU 
Barbukit Hill, summit 645'feet - 
Pedra Branca, Horsburgh lighthouse 


Malay Peninsula, East Coast. 

Pulo Eu - 

Pulo Tingy, summit ... 

Pulo Aor, South peak 180.5 feet - 

Pulo Pemangil, South peak 

Pulo Varela .... 

Howard Shoal - . - - 

Pulo Brala .... 

Pulo Kapas, S.W. point 

Kalantan, entrance of small river East of 

Kalantan River ... 

Great Redang Island, Bukit Mara 

„ peak 

Turtle-back Island, South side - 
Baltu Rackil Rock, centre 
Cape Patani, N.E. point 
Singora, S.W. point of Pulo Ticos 
Koh Krah, S.E. point - 
Pulo Obi, Square rock on S.W. point - 
Pulo Panjang, N. W. corner of S.W. bay 
Pulo Way, South extreme of sandy bay, 

near middle of N.E. side of W, island 
Koh Tang or Koh Prins, South rock of 

group - - - - _ - 

Tanqualah, North point of middle island 

of group - - . - 

Condor Reef . - . . 

False Pulo Obi, West side 
Teeksou Island, N.W. side 
Pulo Dama, Rocky Island on E. Side - 
Water Island (Tianmoi) W. point 
Rockj^ Island, Kamput, centre - 
Kusrovie Rock, centre . . - 



1 10 


1 8 40 

1 16 10 

1 11 50 

1 10 

1 9 50 

I 17 20 

1 4 20 

1 24 20 

1 20 

26 30 
34 30 
13 1 

6 11 53 
6 44 21 
5 48 16 

5 49 40 

6 40 36 

6 58 1 

7 13 54 

8 24 47 

8 25 37 

9 18 14 

9 55 11 

10 21 20 

10 15 24 

10 43 

8 56 43 

9 57 12 
9 41 54 

10 24 44 

10 27 58 

11 6 25 

103 38 40 

103 32 20 

103 23 

103 43 

103 40 

103 30 
103 20 45 
103 23 
103 44 50 

103 51 18 

104 27 20 
104 12 20 
104 24 30 

104 17 

104 9 

104 34 15 

104 22 

103 38 

103 38 30 

103 38 

103 16 4 

102 20 47 

103 1 39 

103 48 

102 37 9 
101 43 56 

101 18 39 
100 36 12 
100 45 27 

104 48 49 

103 29 14 

102 53 29 

102 56 34 

103 8 49 

102 61 

104 31 33 
104 49 10 
104 21 29 

103 47 4 

104 11 55 
102 47 49 

Thompson and 




Lieut. Veron. 




Ellen Bangka Shoal - - - 

Koh Kong, South point of river en- 
trance - - - - - 
Koh Chang, small island on W. side 
Chentabun River, entrance, Kho Chula, 
or Bar Island - - - - 
Koh Samit, Brown rock, off Lena Ya - 
Koh Luem, peak . - - 
Cape Liant, N.W. rock of Koh Mesan - 
Koh Si-chang, S.W. point of Koh Kam 
Bangkok Kiver, pile lighthouse - 
Bangkok, Old British factory - 
Maconchisi . _ . - 


Oape St. James, lighthouse 
S ligon. Observatory 
Kega Point . . - 

Cape Padaxan . . - 

Cape Varela . - - 

Cape San-ho - - - 

Pulo Canton ... 
Cape Touron ... 
Touron Bay, Observatory island 
Cape Choumay, extreme 
Eiver Hue, extreme 

Gulf of Tong King. 

Cape Lay . . . . 

Tseu or Goat Island - - . 
Matt Island . - 

Lacht Kouenn - . . - 
Mfe Island, centre . . . 
Ne Island . . . . 
Lacht Huen River, Houdau Island light- 
house - - - . . 
Haiphong . . . - 
Gowtow Island, South point 
Cape Pahklung . . - - 
Pakhoi . . - . - 
Cape Cami . - - . 

Hainan Island, 

Hainan Head 

Hoi How town, N.W. end 

Pyramid Point - 

Cape Bastion 

Tinhosa Island, South end 


11 11 

11 33 

12 1 20 

12 27 43 

12 30 32 

12 57 30 

12 35 8 

13 9 56 

13 29 26 

13 44 20 

13 39 

10 19 14 

10 46 39 

10 42 

11 21 

12 §5 

13 44 

15 24 

16 8 

16 7 

16 21 

16 35 30 

17 6 

18 8 

18 54 30 

19 4 30 

19 21 

19 52 

20 37 30 

20 49 

107 44 30 

21 31 

21 28 57 

20 13 

20 12 

20 4 30 

18 55 

18 9 30 

18 39 30 

102 47 

102 57 14 

102 15 49 

102 4 19 

101 26 39 

100 38 59 

100 56 52 

100 49 22 

100 35 20 

100 28 42 

100 11 

107 5 25 

106 42 31 

107 59 40 

108 58 

109 24 80 
109 14 
109 6 
108 21 
108 17 
108 3 
107 42 

107 7 30 

106 17 10 

105 56 

105 43 9 

105 55 30 


106 49 30 

106 40 

20 50 

108 17 

109 6 40 
109 55 

110 44 30 

110 19 

108 21 30 

109 33 

110 42 

Ellen BangJca, 



French charts. 

British & French 

partial surveys 

to 1877. 









Tanjong Api .... 

°1 56 36 

109 20 24 



Tanjong Datu .... 

2 5 15 

109 39 13 



Sarawak River, Santubong entrance, 

Kra Island .... 

1 42 

110 18 



Cape Sipang .... 

1 48 2 

110 20 


Po Point Light .... 

1 43 10 

110 31 30 


Tanjong Barram ... 

2 36 15 

1'3 58 35 



Gunung Malu, summit ... 

4 5 20 

114 55 8 



Bruni Bluff, extreme ... 

5 3 

115 3 20 



Bruni River, palace ... 

4 52 40 

114 55 20 


Labuan Group, Victoria Harbour, Ram- 

Mean of Belcher, 

sey point flugstaff ... 

5 16 33 

115 15 15 

Richards, &Reed. 


Mangalum Island, S.W. point - 

6 10 40 

116 35 20 



North Furious Shoals, 11 fathoms 

7 3 19 

116 18 15 



South Furious Shoals, 7 fathoms 

6 48 30 

116 14 45 


Batomande Rocks ... 

6 52 42 

116 36 24 




Balambangan Island, South point 

7 12 20 

116 51 40 

Reed, 1868-9. 


„ Tiga Islet, centre 

7 21 12 

117 2 50 


Banguey Peak, 1876 feet 

7 18 10 

117 5 20 


Lit. MoUeangan Island, centre - 

7 5 25 

117 1 30 


Mallawalle, South extreme 

7 1 45 

117 IS 10 


Balabac Island, South point 

7 48 40 

117 1 


Calandorang Bay Lt. on S. pt. of entr. - 

7 59 

117 4 20 



S. Mangsee Island, centre 

7 31 5 

117 18 20 



Lumbucan, N.W. extreme 

7 50 20 

117 12 50 


Nasubatta Island ... 

8 1 45 

117 9 50 


Secam Island, East end ... 

8 10 40 

117 1 35 



Palawan Island — West Coast. 

Cape Buliluyan, S. extreme of Palawan 

8 20 25 

117 9 41 



Capyas Island .... 

8 26 25 

117 10 16 



Caneepaan River, entrance 

8 34 40 

117 14 41 



Bulanhow Mountain, highest part 

8 36 25 

117 21 11 


Cape Seeacle .... 

8 36 30 

117 14 1 


Pagoda Cliff; highest part 

8 43 45 

117 29 6 



Balansungain Islands, "West island 

8 45 35 

117 21 21 



Mantaleengahan Mountain, highest part 

8 49 22 

117 39 26 



Illaan Hill .... 

8 55 10 

117 31 41 



Pampangduyang Point - . - 

8 57 40 

117 31 56 



Gantung Peak, highest part 

8 57 53 

117 47 56 



Eran Quoin, highest part 

9 3 25 

117 38 56 



Bivouac Islet, North extreme - 

9 4 52 

117 42 28 



Pu-lute Peak, highest part 

9 8 8 

117 56 11 



Malapakkun Island, highest part 

9 14 50 

117 50 11 



Tay-bay-u Bay, entr. of Malanut R. 

9 14 50 

117 59 46 



Victoria Peak, 5,680 ft., highest part - 

9 22 30 

118 17 26 


Palm Islet, highest part 

9 22 40 

118 1 48 



Long Point, West extreme 

9 38 8 

118 19 6 



Anipahan, huts .... 

9 43 50 

118 27 11 



I. A. 






Thamb Peak, highest part of range 


47 45 

118 35 26 



Hen and Chickens, largest islet - 


58 23 

118 36 16 



Ulugan Bay, Observatory Head- 


6 11 

118 46 26 



Cleopatra Needle, highest part of range - 


7 38 

118 59 16 



Mount Peel, highest part 



118 32 26 



Cape Sangbowen ... 


11 45 

118 47 56 



Jib-boom Bay, Zoe islet - 


20 20 

118 57 11 



May-day Bay, watering place - 


24 22 

119 1 56 



Port Barton, Bubon point 


29 19 

119 5 37 



Pagdanan Point ... 



119 13 21 



Bold Head, highest point 


35 10 

119 6 56 


AVedge Island „ - 


43 35 

119 11 44 



Mount Capoas, highest p irt - 


48 10 

119 16 56 



Cape Capoas, extreme ... 


51 38 

119 12 6 


Malampaya Pound entrance. Round Islet 


59 25 

119 14 16 



Pirate Bay, Look-out Hill, highest part 


56 10 

119 16 26 



Pancol Village, Stockade 


52 9 

119 22 56 



Baulao Village „ - 


46 15 

119 26 4 



Bacuit Baj', Old Village 


2 30 

119 24 56 



Bacuit Village, or Talan-dac, Stockade - 



119 22 56 



The Horn, Matinloc, highest part 



119 16 41 



Tapiutan Island „ 


12 50 

119 15 18 



Cadlao, or Table Top Id. „ 


13 6 

119 21 1 



High Table Range „ 


14 45 

119 27 50 


North extreme of Palawan, highest part 

of Cabuli Island ... 


26 25 

119 29 46 



Palawan— East Coast. 

Ursula Island, West end 


20 42 

117 29 56 


Rocky Bay, Pirate Inlet 



117 32 31 



Tac-bo-lu-bu, entrance of rivulet 


43 21 

117 44 26 


Point Sir James Brook - . . 



117 48 46 


Nose Point .... 



117 59 11 



East Island, N.W. extreme 


53 45 

118 13 56 


Ma-la-nut Mound ... 


9 15 

118 2 41 


Casuarina Point - . . . 



118 24 16 



30th of June Island, highest part 


22 30 

118 33 56 



Port Royalist, Fresh Water Rivulet 

entrance .... 


34 30 

118 40 6 



„ Tide-pole Point 


43 43 

118 43 3 



Deep Bay, Anchorage Island, N.E. end - 


56 30 

118 bo 19 



Bold Point .... 


1 45 

119 8 56 


Green Island Bay, Relief Point - 


9 45 

118 12 1 


Barbacan Village, Stockade 


21 45 

119 23 1 



Mount Baring, 2,100 feet 


24 55 

119 32 56 


Ulan Village .... 


25 12 

119 34 31 



Dumaran Island, East extr. Pirate Hd. - 


34 40 

120 11 



„ Village, fort - . . 



119 45 51 


Carlandagan Island, highest part 



120 14 56 


Barren Island, Watering Bay - 



119 41 36 



Tai-Tai Village, fort - 



119 30 56 


Silanga Village, Stockade 


1 45 

119 33 46 


Broken Island, highest part 


7 25 

119 44 41 



Santa Monica Village, Stockade 



119 33 41 



East peak, highest part - - 


17 40 

119 31 31 






Ol)8ervatory Island, West side - 
Green Island ... 
Haycock Island . - - 

Calarite Island - . - 

N.W. Rock 

North Eock ... 
Hunter Shoal ... 
Merope Shoal ... 
Mangarim Bay, Sandy Tongue - 
Garza Bay, Garza Island 
Appo Island ... 
Menor Island ... 
Paluan Bay, beach 
Cape Calavite ... 
Looc Bay, Lubang Island 
Fortun Island ... 
Cabra Island, S.E. extreme 
Pulo Caliallo lighthouse 
Cavite Port, Naval head quarters 
MANILA, N. pier lighthouse 

,, Cathedral 
Capon es Point - - - 

Port Sual 
Dile Point 
Cape Bojeador ... 

Scarborough Shoal, S.W. extreme 
Pratas Island, N.E. end 
„ Reef, N.E. point 


AxAMBA Islands. 

White Eock 
Repon Island 
Domar Island 
Guerite high rock - 

Natuna Islands. 

Marundum Island - 

South Haycock Island 

Serai or West Island 

Low Island 

Jackson Eeef 

North Haycock Island 

Selu:in Island 

I'yramidal Rocks 

Success Reef 

Si.mione or Saddle Island 


30 16 



21 30 
24 15 
43 30 
12 26 

39 10 

23 30 
43 48 

2 45 
52 30 

22 30 

23 55 
36 24 
36 3 

7 20 
34 30 

1.5 6 44 
20 42 30 
20 47 

2 20 
2 25 

2 45 

3 29 

119 39 33 
119 47 
119 48 
119 53 30 

119 52 

120 1 30 
120 13 10 

120 17 

121 2 8 
121 10 50 
120 26 10 
120 28 
120 29 18 
120 18 
120 16 
120 28 34 
120 2 30 
120 36 
120 54 54 
120 57 20 
120 58 8 
120 3 
120 2 44 

Spanish Surveys 
to 1871. 







120 20 30 

120 34 

117 44 3 

116 43 22 

116 53 

105 34 
105 52 

105 25 

106 12 20 


„ 598 


K.'M.S.Mafficienne, 603 

Various. 604 


Wilds&Stanley. ' 606 
Richards. ■ 606 


2 4 

109 7 20 

2 17 

108 55 15 

2 40 

108 35 


107 48 

2 56 

107 55 

3 17 

107 34 30 

4 9 

107 50 

4 3 

107 21 45 

4 22 

107 55 

4 31 

lf7 42 30 






Eastern Side of Main Route. 

Vanguard Bank, S.W. extreme 
Grainger Bank, centre 
Prince Consort Bank, S.W. extreme 
Prince of Wales Bank, centre 
Alexandra Bank, 3-fathoms patch 
]iifleman Bank, 11 -feet patch, N.E. end 
Ladd Beef, East extreme 
Spratlj' Island, centre 
West London Reef, Sandy cay 
Central London Reef, centre - 
East London Reef, East end - 
Cuarteron Reef, East extreme 
Fiery Cross or X.W. Invcbtigator Reef, 
S.W. end - - - 

Discovery Great Reef, South end 

„ Small Reef 
Western or Flora Temple Reef, centre - 
Tizard Bank, Outer edge of West Reef - 
Itu Aba Island ... 
,, Eldad Reef, N. extreme 
„ S.W. extreme, Gaven Reefs - 
Loai-ta or South Island, K.W. extreme - 
Soubie Reef, S.W. end 
Thi-tu Island, tree on S.W. end 
Trident Shoal, centre of patch at North 
extreme ... 

Lys Shoal, 17-feet patch 
J^orth Danger Reef, tree on N.E. cay - 

Main Route. 

Charlotte Bank, 8 fathoms 
Scawfell Shoal . . - 

Banda Shoal ... 

Jjarge Island of Pulo Condure Group, 

Landing-place in Great Bay 
Brothers Islands, West Island 
Royal Bi.'.hop Bank, 10 fathoms 
Raglan Bank ... 

Pulo Sapatu, summit 
Julia Shoal ... 

Great Catwick Island 
Little Cat wick Island, summit 
Yusun Shoal ... 

Pulo Cticer de Mer, S.W. hill 
Holland Bank, centre patch - 

Paracel Islands and Reefs — 

Triton Island ... 
Bombay Shoal, S.W. extreme 
l*yraniid Rock . . _ 

Lincoln Island, S.E. point - 
Passoo Keah Island 
Discovery Shoal, West extreme 
Vuliddore Shoal, centre 
()b.«ervation Bank 

Amphitrite I.slands, E. extreme of reef 
Woody Island ... 
Rocky Island - . . 

Korth Shoal, East extreme - 

7 16 30 
7 47 4.5 

7 46 

8 8 30 
8 I 30 

7 55 20 

8 40 15 
8 38 
8 52 
8 55 30 
8 49 38 

8 50 54 

9 32 
10 42 
10 I 30 
10 15 
10 13 20 
10 22 25 
10 23 
10 13 20 
10 40 45 

10 53 30 

11 3 9 

11 31 30 
11 19 40 
11 28 

7 7 15 

7 19 


8 40 57 

8 34 

9 40 

58 23 
56 30 

2 56 

59 30 
10 16 
10 32 36 
10 39 

15 46 

15 59 

16 34 
16 39 34 
16 6 
16 11 40 
16 18 
16 36 
16 54 
16 50 30 

16 52 

17 6 30 

109 26 

110 29 

109 55 

110 32 30 

110 36 45 

111 42 
111 41 

111 54 30 

112 14 45 
112 20 
112 37 26 
112 49 34 

112 53 

113 51 

114 1 

113 37 

114 13 
114 21 
114 42 
114 13 
114 24 54 
114 4 
114 16 25 

114 39 15 
114 34 24 
114 20 45 

107 37 15 

106 51 


106 36 

106 11 

108 14 

109 26 





108 56 30 
108 43 

111 11 

112 26 
112 36 
112 44 
111 46 

111 33 

112 2 

111 40 30 

112 22 
112 19 
112 19 30 
111 32 30 





Banda, 1871. 

Wilds k Reed. 

Jaclmel, 1875. 






SI. Esprit Shoal, centre 
Helen Shoal, centre 

Shoals in Palawan Passage. 

South Lugonia Shoals, Luconia Breakers 
North „ Seahorse Breakers 

„ „ N. part of Friend- 

ship Shoal . . . 

Louisa Shoal, S.W. rock 
Vernon Bank, centre of Fuiy Rocks 

„ 2|-fathom8 patch 

Samarans: Bank, centre 
Saracen Bank, centre 
Koj'al Charlotte Shoal 
Viper Shoal, doubtful 
North Viper Shoal, South end 
Commodore Reef, centre 

On the Western Side. 

Half-Moon Shoal, Inclined rock on East 
side - - . . 

Ro3-al Captain Shoal, Observation Rock, 
at North extreme 

Bombay Shoal, Madagascar Rock, on 
N.E. extreme ... 

Carnatic Shoal, centre 

On the Eastern Side. 

Herefordshire Shoal, centre - 
Scaleby Castle Shoal, centre - 
York I3reakers, centre 
Crescent Reef, centre 

Shoals West of Palawan Route. 

Owen Shoal 

Amboyna Cay 

Lizzie Webber Shoal 

Stags Shoal, doubtful 

Pearson Reef 

Swallow Reef, eastern high rock 

Dallas Breakers 

Ardasier, South Breakers 

Gloucester Breakers 

Ardasier Breakers 

Investigator Shoal, West point 

Cay Marino (?) 

Amy Douglas Shoal 

Fairy Queen Shoal - 

Coral Bank, 12 fathoms 

Routh Shoal, North extreme - 

Seahorse, North extreme 

Saudy Shoal 

Templer Bank, centre 

19 33 
19 12 

5 3 24 
5 31 o 

59 30 
19 45 
43 30 
49 20 

35 15 

7 30 
57 o 
30 o 

59 o 

8 20 30 

8 51 45 

9 I 45 

9 26 7 
[o 6 o 

8 35 o 

9 53 30 
10 40 o 


7 51 45 

8 24 o 
8 56 o 

23 o 

38 o 

34 o 

50 o 

56 o 


8 30 o 

10 52 o 

10 39 o 

11 26 o 
10 50 o 

10 50 o 

11 2 O 

II 7 o 

133 2 O 

"3 53 39 

tI2 41 36 

112 34 O 

112 31 30 

113 18 30 

"5 2 15 

"5 5 50 

"4 53 45 

115 20 30 

"3 35 15 

115 o o 

115 23 o 

115 25 o 

116 16 45 

116 39 36 

116 56 4 

117 21 o 

116 59 19 

117 17 II 

118 8 26 
118 42 26 

I" 59 
"2 55 
113 12 

"2 57 

"3 44 

113 50 

"3 54 

114 9 

114 15 
114 2 
114 31 
114 21 

116 25 

"7 38 
"6 53 

117 46 
117 46 

"7 37 
117 13 



















.. (•) 









JAVA, NoETH Coast. 

!St. Nicholas Point, extreme - 

Pulo Panjang, N.W. Point - 

Ponlang Point, North extreme 

Pulo Babi, centre - - - 

Bantam, flagstaff of fort 

Menschen-eter Id., Lighthouse proposed 

Ontong Java, extreme of point 

Onrust Island, flagstaff 

Great Kombuvs, bright It. on N.W. pt.- 

BATAVIA, Observatory and Timeball - 

Krawang Point, extreme 

Pamanoekan Point, extreme - 

Indramayoe Point, North extreme 

Eackit or Boompjes Island, lighthouse - 

Cape Tanna - - - 

Cheribon, lighthouse 

Cheribon Peak, summit 10,323 ft. 

Tegal Peak, summit 1 1 ,300 ft. 

Tegal, flagstaff of fort 

Pekalongan, lighthouse West of entrance 

Samarang, flagstaff - 

lapara Koad, anchorage 

Karimon Java Island, settlement on 
Great Karimon . - - 

Kembang, flagstaff - - - 

Panka Point, flagstaff 
Soerabaya Strait, Lightvessel at N. end 
Kresik, light on pier-head 
Soerabay;i Strait, Fort Krfprins 
Soerabaya, Marine Establishment, time- 
ball . . - . 
Madura Island, Wodon or N.W. point - 

„ East point 

Bawean or Lubeck Island, Alang Alang, 
or S.W. point . . - 

Milton Rock 

Hastings Rock . . - 

Nahmen's or Osterling Rock - 
Arrogant Reef . - . 

Giliang or Pondi Island, East point 
iSapoedie Island, West point - 
Gili Lawak, or Turtle Island, centre 
Sumanap, flagstaff - - - 

Kangeang Island, Katapan or N.W. pt. 
Kamirian or Urk Island, centre 
Karang Takat Bank, N.W. dry Bank - 
Kambing or Bukken Island, centre 
Koko Reef, Lighthouse 
Katapang or Krabbrn Island, centre 
Proliolingo, flai;staff 
Mount Lamoiigan or Belierang, 6,824 ft. 
Bezoekie, flagstaff - - - 

Mount Ringit . . - 

Panarukan, flagstaff 
Cape Tjina, North extreme 
Capo Sedano, N.E. Point of Java 
Meinders Droogte, Lighthouse 

52 33 

55 30 

56 50 
48 45 

1 39 

57 42 
3 2 

2 20 

55 30 

8 o 

57 o 
12 o 

12 30 
54 o 
30 o 

45 30 

54 o 

13 30 
54 o 
54 30 
57 20 
32 30 

53 30 
40 30 

54 o 
57 o 

9 30 


7 15 20 

6 55 40 
6 59 o 

54 o 

44 o 

7 o 

33 o 

12 o 

59 o 

5 20 

12 20 

2 30 

50 30 

4 15 

o o 

19 36 

28 o 

41 o 

43 30 
o 30 

43 45 

44 20 

43 30 
38 o 

49 o 
41 30 

06 2 10 
06 7 32 
06 16 o 
06 16 o 
06 8 48 
06 30 25 
06 40 20 
06 43 40 
06 34 30 

06 48 7 

07 I 7 

07 45 30 

08 17 37 
08 20 o 
08 31 30 
08 34 30 

08 24 30 

09 13 3 

09 8 7 

09 39 o 

o 24 37 

o 37 30 

28 o 

1 29 o 

2 33 o 
2 40 o 
2 39 15 
2 36 9 

2 43 30 
2 48 39 

4 7 33 

2 39 10 

2 33 o 

2 32 o 

2 28 o 

2 55 o 




5 12 
5 " 
4 57 

>7 30 

3 o 

55 o 

12 40 
7 30 
16 10 
12 36 
20 o 
38 o 
51 o 
53 32 
I 30 
26 53 
22 30 


Escher, &c. 

MelviU V. Cambee 

Escher, &c. 





Staring, &c. 




S S. Milton, 18751 705 



Osterling. I 

H.IM.S. Arrogant 

















Java, South Coast. 

o , „ 

• , // 

South Point, extreme 

8 47 o 

"4 25 13 



Barung Island, L;ibuan or South point - 

8 32 o 

"3 15 



Dampar Bay, South point 

8 18 

113 11 



Sempoe Island, West point - 

8 28 30 

112 39 



Boemhoen Bay, Pakis Point - 

8 18 

I" 53 30 



Gemah Bay, Popoh villaoje 

8 15 4c 

1 1 1 48 


Soemhreng Bay, Sroyoe Island 

8 20 

111 34 



Pangoel Bay, Government storehouse - 

8 15 

III 31 



Paijitan Bay, c<:^ntie 

8 15 

III 3 



Wedie Hombo Bay, South Point 

8 12 

119 39 


Baglen or Mee;anties Point, centre head 

7 45 40 

109 24 



Kambangan Island, Karang Bollong or 

East point, Li<?tithouae 

7 44 40 

109 I 35 



Tjilatjap, Bollong Rock 

7 44 40 

109 I 35 



Kambangan Island, Bessek or S.W. pt. - 

7 41 45 

108 49 



Penaniong Bay, Cape Mandararie 

7 46 50 

108 33 


Boemie Point,' Islet oflF - 

7 47 30 

108 17 



Cape Anjol, extreme 

7 25 

106 24 30 



Wynkoops Bay, storehouses - 

6 59 30 

106 35 



Zand Bay, Mandra Island, N.W. point 

7 II 7 

106 5 



Cape Sangian Sira, S.W. extreme 

6 51 55 

105 13 15 



Java Sea, Etc. 

Thousand Ids., Peblakan or West Island 

5 28 45 

106 23 



„ Doea or North Island - 

5 24 30 

106 28 



Arnemuiden Rock - - - 

5 12 30 

106 42 



Jlolenwerf Shoal (?) 

5 13 

106 50 



Etna Shoal ... 

5 17 18 

106 55 



Brouwers Shoal ... 

5 17 30 

107 20 

Dutch Charts. 


South Watcher, centre 

5 42 47 

106 42 17 



Nassau Bank, centre 

5 49 

106 49 



Maria Elise Shoal, 7 fathoms - 

5 50 15 

107 35 30 



Solombo Islands, Great Solombo, hill on 

South end ... 

5 35 

114 27 

Chart, 1878. 


„ Little Solombo, centre 

5 28 

114 28 



,, Arentes Island, centre 

5 ^ 

114 36 30 



Rosalie Rock ... 

5 57 

114 14 



Borneo, South Coast. 

Tanjong Sambar, S.E. point - 

2 57 

no 15 



Dieley River, East entrance point 

2 sz 30 

no 44 



Point Malataiyo ... 

3 30 

113 30 



Cape Salatan, South point of Borneo 

4 10 

114 41 



Little Pulo Laut Ids., S.AV. Id., centre - 

4 51 30 

"5 43 30 



JMoesa Siri, highest islet 

4 23 

115 50 




B.\Li Island. 

Bali Peak, 11,326 ft. 

8 21 

115 28 

Eietveld, &c., to 


Cape Passier, N.W. point 

8 6 10 

114 26 



Minjangan Island, East point - 

8 6 50 

114 32 30 



Mount Goendel 

8 II 

114 47 



Tpbonkos, Road . . - 

8 10 

114 58 



Beliling, entrance of river 

8 6 30 

»i5 4 45 





Sansrsit Eoad, liffht - - - 

KarHDg Assem Cape, East point of Bali 
Padang Cove ... 

Pandita Isles, peak . - . 

Tafelhoek, Boekit or West point 
Bali Badong Bay, Kotta village 
Djembrana, bay - - . 

Manok Bay, entrance 

Bali Strait. 

Cape Sedano, N.E. point of Java 
Meindeis Droogfe and Lighthouse 
Duiven Island, Lighthouse 
Banjoewangie, Fort Utrecht, light 
Mount Ikan, extreme of point 
Cape SlokkOj East point of Java 

LoMBOK Island and Strait. 

Eindjrinie Peak, 12,379 feet. - 
Eoembek, or N.W. point, extreme 
Tweelings, or Twins Islands, E. point - 
Lombok, village - . . 

Labuan Hadji, Mouth of stream 
Pedioe, Cape Louar, flagstaff - 
Cape Ringit, S.E. point 
Cape Bangko, S.W. point 
Labuan Tring, entrance of cove 
Ampanam Baj', anchorage 
Trawangan, Island off N.W. point 

Allas Strait and Sumbawa. 

South-west Point of Table Hill 
Taliwang Bay, Knoop Island - 
Madang or Flat Island, West end 
Majo Island, Setonda Island, off N.E. pt, 
Tambora Volcano, summit on East side 
of crater ... 

Dompo Bay, East side, Kila Eoad 
Bima Bay, Kambing Island - 
Sangeang, highest peak 
Sapie Bay, Doembia Point 
Tempie Bay, entrance 

Sapi Strait. 

Banta Island, peak - . . 

Setan Island, peak - - . 

Chii:,ney or Schoorsteen Island, W. pt. - 
Comodo Island, South point - 

„ N.W. point - 

„ N.E. point 

Floris or Mangarai Island, Etc. 

Badiak Cove - . . 

Bodo Island ... 

Eeo Bay, village - . . 

Potta, roadstead - . . 

4 o 

23 o 

31 20 

45 o 

48 o 

42 15 

23 o 

10 5 

7 47 12 

7 41 30 

8 2 30 
8 12 20 
8 27 o 
8 42 o 

8 23 o 

8 24 30 

8 17 o 

8 30 o 

8 42 o 

8 47 o 

8 54 o 

8 44 o 

8 42 o 

8 32 o 

8 20 o 

8 49 o 
8 8 40 
8 6 30 

8 12 30 
8 18 o 
S 26 45 
8 12 o 
8 32 30 
8 52 o 

22 30 
31 o 

46 o 

47 o 
26 30 

23 o 
















































































































Eietveld, &c. 

Melvillv. Cambee 
Smits, &c. 

Dutch charts. 



Diederika Reef 
Piiloweh Island, peak 
LJDguett'' or Sukur Island, peak 
DofiFer Islands, East islet 
Bastaard Islands, centre of East island 
Larantiika Road 

Floris Head, or Iron Cape, N. extreme - 
An;<elica Reef 

Kauna or Post Horse Island - 
Topa or Kilatoa Island, Cornelia Road ■ 
JIadu or Pondian": Islan'i, East point ■ 
Kalao Island, West point 
Boneratoe Island, South point 
Djampea Island, Kanibarraghie Bay, E 
point - . . . 

„ East point 

„ Bimbe Island, off "West 

point - . . . 

Kajoewaddie, peak on West end 
Mamalak [sland, centre 
Alligator Bay . . . 

Flor-'S Island, S.W. point (C. Sosa) 
Toren or Tower Island, peak - 
South Point, Mount Rokka - 
Rumba Volcano, sun)mit 
Ende Bay, West point 
Amboq;a<ra Road - - - 

Api Volcano . . - 

Lofty peak on S. coast 
Lobetobie Volcano, Siiy^irloaf peak 
Sandalwood IslanI, il indieli or E. point 
,, Cape Atta, extreme 

„ Nangamessie Har., entrance 

„ Palmedo Road 

„ Reef or West Point 

,, Cape Blackwood, or S. point 

Savu Island, Seba Bay on X.W. side - 
Dana or Ho'kie Islai.d, hill - 
Floris Strait, Kambing Island 

„ Larantaka, Portuguese Settle- 
ment - - - 
„ Serbette Island 
Komba Island, volcanic peak - 
Solor Island, Lamarkwera or E point - 

,, Lawang on X. coast 

Adenara Island, Mount Woka, summit - 
Lombata or Lomblen Island, Mount La- 
mararap ... 

„ Soangie Island, off S.W. pt. - 
Lobetolle p'-ak - - - 

Pantar Island, South peak of Saddle on 
South point . . - 

„ S.W. point 

,, Pandai on N. end 

Pantar Strait, North or Panjang Island - 
„ Hi^h or Pura II.. peak - 

,, South or Twerin Island - 

Ombay Island, D<>lolo anchorage 
,, S.W. point . - 

„ S.E. point, white rock 

"Wetter Island, Honden Island ofl X.W. 
point - - - - 

8 21 o 

; I2J 9 30 



8 19 30 

1 121 42 

Dutch Charts. 



IJ2 8 



8 19 25 

122 19 30 



8 23 

122 30 



8 20 

122 59 



8 4 45 

' 122 52 



7 48 39 

122 17 



7 25 

122 30 



7 24 

'2 1 45 



7 27 40 

12 1 43 30 



7 16 

120 48 



7 20 13 

121 2 20 



7 5 

120 57 30 



1 7 S 

120 48 20 



7 2 30 

120 3r 30 



6 46 

120 47 30 



6 40 

120 12 30 



8 45 

119 49 



1 8 49 

"9 55 



8 52 30 

120 12 10 



8 54 




8 50 

121 12 



8 56 

121 20 



8 52 

121 39 



8 55 

121 41 



8 48 

122 4 



8 32 

122 46 



10 6 

120 51 



9 35 

120 30 


9 36 

120 16 



9 21 

"9 45 



9 40 

118 59 



10 19 

120 30 



j 10 29 

121 46 



10 49 

121 16 



8 40 

122 51 



8 19 30 

122 58 30 



8 8 3c 

123 I ; 



7 48 

123 33 



8 26 

123 8 30 



8 27 

123 3 30 



8 20 30 

123 15 



1 8 33 

123 22 



8 35 

133 13 



8 11 30 

123 43 30 



8 34 

124 6 



8 25 

123 55 



8 I r 30 

124 12 




124 17 30 



8 16 

124 16 30 



8 29 ' 

124 13 30 { 



8 12 i 

.'24 23 01 



8 25 

124 18 j 



8 21 

125 14 1 



7 41 









Wetter Island, East point 

"7 45 

126 47 

Dutch Charts. 


„ Sauw village on S. coast - 

7 56 

126 24 



Liban Island, stimmit 

8 5 

125 46 30 



Kamliing Island, S.W. point - 

8 19 


125 33 


Kissa Island, anch. on \V. side 

8 6 


127 9 



Roma or Teralta Island, West point 

7 38 

127 19 


Timor. Oijsma or S.W. point 

10 20 

123 26 

De Vrieze. 


„ Samao Island, West point 

10 14 

123 16 30 



„ Koepang, Fort Concordia flag- 

staff .... 

ID 10 

123 35 



„ Pakoela Point, low extreme 

10 2 

123 34 30 



,, Selama peak, summit 

9 57 

123 39 30 



Rotti Island, W. point 

10 46 

122 52 



„ Cj'rus Harbour - 

10 53 

123 5 15 



„ Baa Koad 

10 43 

123 I 40 

Dutch charts. 


Timor Xorth Coast, Gomok Point 

9 27 

123 46 30 



„ Gula or Goela Island - 

9 15 



„ Liefou, Portuguese settlement 

9 " 

124 25 



„ Atapopa,, Dutch settlement 


124 50 



„ Gedeh, Portuguese settl;ment 

8 57 

124 55 



„ Dielli, Portuguese settlement flag- 


8 34 

125 37 



„ Mantotte, village 

8 30 

125 58 

Dutch chart. 


,, Cape Jackee, N.E. point 

8 20 

127 II 



,, Nusa Besie or Jackee Island 

8 25 

127 18 



Gunong Api, summit of volcano 

6 43 

126 43 





Strait of Makassak. 

Two Brothers - . . 

4 19 


116 12 30 



Bira Birakan Islands, N. extreme 

4 6 

1 16 16 



Pulo Sebuku, North end 

3 ^2 

116 27 



Paniantyngan Point 

3 12 

116 15 


Pulo Laut, Pulo Kungit off South point 

4 6 


116 40 

Dutch chart. 


Dwaalder Island, E. side 

4 15 

116 10 30 


I'hree Alike Islands, centre - 

3 39 

116 39 30 


Sibbald Bank, 5 fathoms 

5 46 

117 30 

Forbes, &g. 


Aurora Bank, 4£ fathoms 

5 25 

116 58 



Nusa Komba, centre 

5 14 

117 4 



Pudsc-y Dawson, 4i fathoms - 

4 42 

117 40 


Laurel Reef, 2\ fathoms patch 

4 30 

117 8 


Martaban Shoal - . . 

4 " 

117 10 


Sea Serpent Shoal - - . 

3 56 

117 28 
117 29 40 


Bank, dries ... 

3 31 




Bank - - . . 

3 34 

"7 37 30 



Bank - - . . 
Twee Vrienden Reef 

3 38 
3 40 

"7 35 
ii7 8 

Vrienden, 1876. 


Franklin Bank - . . 

3 2 

117 33 



Triangles, southern 

3 5 
6 2 

117 50 

118 14 


Laars Bank, S. end - - . 



Saflana or Dewakan Island - 

5 26 

118 25 

118 35 

1 118 53 

1 16 32 



Tonyn Island or Benkoeloean- 

5 31 

6 8 

2 32 



Brill Shoal 

Shoal Point or Tanjong Iklirra 









Eairged Point or Tanjons;: Aris 

2 'S 30 

, « 
116 37 



Little Paternosters, X.E. isle - 

2 10 

117 48 30 



N.W. isle 


i'7 33 



Hannah Shoal . . . 

2 18 




Pasir or Passier River, entrance 

I 51 



Jason Reefs, S.E. end 

I 51 

116 57 



N.W. end 

I 48 30 

116 52 



Kiver Koetei, S.W. entrance - 


117 20 



„ Tanjong Bayor, E. point of 

delta .... 


"7 37 



Bontheim, on South coast of Celehes 

5 32 

119 54 


Klambang Point, Cape Bulo Bulo 

5 42 

119 41 


Point Laykan, S.W. point of Celebes - 

5 36 

119 26 

Sir E. Belcher. 


Makas-sar, Ft. Rotterdam, North angle 

5 8 9 

119 21 18 



Spermonde Archipelago, Kapo Posang 

Island or West Island 

4 43 

"8 55 



Teignmouth Bank - - - 

4 56 

118 35 30 



Pareh Pareh Ba}-, village 


119 34 


Balanipa, village . . - 

3 29 

119 2 30 



Cape Mandhar, West extreme 

3 34 

118 54 


Penamhoeang, village 

3 28 

118 52 30 


Cape William . . - 

2 40 

1 1 8 47 



Palos Bay, village at the head 


119 47 30 

Van Loo, &c. 


Cape Temoel or Samsa 


1^9 35 30 



Seven Islands, North Watcher 


119 43 30 



Cape Donda ... 

58 30 

120 13 30 



Cape Kaniongan, E. point of Borneo 


118 56 



Island of Celebes. 

Cape Rivers, N.E. Cape, Slime Islet 

I 20 

120 43 30 

Sir E. Belcher. 


Cape Kandi - - 

I 20 

121 25 



Bwool, anchorage ... 

I 10 

121 24 



Kwandang Bay, village in S.E. part 


122 44 30 


Lombok Bay, Maririe Point - 

I I 

124 9 



Manado, Fort Amsterdam 

I 29 25 

124 46 30 



Mount Klobat, summit 631.T feet 

I 27 9 



North Cape or Papalumpongang 

I 46 

124 56 



Limbe Island, North point 

I 35 

125 15 



Kema, Fort ... 

I 21 

125 I 30 



Cape Flesko, extreme 


124 26 

Jlelvill V. Cambee 


Cape Tolo, extreme 


123 50 



Gorontalo, entrance of river - 


122 50 



Togean Isles, Great Wallah, N. point - 


122 13 



Cape Talabo, East end 


123 27 



Cape Nederburg ... 

2 53 

122 16 



Wowoni or Weywon^i Island, N. point 

3 58 




Kendari or Vosraaer Baj', entrance 

3 57 

122 32 



Boeton or Bulon Island, North point - 

4 23 30 

123 4 



„ „ East point 

5 15 

123 16 



„ Siumpu or South Id, S.W. point 

5 41 20 

122 26 30 



„ Bolio or Boeton 

5 28 

122 36 



Moena or iluna Island, C. Willa, or 

S.W. point 

5 23 

122 15 



Kabeina Island, peak 4,000 feet 

5 19 30 

121 53 



Cape Lassa or Berak, extreme 

5 35 

120 29 

Sir J. Brooke. 


Point Patiro, extreme 

4 38 

120 27 



Cape Marasauga or Siw i 

3 4S 

120 26 




Beraoe or Burn, head of Gulf of Boni - 
Cape Bunffiiifi; Kaito 
Mansfield Shoal, centre 3 fathoms 
Salayar Island, North point - 
„ South pi lint - 

Tiger Islands, Ptrch Islaml at E, end - 
Postilion Island, Noitli Island 
„ S.K. Island - 

„ S.W. Islands, Maria 

Reiiiersbergen Islands 
Pulo Tenga or Paternoster Ids., South 
Ids. or Maria Heinersberuen Ids. 
„ Ardassier Islands, South one 
.„ N.E. Paternosters, North one 

Molucca Islani>s. 

Xulla Isles— Taliabo, N."W. point - 
„ Mangola, S.E. point 

„ Lisainatula, E point 

„ Besi, S.E point 

,, ,, Sannana Bay, fort 

Bouro Island, Bulatetio or N.W. Cape - 
„ Cayeli Bay, Fort Dei'ansie 

,, P."la or Ea-t point 

„ Arnblau Island, E. point - 

„ Pekka or South point 

Manipa Island, centre 
Amboina Island, Wawolle or W. point - 
,, Amboina, Fort Victoria 

Haruku, S."W. point 
Saparoea, Melano Id., off S.W. point - 

„ Fort Duurstede 

Banda Ids., Gunong Api summit 2200 ft. 
„ Great Banda, N.E. point - 

,, Neira, Fort Nassau 

„ Rosengain or Kozagin, centr 

„ Way or Ai, centre 

,, Khun or Rung, S. point 

Token Bessi Ids., Wangi- Wangi, N.W. 
point - - - - 

„ Binongko, South point 

„ St. Matthew Id., centre - 

,, Veldhoen, centre 

Hegadis Island, Lagu Rocks, off S. pt. - 
Lucipara Islands, North iglet 
Gunong Api ... 

Roma Island, West point 

„ Serussa anchorage 

Letti Island, West point 

,, Anch(;ra!ie on N. side 

Moa Island, Buflalo Peak, 4,100 feet - 
Strraatta Island, N.E. point - 
Damma Island, Kulewatta Harbour, 
JSorih point . - - 

Nila Island, centre - - . 

Maiio or Bird Island, centre - 
Tenimher Islands, Timor Laut, Oliliet 
on East coast - . . 

)j tt S. point 

7 3° 

7 5° 
1 35 
6 35 

I 44 o 

I 55 3° 

1 50 o 

2 28 o 

7 ° 
22 49 

23 o 

52 o 

53 o 

17 o 

3 44 30 
3 41 30 

39 o 

40 o 

35 50 
3> o 
30 30 

32 o 

34 o 
32 o 

36 o 

15 o 

17 o 

20 o 

58 o 

9 ° 

28 30 

43 o 
38 o 
42 o 

5 14 20 

8 10 15 
8 14 o 


6 44 o 

5 33 o 

7 55 o 

8 18 45 

120 40 30 

121 45 O 

120 13 O 

120 30 o 

120 28 30 

J22 15 Q 

118 43 O 

119 10 O 

107 56 o 

117 5 o 

117 22 o 

118 17 o 

122 20 
126 14 
126 29 
126 I 

125 57 

126 4 

127 6 
127 17 o 
127 17 o 

126 39 o 

127 34 o 

127 54 30 

128 10 18 
128 25 o 
128 36 o 

128 38 18 

129 53 o 
129 56 30 

129 52 50 

130 2 30 
129 46 20 
129 43 o 


Sir J. Brooke. 




Sir E. Belcher. 


Sir E. Belcher. 


Melvill V. Carnbee 

123 32 o 

123 59 o 

124 14 o 
124 46 o 

122 38 O 

127 30 O 

126 43 30 

127 19 O 
127 39 O 
127 36 o 

127 41 o 

128 I o 

129 o o 

128 28 o 

129 29 o 

130 20 o 

131 23 30 Owen Stanley, &c, 
I30 43 

Dutch chart. 


Owen Stanley. 





■ Tenimber Islands, Laarat, E. point 
„ Voniate, 8. point 

„ Mulu, N. point 

„ Serra, 8.W. point 

Arru Islands, N^or or S. Island 

,, Dobbo Harbour, point 

,, North point 

Ki Islands, Great Ki, South point 
„ ,, North point 

„ Little Ki, Doulan Har. pier 

Victoria Shoal ? - 
Lyne'ioch Bank, 7 fathoms - 
IMoney Shoal - - . 

Tionfolokker Group, S.W. island 
Three Brothers. Ta or South Brother - 
Tello Islands, KanalurorS. Id , summit 
,, Bun or N. Id., summit - 

Tebor Island, N.E. point 
Matabella Islands, Kukur 

„ IngHT 

Goram Isles, Monovolko, E. point 

„ Goram, tS.E. point 

Ceram Laut Isles, high tree on western 
isle .... 
„ Kilwari Island, town Isles, E. point 
Ceram Island, Rozaket or N.E. point - 
,,, Waroe or Wharu anch. - 

„ CapeTalanuru, N.W. ext. 

„ Bonoa Island, N.E. point 

,, Seal orSial Pt., S.W. ext. 

„ Piero Bay, Kassara Id. - 

„ Amahai i3ay, Dutch fort - 

New Guinea, Cape Valsche - 
,, Triton Bank 

„ Providential Bank 

„ False Ulanata River 

„ Cape Chanipel or Steen- 

boom - - . . 

„ Cape Buru 

,, Lakahia Mount 

„ Cape Perier 

„ Chasot Island, centre 

„ Aidutnea Island, centre 

„ Triton Bay, Port du Bus - 

,, Namatotte I.^land 

„ Wessel Island, S.E. point 

„ Ariiuna Bay, C. Boucher - 

„ Cape Kaffoera - 

,, Cape Sapey 

„ Gudin Island, N.W. end - 

„ Drei Cap Pen'a, Wass Id. 

„ McCluer Inlet, village at 

bead - - . . 

Sabuda Island, S. point 
Mysole Islami, Efbe Harbour 
Canary Islands, -western extreme 
Popa Island, S.E. point 
Salawati Island, Van Dady or N.W. pt. 
Batanta Island, Cape Mubo or W. pt. - 
Waigiu Island, Piapis Harbour 

45 18 
16 30 
34 42 

10 19 
5 47 



2 56 

3 33 
3 16 

3 19 
8 22 
6 35 

4 45 


8 30 

27 30 

2 23 
2 40 
2 4 
1 50 
1 12 

132 1 
131 55 

131 40 

130 44 
134 24 
134 13 35 
134 40 

132 54 

133 10 
132 45 11 

131 22 

130 40 

132 47 
132 9 

131 54 
131 58 
131 58 
131 47 
131 50 
131 34 
131 29 
131 30 


130 68 

13J 53 

130 56 

130 43 

128 11 

127 59 

127 55 

128 10 
128 56 7 

137 40 

138 4 
137 55 
136 18 

136 20 30 

135 9 

134 50 

134 31 30 

134 17 30 


134 4 

133 57 
133 34 
133 20 
132 47 
132 37 
132 33 
132 4 

134 7 

131 36 

130 12 

129 35 

129 50 

130 36 
130 25 
130 12 

Owen Stanlej' 

Owen Stanley, 


Owen Stanley, 

Tiza'rd, 1874, 



Dutch Chart. 

KoJff, &c. 










856 ^ 














Waigiu Island, Offak Harbour, entrance 

,, Rawak Harbour 

„ Cape Lamarche, N.E. pt. 

„ Chabrol Bay, Port BIos- 

seville . - - - 

Dampier Island, Bucclench Shoal 

„ King William Island, 

West point 

,, Pigeon Island, centre - 

,, Fowl Isle, centre 

Obi Major, Pocky or W. point 

Gomona Island, centre 

Lukieong or Loyang Island, S. end 

Gasses Island, S.E. end 

Kekik Island, East end 

Boe or Bu Islands, W. end - 

Gebi or Gebeh Islands, N".W. point 

„ Fowld., - 

Gagy Island, South point 

Syang Island, S.E. point 

Wyang or Vayag Island, West end 

Ormsbee Shoal, 12 fathoms 

Halmaheira or Gillolo, South point 

„ Cape Tabo, E. extr. - 

„ Canton Packet Reef - 

„ Ardasier Rock 

„ Bitjoli or Wassa, 

Dutch settlement 

„ Cape Salaway, N.E. 

point - - - . 

„ Tanjong Batu Bessao 

„ Talendang Ids., Dili 

„ Gillolo village 

„ Dodingo, village 

Molucca Islands, Ternata, Fort Oranje - 
„ Tidore, summit of volcano 

„ „ N.E. end 

„ Mareh, W. point 

„ Motir, summit 

„ Makkian, Fort Reeburgh 

Wolf Rock 
„ Batjan or Batchian, Fort 

Barneveld - . . 

,, S.E. point 

Bahia Reef, coral - . . 

Mayor or Mej's Island, North point 
Tifore Island, N.W. point 


Bajaren Island, summit 
Tagiilanda Island, peak 


,0 43 

42 30 

2 2 

36 30 


1 26 

2 14 
2 17 
1 10 



1 10 

1 22 30 
1 1 

130 43 

130 57 

131 14 

130 41 

131 21 

130 29 

130 34 

130 42 30 

127 18 

127 30 

128 2 
128 14 
128 37 

129 11 30 

129 17 30 

129 30 

129 54 

129 53 

129 57 


128 23 

128 52 

128 56 30 


128 20 

128 37 

127 33 

127 33 

127 28 

127 46 

127 21 

127 22 


127 25 

127 21 

127 23 

127 21 

126 50 

127 25 30 
127 52 30 
126 50 

126 22 
126 8 





Dutch Chart. 


2 7 125 22 Spanish charts, &c 881 
2 22 125 24 30 j „ «82 



Seao Island, conical peak 

Sangir Island, S. poiut, Cape Palumbatu 

Talaut Islands, Kalnuansr, S.E. point - 

,, Karkelansi:, N. point 

Tulur Islands, Kanian village 
Meangis Inlands, southern 

SuLU Archipelago. 

Tapnl, centre hill - . - 

Bulipons;pong, centre hill 

Cuad Basang, S.W. point 

Bubuan, Lagoon entrance 

Ketnapoussan Island, centre - 

Boiijialao, S'uith point 

Simonor, N.W. point 

Manuc iManca, M'est point 

8ibutu, hill, East coast 

Borneo, Unsang anchorage 

Omapiii, N.W. extreme 

Talantam Bank, 5 fathoms 

Pearl Bank, western Island - 

„ East Islet 
Doc-can, West extreme 
Sulu Island, Dalrymple Harbour, well 

on S.E. coast Tulyan Island 
Pansjituran, S.W. point 
Basilan Id., Passanhan or Isabela 

,, Island, Malusa 
Sibago Isles ... 

Teinga Island, centre 
Sta. Cruz Island, S.E. one 

Philippine Islands. 

Mindanao, Cape Panguitan or S. point - 
„ lUana Bay, Rio Grande, Co- 

tabatu fort ... 

„ Port Dumanquilas, entrance 

,, Samboanga, pier - 

„ La Caldera, fort - 

,, Santa Cruz Islands, S. point 

,, Port Sta. Maria, village at 

head .... 
„ Murcielagos Islets, W. point 

„ Point Taglo, N.^V. point 

,, Laguna de Panguil, Misamis, 

at entrance ... 

„ Macajalar Bay, Barra de Ca- 

gayan - - 

„ Camiguin Island, \Y. point - 

„ Point Banajan or Bilaan 

,, Surinao, landing' place 

Surigao Islands, Siargao, N.E. point 

„ Dinigat, N. point 

Panaon Island, S. point 

„ Puerto Liloan, E. entr. - 

Leyte Island, S.W. point 
„ Tacloban 
„ Carigara on N. coast 
Samar Island, Punta Saugui, r Samar - 

2 44 

3 21 

3 49 

4 29 

3 49 

4 39 

44 30 

41 30 
27 10 
25 15 

55 30 
49 30 

49 30 
16 30 
54 10 


50 45 
50 45 
52 30 

6 2 30 
6 15 15 
6 42 45 
6 32 50 
6 45 
6 54 
6 52 15 

5 36 

7 46 

8 8 
8 43 

8 10 

8 31 10 

9 12 30 
9 50 
9 48 30 

10 4 
10 28 
9 55 
10 10 


11 16 
11 19 

10 55 30 

125 26 Spanish charts, &c 

125 39 

127 2 30 

15fi 52 

127 2 Chart. 

127 7 

120 55 
120 49 45 
120 11 30 
120 35 

120 40 45 
119 44 15 
119 46 45 
119 48 
119 24 
119 16 
119 22 45 
119 26 30 
119 37 30 
119 44 

119 Ob 45 

121 18 20 

120 29 30 

121 58 

121 52 43 

122 24 

121 38 

122 4 

125 21 

124 14 30 

123 4 

122 4 

121 58 

122 4 30 

122 7 30 

122 26 

123 22 30 

123 49 

124 45 

124 37 

125 25 

125 29 

126 3 
125 38 
125 17 
125 8 
125 1 
124 59 

124 41 

125 52 

Chimmo, 1871-2 

Spanish charts. 
La Sabine, 1844. 
Spanish charts. 
Wild Rover, 1870 
Spanish charts. 

Spanish charts. 










Samar Island, Point Binusfayan 







,, C.Espiritu Santo, N.E. end 









„ Puerto de Palapa, S.E. pt. 

of Batag Island - - - 








„ Bulicuatro Isles, N.W. pt. 

of Viri - - - - 







St. Bernardino Island, East entrance of 

Strait - - - - 








Capul Island, N. point 







Ticao Island, Puerto San Jacinto, fort - 






ilasbate. Point Ciduljuan or S. K. point 







„ Put-rto Barreras, Point Lanan 








,, Point Bugui or N.W. point 






Zebu or Oebu Island, Point,Bulalaqu e or 

N. point ... 







„ Port Zebu, lighthouse 

on Bacacay Point 








,, Naga coal mines 








„ Point Tanon or S. pt. 







Bohul Island, N.W. point 







Siquijor Island, N. point 









Negros Island, Bombonon or S. point - 








„ Himamajlan, on VV. coast 






,, Bacolot, village 







Bnrias, Busin Harbour, San Jose Id. - 







Panaj', Punta Bulacaue or N.E. point - 








„ Silanga Islands, North Gigante, 

N. point ... 







„ Pan de Azucar, summit 








„ Ilo Ilo, fort 






„ Nugas Island, off S.W. pt. 








,, San Jose_de. Buenaventura 








„ Point Naisog, or N.W. point 









SuLU Sea. 

Sandakan Harbour, Bahalatolis Island - 







Cagayan de Sulu, entrance of basin 








,, Sulu, observation spot, middle 

West coast ... 






Chimmo, 1871. 


San Miguel Isles, East point of Manuk 

ISIanukan ... 





Spanish charts. 


Ca-ayancs Islands, Observatory between 

the islands ... 









Caueli or Cavilli, N.W. point 








Sombrero Rock ... 







Pi^dra Blanca ... 







MinUoro Island, Cape Calavite, N.W. pt. 







,, Abra lie Hog - 








„ Calapan 








,, Punta Buruncan or S. pt. 








Sibuyan Island, South point - 








„ West point - 








Rombloii Island, light on N.E. point 








Marinduque Island, Ele'ante,i^off S. pt. - 






Luzon, S., E., and N. Coasts, Cape San- 

tiago .... 






Montero, Spanish 


„ Balayan ... 





Surveys, &c. 


,, Batanufaa ... 








,, Veide Island, N.W. point 







„ Point Bantigui 













Luzon, L.ig-iimmanoc, entrance 
„ Bondog Head 
„ Tamba Point 

„ Sorsogon - - . 

„ Calintan Island 
„ Ungay Point 

„ Catanduanes Island, S.E. point - 
j» „ N. point 

„ Matandumaten Island 
„ Calagnas Isles, Cacbalisay Id., 
East end . . . 

,, Lamon Bay, Gumaca 
,, Polillo Island, peak - 
„ Cape San Ildefonso - 
„ Paranan Bay, South pt. 
„ Yligan Point 
„ Cape Engano 
„ Pt. San Vincente, entrance 
„ River Cagayan, entrance 
„ Pamplona Bar 
„ Pt. Djalao - - - 

„ Cape Bojeador 
Babuyan Islands, Dalupiri Id., N. point 

„ Calayan Island, N.E. pt. 

„ Claro Island, W. point - 

,, Camiguin Island, Port 

Pio v., entrance - - - 

„ Bashi or Batan Islands, 

Balintang Island (P.D.) 

,, Batan Island, Mt. Irada, 

3,806 ft. 
Kosa - 

Ibayat Island, Mt. Santa 
Y'Ami Island, islet off 


Hainan to Hong Kong. 

Now Chow Island, West point 

Ty-fung-kyoh Island 

Pauk Pyah Rock - 

Song-yui Point . . . 

Mamee-chow Islets, S.W. pt. of W. islet 

Tyoa Point ... 

Mandarins Cap ... 

Hawcheim Island, S.W. point 

Namoa Harbour, entrance 

Wycaup Island, S.E. part 

Cou-cok Island, Sail Rock off S. point . 

Canton Rivers. 

San Chow Island, Stragglers off S.E. pt. 
Montanha Id., Water Ii^lands off S. pt. - 
Macao, Fort Guia, lighthouse 
Great Ladrorie Island, S.W. point 

Hong Kong to River Min. 

Hong Kong, Wellington Battery 
„ Cathedral 

I. A. 

13 53 
13 10 
13 30 
13 30 

12 31 20 

13 10 40 

13 31 40 

14 8 10 
14 18 




14 25 40 

13 57 45 

14 56 

16 4 

17 9 

18 20 
18 34 30 
18 30 
18 23 
18 30 
18 37 40 

18 29 30 

19 9 30 
19 22 
19 30 

18 53 

19 58 30 

20 28 30 

20 48 

21 4 56 

20 59 

21 24 30 
21 24 15 
21 32 
21 34 
21 44 
21 29 
21 35 
21 36 
21 34 
21 50 

22 3 30 
22 12 
21 55 25 

22 16 23 
22 16 23 

121 49 

122 36 

123 19 

123 59 30 

124 5 
124 9 20 
124 21 
124 13 40 
123 5 30 

122 57 30 
121 54 45 
121 58 

121 46 

122 28 
122 18 
122 5 40 
122 6 
121 35 
121 22 
120 48 

120 34 20 

121 13 
121 32 
121 52 

121 48 

122 14 
122 1 20 

Montero, Spanish 
surveys, etc. 

121 52 


121 58 


110 38 

111 10 


111 15 


111 38 


111 47 

112 14 

112 21 


112 33 

112 35 

112 54 

113 7 


113 24 


113 30 

113 33 


113 42 

114 10 


114 9 




Belcher, 1841. 





Ninppin Rock . . - 

Single Island, East summit - 

Tuni-ang Island, summit 

Mendoza Island, summit 

Pedro Blanco Rock, summit - 

Pauk Piah Rock, summit 

Chino Peak, summit 

Cupchi Point, hill on it 

Breaker Point ... 

Cape of Good Hope 

Swatow, Double Island 

Brothers Islets, S.E. islet 

Tongsang Harbour, Fall Peak 

Chapel Island, light 

Tsing Seu Island, lighthouse - 

Amoy, Hanseu Island Pagoda 

High Laniock, light 

Chin-chu Harbour, Pisai Lsland 

P3'ramid Point . . . 

Sorrel Rock . . - 

Ockseu Islands, western island, lightho. 

Lam-yit Island, high cone peak 

Hungwha Channel, Sentry Island 

Hai-tan Island, Kiangshan Peak 

Turnabout Island, summit, light 

Middle Dog Island, light 

Formosa, Pescadores, Etc. 

Gadd Rock 

Yele Rete Rocks - " - 

Botel Tobago sima. South extreme 

Little Tobago sima ... 

Formosa Island, South cape - 

„ Sau-o Bay, Obs. spot - 

„ Samasana Island 

.,, Takau, Saracen Head - 

„ Port Heonffsan 

„ Tam-sui Har., "White 

fort .... 
,, Foki Point - 

„ Ke-lung Harbour, Ob- 

servation spot ... 
Hoa-pin-su Island, North face 
Raleigh Rock ... 

Meiaco-sima Group, Kumi Id., N. beach 
„ Broughton Bay, landing place 
„ Port Haddington, Hamilton 
Point . . - - 

., Tai-pin-san, S.W. Bay 
Pescadores Islands, Makung Harbour, 
2nd point on N. side of harbour 

„ Fisher Id., light - 

River Mix to Shaxghai. 

River Min, Temple Point 
Alligator Island, summit 
Tung-ying Island, peak 
Cony Lsland, summit 
Double Peak Island, highest peak 
Pih-seang Islands, Town Island 
Dangerous Rock, summit 
Tae Islands, easternmost 

22 15 45 
22 24 6 
22 27 6 
22 30 42 
22 18 30 
22 32 54 
22 44 24 
22 48 7 

22 56 

23 14 
23 20 
23 32 30 

23 47 15 

24 10 18 
24 22 15 
24 28 20 

23 15 

24 49 

24 52 

25 2 

24 59 

25 12 
25 16 30 
25 36 18 
25 26 
25 58 20 

21 43 10 

21 45 30 

22 1 40 
21 57 30 

21 55 
24 35 28 

22 41 

22 36 14 

24 46 

25 10 24 
25 19 

25 8 25 
25 47 7 
25 35 
24 26 
24 21 30 

24 25 
24 43 35 

23 32 54 
23 33 

26 8 26 
26 9 
26 23 12 
26 30 
26 36 6 
26 42 30 
26 53 
26 59 12 

o , /, 

114 22 7 

114 39 12 

114 36 45 

114 50 

115 6 54 

115 I 

115 46 50 

116 4 26 

llfi 27 45 

116 47 

116 43 20 

117 42 

117 36 48 

118 13 30 

118 7 

118 3 

117 17 30 

118 41 

118 58 

119 10 36 

119 27 30 

119 35 

119 45 

119 50 42 

119 58 42 

120 2 30 

121 37 

120 48 40 

121 39 45 

121 40 30 

120 50 30 

121 49 27 

121 28 

120 16 33 

120 55 

121 25 

121 37 

121 45 30 

123 30 31 

124 35 

122 56 

124 17 40 

124 6 40 

125 17 49 

119 30 12 

119 28 

119 37 42 

120 26 

120 31 

120 10 

120 U 12 

120 22 42 

120 34 18 

120 43 48 

CoUinson, 1845, 

Ross, 1817, and 
Brooker, 1866. 
Beechy, 1826. 

Wilda, 1865. 
Brooker, 1867. 
Collinson, 1845. 
Richards, 1855. 
Biooker, 1866. 

Brooker, 1867. 
Colhnson, 1845. 

Belcher, 1845. 
Bullock, 1866. 
Belcher, 1845. 

Collinson, 1845. 

Richards, 1854. 
Collinson, 1845. 



Ping-fong Island, summit 
Pih-quan Peak, summit 
Nam-quam Harbour. Bate Island 
Port Isamki, eastern horn 
Pih-ki-shan Island, summit - 
ToDg--wbang Group, Coin Island 
Pe-shan Island, summit 
Soudan Islet, summit 
Chikkok Island, summit 
Tai-chau Group, Hea-chu Islet 
Chuh-seu Island, summit 
Tung-chuh Island, summit - 
Hieshan Islands, southernmost 
Montagu Island, X.E. point - 
Kweshan Islands, Patahecock 
Mouse Kock, summit 
Buffidoes Nose Island, high part 
Nimrod Sound, Middle Island 
Chukea Island, peak 
Tongting Islet, summit 
Chusan Id., Obs. spot, Tinghai 
West Volcano Island, light on summit - 
Just-in-the-way Islet, summit 
Yung Paver, Chin-hai citadel 

„ Square Island light 

„ Pas-yew light - 

Video Island, summit 
Barren Isles, centre 
Saddle Group, North island light 
Cairnsmore hock . - . 

Gutzlaff Island, light on summit 
Chapu, battery . . . 

Shaweishan Island, light on summit 
Entrance of river, Tungsha bank light- 
vessel - - - . 
"Wusung River, Fort A. at entrance 
Shanghai, British consulate flagstaff - 
Hankow, Mouth of Han river. 

Shanghai to the Liautung Gulf. 

Yellow River, southern entrance 
"Wang-kia-tai Bay, Lung-wang temple - 
Shan tung promontory, lighthouse on 
N. E. extrem3 . . . 

Miau-tau Group, peak of northern island 
,, Hope Sound, Obs. spot 

Pei Ho, S. Taku Fort, S. Cavalier 

,, Tientsin, Observation spot 
Shaluitien Island, Joss house - 
Great Wall, sea end 
Liau Ho, Yingtze pagoda 

„ New Chwang Lightvessel 
Hulu Shan Bay, Obs. place (N. side) 
Port Adams, Entry island 
Thornton Haven, Observation spot 
Liau-ti-shan Promontorj-, S.W. point 
Round Island, summit 
Blonde Group, Shi-siau Rock 
Tayang Ho, entrance 
Qiielpart Island, Mount Auckland 
Port Ilaiiiihon 

9 42 

18 48 

9 20 





27 26 
27 37 

27 50 

28 .5 
28 15 54 
28 22 24 
28 23 18 
28 40 30 
28 42 12 

28 50 48 

29 10 30 
29 21 54 
29 32 42 
29 36 12 
29 34 20 
29 54 

29 51 42 

30 25 
30 20 25 
29 57 42 
29 57 8 
29 59 22 

29 57 43 

30 8 
30 43 
30 50 20 
30 42 10 
30 47 38 

30 36 

31 24 30 

31 7 40 
31 23 30 
31 14 42 
30 32 61 

34 2 

35 39 

37 24 


38 23 


37 56 

38 8 


39 9 

38 53 

39 58 

40 43 


40 35 

39 40 


39 16 

39 4 

3S 43 

38 40 

38 56 

39 46 


33 26 

34 1 


120 32 42 
120 28 42 

120 25 50 

121 6 36 
121 12 18 
121 15 
121 31 48 
121 44 36 
121 44 12 
121 65 12 
121 47 24 

121 55 6 

122 14 24 
122 6 
122 13 42 
122 13 36 
122 1 24 

121 43 15 

122 25 18 
122 35 48 
122 5 18 
121 51 45 
121 54 12 
121 43 6 
121 45 

121 43 50 

122 46 

123 7 14 
122 40 
122 34 40 
122 10 

121 3 

122 14 15 

122 1 

121 30 11 

121 28 55 

114 19 55 

120 10 
119 51 30 

122 42 
120 55 

120 40 
117 42 

117 11 

118 32 

119 49 
122 14 


121 17 
121 35 

123 10 

121 8 

122 11 

122 55 

123 41 

126 35 

127 18 

Collinson, 1845. 

Collinson, 1845. 

Ward, 1858. 
Wilds, 1864. 
Collinson, 1845. 
Wilds, 1864. 

Shanghai, 1873. 
Ward, 1859. 
Shadwell, 1850-8. 
Ward, 1859. 

Admiralty Chart 
Bullock, 1861. 

Ward, 1860. 

Bullock, 1860. 
Ward, 1860. 
BuUock, 1860. 

Richards, 1855. 








































South and East Coasts. 

Linschoten Ids., Yoko sima, summit 
„ Kutsino sima 
,, Kuro sima, centre - 

Satnno Misaki, or Ca^o ChichakoflF Lt. - 

Ciipe Isa - - - - 

Cape Muroto . . . 

Oo Sima Light . - . 

Matoya I..ight . - . 

Omae Saki Light - . - 

Eock Island Lighthouse 

Yedo Bay. 

Cape Sagami, litjhthousi 

„ Katioa saki, lighthouse - 

„ Yokohama, Naval sick 

quarters (square) 
,, Nosima Point, lighthouse 

Fatsizio Island, S.E. end 

Vries Island, S.E. point 

Inaboye Saki, lighthouse 

Kingkasan Island, lisjhthouse 

Yamada Harbour, Ko Sima - 

Siriya Saki, lighthouse 

Seto Uchi, or Inland Sea 

Boungo Channel, Euryalus Rock 
Kii Channel I., Sima, N. end 

„ Naruto Passage, Su Saki 

„ „ Tobi Sima 

„ Okino Sima, W. end 

,, Hino Misaki, extreme - 

„ Siwo Misaki, light 

„ Isumi Strait, Tomangai light 
Osaka, Temposan Fort 
Kobe, landing-place 
Akashi Strait, Maiko Fort 
Nabaa Sima, lighthouse 
Tsura Sima, light - - . 

Simoneski Strait, Isaki, light - 
„ Shirasu, lighthouse- 

West Coast. 

Goto Islands, Ose Saki 

Meae Sima, Ears Peak 

Kagosima Gulf, Yama Gawa - 
„ Iwo Sima, lighthouse 

Nagasaki, Minage Point Sima, light - - . 

Kado Sima, lighthouse 

Oki Islands, N. point 

Cape Roiven - _ . 

Port Niegat I, lighthouse 

Hakodadi, Kamida creek, entrance 

Yezo, Akishi Bay - . . 

„ Nemoro, Benten Sima - 
„ Iwani Bay - . . 

° , II 

28 47 30 

29 59 

30 50 

30 58 45 

32 44 

33 14 

33 28 

34 22 

34 36 30 

34 34 20 

35 8 

34 14 45 

35 26 30 

34 53 20 

33 4 24 

34 39 30 

35 43 30 

38 19 

39 27 17 

41 26 10 

33 2 

33 51 45 

34 14 56 

34 13 50 

34 6 50 

33 52 45 

33 26 

34 16 40 

34 39 45 

34 41 3 

34 38 29 

34 23 15 

33 53 SO 

33 58 10 

33 59 30 

£2 39 30 

32 3 

31 12 40 

32 43 

32 44 28 

33 41 30 

34 21 30 

36 30 

37 28 

37 56 30 

41 47 8 

43 2 22 

43 20 24 

43 1 

129 1 30 

122 55 

129 57 

130 40 15 

133 2 

134 11 30 

135 52 

136 54 30 
138 15 10 
138 57 10 

139 41 

139 44 17 

139 39 24 

139 51 23 

139 50 24 

139 28 

140 53 30 

141 36 
141 59 
141 29 25 

132 11 30 
134 50 45 
134 42 51 

134 39 

135 5 10 
135 4 15 
135 46 30 
135 30 
135 26 35 
135 12 15 
135 1 59 

133 48 45 
132 38 
131 2 
130 48 20 

128 35 30 

128 25 
130 38 43 

129 46 
129 51 30 

129 58 50 

130 50 
133 23 
137 22 

139 4 

140 43 44 

144 51 50 

145 34 57 
140 4 

Various autho 


Japan Lt. -house 

Jap. It. -ho. Bd. 
Ward, 1861. 

Various author. 
Jap. It. -ho. Bd. 
Ward, 1860. 

Jap. It. -ho. Bd. 

St. John, 1871, 
Jap. It.-ho. Bd. 



Jap. lt,-ho. Bd. 

St. John. 
Jap. It. -ho. Bd. 

Brooker, 1868. 
Richards, 1855. 
Jap. It.-ho. Bd. 
Brooker, 1868. 

Jap. It.-ho. hd. 
Richards, 1855. 


St. John, 1872. 

St, John, 1871. 


Po^^. I 







The Great Archipelago, which lies between Asia and Australia, by far the 
largest of the insular regions of the world, covering, as it does, an area of 
about six millions of square British miles, has been vaguely termed, by 
various authorities, the East India Islands — the Asiatic, or Eastern, or 
Oriental Archipelago, or the Malay Archipelago ; but, following its great 
historian, Mr. John Crawfurd, we prefer to designate it as the Indian 
Archipelago, a name, also, by which it is generally recognised. 

The Equator passes nearly through its centre, and thus much of it lies on 
the division between the metorological systems of the North and South 
hemispheres, the general particulars of which have been recounted and de- 
scribed in our former works. This peculiar physical condition renders the 
attempt to define the characteristics of its climatology somewhat complicated 
and difficult. 

It might be supposed that along this neutral line of separation, under the 
great cloud-ring, as it has been termed by Captain Maury, that there would 
be some uniformity of wind and weather. Not so, however, for the relative 
influences of the vast land of Australia, on the one hand ; those of the con- 
tinent of Asia on the other ; the direction of the evaporating winds blowing 
over the Indian Ocean to the West, or over the Pacific Ocean on the eastern 
side, cause the climate and characteristic weather of the eastern or western 
portions of the Archipelago to be very difi'erent from each other. 

For these reasons the changes in the monsoons, the alternation of the 
wet and dry seasons, in some parts, are very puzzling and difficult of expla- 
nation ; a fact, also, due in some degree to the want of long series of accurate 
observations which would be required to elucidate them. 


A large portion of the islands thus lies in what has been termed the 
" doldrums " of mid-ocean, and on the line of the maximum rain fall. This 
latter arises from the trade-winds in passing over the ocean, evaporating so 
much from the surface, that on their reaching this central line, or before that 
occurs, the winds become surcharged, and great deposition follows. It will 
be manifest that the case is altered when the wind has to pass over great 
breadths of arid land, and thus arises the complication caused by the reversed 

The disturbing e£Pect of land influences on the great aerial currents, is 
more apparent in the Indian Seas than in any other part of the world. The 
result is a complete reversal of the N.E. trade, and in a minor degree of the 
S.E. trade wind, producing the well-known phenomena of the monsoons — 
winds which blow one-half the year in one direction, and in the other half ia 
the opposite. 

In the northern winter, when the sun is South of the Equator, and the 
great Asiatic continent is cool, the regular N.E. trade-wmd prevails over 
the whole region North of the Equatorial calms, and is generally known as 
the North-east Monsoon, which is only liable to local deflection consequent on 
the direction of the land, its mountains, or the channels which separate the 
islands. To the South of the equatorial calms, the S.E. trade prevails 
throughout the season of October to April, when the sun is in southern 
signs ; and therefore, in the western portion of the area now under consi- 
sideration, the winds pursue their ordinary courses. 

But when the sun enters into North latitude, or in the northern summer, 
and especially about the northern solstice, it is vertical over an immense 
area of land South of the Himalaya Mountains, the desert regions of Arabia, 
the burning plains of Western India, countries where the earth is fire, and 
the wind flame ; and when this intense heat is extended to the southern por- 
tions of China, the S.E. trade-wind, receiving a northern impulse, follows up 
the retreating N.E. trade to the foot of the Himalayas, towards the northern 
tropic, drawn thither by the intense heat of the vertical sun, receiving this 
northern impulse, and that impulse carrying it into a region of less rotatory 
velocity than that which it has left, it assumes a relative S. W. direction, and 
is called the South-west Monsoon. 

The features and seasons of this wonderful wind have been recounted in 
our volume on the Indian Ocean, pages 32 — 58 ; and it is there shown that 
it has a progressive course northward, in its greatest strength, along the 
African coast, reaching Bombay nearly a month later than it sets in in the 

The effects of this S.W. monsoon are felt very far beyond the coasts, upon 
which its first furies fall in the burst of their commencement. The high 
temperature it brings advances so far to the North, that over ground per- 


petually frozen at the depth of a few feet, the limit of arboreal vegetation 
extends in Siberia, even to 72° N. latitude. 

While this deflected S.E. trade-wind, in the form of the S.W. monsoon, 
North of the Equator, is blowing between May and October, the S.E. trade 
proper prevails over all that part of the Indian Ocean which is not skirted 
to the South by large tracts of land. Where this is the case, as in the 
Java Seas as far as New Guinea, which lie North of the great Australian 
continent, there is again a double maximum temperature in the sea and the 
land, and the phenomenon of a N.W. monsoon taking the place of the S.E. 

The monsoons, therefore, of the Indian Archipelago are not two in number, 
but are four — the N.E. and S.W. to the North of the equator, and the S.E. 
and N.W. to the South of the line. To the two first the northern parts of 
Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes, the Philippine Islands, and the Malay Pe- 
ninsula, as well as the whole of the China Sea, are subject. To the two 
latter the southern parts of the above-named islands, with the range between 
Java and New Gruinea, and the northern part of Australia, are subjected. 

There is one natural indication of this superabundant rainfall in the ex- 
uberant vegetation manifest in most parts of the Archipelago. The greater 
portion is covered with one vast ever-verdant forest, clothing the land and 
the mountains from the shore to the summits of their loftiest peaks. In 
some parts this dense and gloomy jungle is not seen, and in its place are 
arid hills and plains, scantily covered with shrubs and trees. 

The naturalist, Mr. Wallace, has well defined these and other characteris- 
tics, which need not be detailed here. A few words will suflB.ce. Sumatra, 
New Guinea, Borneo, the Philippines, and the Moluccas, are all forest 
countries, except a few small and unimportant tracts. To this there is one 
important exception in the island of Timor, and all the smaller islands 
opposite, in which there is absolutely no forest, such as exists in the other 
islands, and their character extends in a lesser degree to Flores, Sumbawa, 
Lombok, and Bali. f 

In Timor and the islands between it and Java the vegetation is of the 
same character as that of Australia. This peculiar character is most pro- 
bably owing to their proximity to that great continent. The S.E. monsoon 
which lasts for about two-thirds of the year (from March to November) 
blowing over the northern parts of that country, produces a degree of heat 
and dryness which assimilates the vegetation and general aspect of the adja- 
cent islands to its own. A liitle farther eastward, in Timorlaut and the Ki 
Islands, a moister climate prevails, the S.E. winds blowing from the Pacific 
through Torres Straits ; and, as a consequence, every rocky islet is clothed 
with verdure to its very summit. Farther West, again, as the same winds 
blow over a wider and wider expanse of ocean, they have time to absorb 
fresh moisture, and we accordingly find the island of Java posaessiug a less 


and less arid climate in the dry season, till on the extreme West, near 
Batavia, rain occurs more or less all the year round, and the mountains are 
everywhere clothed with forests of unexampled luxuriance. 

Mr. Wallace continues — Speaking generally, the whole south-western 
part of the Archipelago, including the whole range of islands from Sumatra 
to Timor, with the larger half of Borneo, and the southern peninsula of 
Celebes, have a dry season from April to November, with the S.E. monsoon. 
This same wind, however, bends round Borneo, becoming the S.W. monsoon 
in the China Sea, and bringing the rainy season to northern Borneo and the 

In the Moluccas and New Guinea the seasons are most uncertain. In the 
S.E. monsoon, from April to November, it is often stormy at sea, while on 
the islands it is very fine weather. There is generally not more than two or 
three months of dry, hot weather, about August and September. This is 
the case in the northern extremity of Celebes and in Boruru ; whereas, in 
Amboyna, July and August are the worst months in the year. In Ternate 
it is difficult to find out which is the dry and which the wet season. The 
same is the case at Banda, and a similar uncertainty prevails in Menado, 
showing, perhaps, that the proximity of active volcanoes has a great dis- 
turbing meteorological influence. In New Guinea a great amount of rain 
falls more or less all the year round. On the whole, the only statement that 
can be made seems to be that the countries within about 3° on each side the 
equator have much rain, and not very strongly contrasted seasons, while 
those more South or North in latitude have daily rains during about four 
months in the year, while for five or six months there is almost a cloudless 
sky and a continual drought. 

There is one evidence of the uncertain nature of the aerial currents, and 
of their varying direction and intensity in the frequent occurrence of water- 
spouts in some localities, as in the Malacca Straits. These columns of 
vapour or water, formed by a small vortex, are described at length here- 
after, as seen in that strait, and are probably in some measure due to the 
peculiar configuration of the transverse line mountains crossing the normal 
line of direction of the prevalent winds. 

These brief, general remarks will suffice to give a notion of the meteorology 
of the central or equatorial portion of the Indian Archipelago North and 
South of these limits. The remarks that have been given in the introduc- 
tory chapter of our Indian Ocean Directory, will be equally applicable to 
this portion of the world. 

Storms are of rare occurrence, and typhoons are unknown. They only 
occur beyond the limits of the equatorial calms, and are seldom felt so far 
South as the northern part of the Philippine Islands. On the coast of 
China they are experienced in both monsoons, as further alluded to here- 


In the Gulf of Siam, in the China Sea, and on the coast of China, the 
alternating monsoons prevail. In the Gulf of Siam they are comparatively- 
feeble and of short duration. Farther to the East and N.E. they are more 
decided. The S.W. monsoon commences about the middle or end of April 
in the China Sea, a little after it is felt in the Gulf of Siam and Tongking, 
and before it reaches the northern part of its area It also lasts longer in 
the southern part of its course than it does in the northern. It is at its 
height in June, July, and August. The N.E. monsoon or the bad weather 
season, sets in in the northern part of the China Sea about the end of Sep- 
tember or early in October, and lasts till February or March. It sets in 
"with a burst of stormy weather, lasting about a week or ten days, and is in 
its strength in November, bringing much rain and a turbulent sea. In a 
subsequent page a further notice of the monsoons will be found. 

The ensuing remarks on this branch of our work, derived from various 
sources, is arranged in a geographical order, as being most convenient for 
reference. The foregoing introductory portion being sufficient to elucidate 
the general subject. In them there is necessarily some repetitions. The 
same topics having to be discussed in each case, necessarily involves this 
repeated allusion to one subject. 

MALACCA STRAIT.— Although the Malacca Strait is within the region 
of the N.E. and S.W. monsoons, yet the winds are very variable within its 
limits. There are various reasons for this ; the one is, that it lies almost 
within the limits of the equatorial calms, and therefore the monsoons reach 
it with diminished force ; another is the high land of Sumatra, which im- 
pedes the course of the S.W. monsoon, and the N.E. monsoon being the 
fine season here, the wind is never very strong. 

The land and sea breezes are regular on the West coast of Malacca, and 
also on the N.E. coast of Sumatra which limit the Strait. The monsoons 
are not always regular, except when they are at their height in the sur- 
rounding seas, and at the same time the winds are only moderate in the 
channel, and only last a part of the day. 

The north-east monsoon, which, as before stated, is the fine season, lasts 
from November to May ; the S.W. monsoon, bringing rain and thunder, 
generally commences at the end of April or the beginning of May, and 
ceases in October. In November the winds often come from the West, and 
during this monsoon the weather is in general cloudy and rainy, especially 
during the period that it is strongest. In October and November, at the 
end of the S.W. monsoon, the winds often vary from N.W. to W., but 
when the monsoon sets in from the N.E. they are regular in November. 
The winds are very strong till the month of March, but principally during 
December and January. Sometimes they vary to N. or N.W., and always 
during the months of the N.E. monsoon the breezes from the West last 
during one or two days. During the season of the N.E. monsoon the winds 


vary between the N.N.E. and E.N.E. Towards the end of February and 
March, and sometimes also in the beginning of April, the breezes from the 
N.E. veer towards the North, and are light and variable. It is found also 
that the breezes are interrupted by calms during the middle of the day, but 
during the night and at sunrise they are fresh. The coast of Malacca is 
much less subject to calms during this monsoon than that of Sumatra. 

The south-icest monsoon is at its height in June and July. During the 
four months from May to September the winds in the Strait blow principally 
from S.W. to S., that is, when the S.W. monsoon is at its greatest height in 
the open sea. During this monsoon calms occur on the N.E. coast of Su- 
matra, but less frequently there than on the coast of Malacca, and they are 
rarely of long duration. In general it is calm in the middle of the day, and 
fresh breezes in the night and at sunrise. It is only in the northern part of 
the Strait of Malacca that the monsoons are regular. 

During the S.W. monsoon sudden and heavy squalls come off the Sumatra 
coast, generally during the early part of the night. From their direction 
they are called Sumatras, and are accompanied by loud thunder and heavy 
rain. They are probably occasioned by the mountains on the Pedir coast, 
and blow sometimes for six or eight hours at a time, strongest at their 
commencement. In Malacca Eoad they generally set in at 7 or 8 p.m., and 
are at their height at midnight, and have caused many ships to part their 

The wind does not often come from the N.W., but at times it blows right 
through to Singapore. They come on very suddenly and violently, but do 
not last long. They are generally preceded by a black cloudy arch, rising 
rapidly from the horizon toward the zenith, which only allows sufficient 
monition to reduce sail as quickly as possible, and should a ship be at an- 
chor, she should immediately weigh, or the burst of the storm will not allow 
her to do so. 

Water Spouts. — In the very excellent and graphic account of the Horsburgh 
Lighthouse and its erection in the Strait of Malacca, by J. T. Thomson, Esq., 
F.R.Gr.S., are some interesting remarks on this curious phenomenon, which, 
as before stated, is somewhat fi-equent in these seas. The opportunities 
afforded during the progress of the works in 1847 — 1851 gave many unusu- 
allv good opportunities for observing the peculiarities of their action, of 
which the following good account is given : — 

The curious phenomenon, popularly known as the water-spout, was fre- 
quently seen in the Straits, and on two occasions I was fortunate enough to 
observe them in full action, at a distance of little less than half a mile. On 
the first occasion, when on board the gun-boat Charlotte, off Barbukit Point, 
at 4 p.m. on the 29th May, a heavy cloud, with rain about to fall from it, 
was observed to be approuchiug, driven by the S.W. breeze then blowing. 


To the southward the atmosphere was observed to be damp and hazy, while 
to the North it was clear and dry. On the rain reaching the sea a vapour 
tube was seen to protrude in the midst from the cloud downwards, gradually 
lessening in its diameter till it reached two-thirds of the distance between 
the cloud and the sea, and below which point the tube did not descend. The 
altitude of the cloud was judged to be about 1,000 feet above the surface. 
A small attenuated column of white vapour was now noticed to rise out of 
the sea with a hissing noise, and which was soon surrounded by white 
vapour disengaged therefrom. 

This column quickly effected a junction with the large and heavy vapour 
tube depending from above, into the centre of which it seemed to be re- 
ceived. The water-spout played for about five minutes, during which time 
the depending tube appeared alternately elongated and shortened, and the 
vapour surrounding it maintained a spiral motion. The day was hot. 

Again, on the 1st of July another was seen from Pedra Branca, bearing 
S.W., and approaching the rock. This was at 4.15 p.m. The height of the 
spout seemed to be nearly 1,000 feet, and its diameter halfway up 50. The 
depending tube revolved with the hands of a watch, or from West by the 
North to East, &c. In this one, which was of very large diameter, two 
columns or tubes of vapour seemed to be in action, one within the other. 
The depending one, whose massive and opaque vapour was derived from the 
cloud, enveloped the other, which was thin and attenuated and rose from the 
sea, with the noise above described, and entered the lower end of the de- 
pending tube, through which it seemed to ascend up to the cloud. 

The ascending column, as usual, disengaged much white vapour from the 
surface of the sea, and with which its lower end was surrounded. This 
water-spout depended from a nimbus, and rain was falling all round it. 
The nimbus was travelling N.E., and the water-spout was on the advanced 
edge of it. At 4.25 the depending tube gradually wasted away, until it 
vanished, when the white vapour of the ascending column parted from the 
surface of the sea and ascended, like the curling of smoke, up towards the 
cloud, at the same time the hissing noise ceased, and the surrounding minute 
spray entirely disappeared.* The atmosphere was clear and dry to the N.E., 
but rainy and threatening to the S.W., from whence the nimbus travelled. 
Probably twenty others were seen during the season, but at too great dis- 
tances for satisfactory observations. 

It was invariably remarked that water-spouts formed themselves in rain- 
clouds, or nimbi, at a time when the rain was about to fall or had fallen for 
a short time ; the state of the atmosphere favourable to their formation 

* In this one I observed what was entirely new to me, viz., that the particles of vapour 
contained in the outer and dependent tube, besides being driven in the helical curve round 
the inner or ascending column, revolved also round the threads of the helix. 


would therefore appear to be just when the capability of the air to support 
the cloud was in a balanced state. 

Squalls. — The larger atmospherical disturbances of squalls formed also in- 
teresting objects of observation, the frequency of their occurrence in the 
Straits of Malacca, and the force with which they sometimes press on the 
sail, render them of too much consequence to the frequenter of these seas to 
be lightly considered. 

The squalls may be divided into local and general, the first forming in the 
isolated hills, and influencing the immediate districts only, and the latter 
termed the " Sumatras," as they invariably come from that island, affecting 
hundreds of miles on the same day. 

The local squalls were observed to form on the only high hills within 
view from Pedra Branca, viz., Bintang and Barbukit. During the calm 
months of May and June, should the day be more than usually hot, by noon 
the moisture of the atmosphere was invariably seen to condense on the cool 
tops of these eminences, and form into high accumulated masses of vapour, 
by one or two o'clock the atmosphere being refrigerated and rendered dense 
in the process would rush down from the summits, displacing the hot and 
rarified air of the plains, and cooling with its accompanying showers the 
parched soil. At the change of the monsoons, before either had set in to 
blow regularly, the local squalls would be seen to spread themselves out 
from the locality of their formation equally in all directions, upon the sur- 
rounding plains. But when either monsoon was blowing, they would be 
carried in the direction of the prevailing wind, — during the S.W. monsoon 
towards the N. and N.E., and during the N.E. monsoon towards the S. and 
S.W. Even during the height of the N.E. monsoon, which blows more 
steadily than the S.W. one, at night its under current of air would always 
moderate, if not cease, though, as might be seen by the travelling clouds 
above, the upper current was not arrested in its progress. At the latter end 
of the monsoon it has not power to overcome the density of the air over- 
spreading the peninsula, created during the cool of the night, until 10 and 
12 and even 4 o'clock of the following day. On such occasions, if the 
weather be fair and hot, the atmosphere will have condensed its vapour on 
Barbukit Hill, and from whence heavy squalls will proceed across the Straits 
of Singapore, assisted by the monsoon. Of this we had many instances, 
heavy N.E. squalls having taken the gun-boats inside of the Straits, while 
at the same moment, 10 miles distant, an agreeable and permanent N.E. 
breeze has been experienced out at Pedra Branca. 

The laws that have been observed to generate and direct the local squalls 
may be safely assumed to operate in the same manner, with regard to the 
general squalls or " Sumatras" that in the Straits come from the direction 
of that island during the S.W. monsoon. In Sumatra the regular prevailing 
wind may be supposed to meet obstruction in the high range of mountains. 


that intersect the island in a longitudinal direction, and not having strength 
at all times to overcome the barrier, is curbed, until, as has been seen to be 
the case with the local squalls, condensed air has been formed on the high- 
lands, which, with its accompanying vapours, rushes down to displace the 
heated and rarified atmosphere of the valleys and plains on the lee, and 
being at the same time urged on by the pent up force of the monsoon now 
let loose, stretches itself far and wide over the Malacca Straits and the 
generally low-lying surface of the Malayan Peninsula. 

These ** Sumatras " were found to arrive at Pedra Branca between the 
hours of 3 and 8 a.m., and if we be allowed to infer with regard to their 
time of origin that it is the same as obtains in local squalls, viz. from 1 1 a.m. 
to 4 p.m., assuming the distance travelled to be 300 miles, their rate of 
progression will be 19 to 20 miles an hour. This was corroborated by 
watching their arrival at distant high points of land seen from the rock, and 
noting the interval of time consumed in their coming to the rock. A storm 
or gale is generally estimated to travel at the rate of 32 miles an hour ; but 
it is only for the first few minutes that a " Sumatra " assumes this character, 
and this only in sudden puffs; they soon decrease in force to a high wind, 
which is said to travel at the rate of 16 or 17 miles an hour. The approach. 
of a " Sumatra " has much to attract the attention of the student of nature. 
The most imposing characteristic is in the immense arch that it forms, 
stretching from the zenith to opposite points of the horizon and below the 
arch, which is of the darkest hue, there are suspended dark grey vapours, 
about to descend on the surface of the earth. Above the dark arch will be 
seen light grey fog banks, over which a slighter arch will be spanning, and 
which is again crowned by white fleecy clouds, contrasting, if the squall 
approach at daylight, strongly with the blue sky above and the dark masses 

SINGAPORE. — The following remarks on the climate, &c., of Singapore 
are by Dr. E. Little, derived from tables furnished him by Captain Elliott, 
M.E. They are very important, being based on adequate and well digested 
data. They are therefore given more at length than in other cases : — 

Singapore, though within 80 miles of the equator, through its abundancr> 
of moisture, either deposited by the dews or gentle refreshing showers, keepf 
its atmosphere cool, prevents the parching effect of the sun, and promotes 
continual verdure. It never experiences furious gales. If more than ordi- 
nary heat has accumulated moisture and electricity, a squall generally sets 
in, followed by a heavy shower of rain ; these squalls never exceed one or 
two hours in duration. According as the monsoon blows, you will have 
them rising in that direction. In 1841, during the N.E. monsoon, there 
were four squalls from that direction ; but the most severe and numerous 
are from the S.W., which are called Sumatras, and they most frequently 
occur between 1 and 5 in the morning. The N.E. monsoon blows from 
I. A. 



November to March, and after which the wind veers round to S.E., and 
gradually sets into the S.W., between which points it continues in May, 
June, July, and September. The N.E. monsoon blows more steadily than 
the S.W. one. The temperature of Singapore is one or two degrees cooler 
during the former than the latter, which also brings more rain. It is further 
remarked that the wind always lulls at night, during the height of either 
monsoon. Daring the S.W. monsoon a wind from the South prevails at 
times, which is termed by the natives Angin Jawa, or Java winds, because 
it comes from the direction of that island. This especially exists in Septem- 
ber, which is attributed to the usual cooling land breeze being replaced in 
the mornings during that month by the hotter breeze from the sea ; as we 
advance into the interior this hot breeze is not felt. 



January . , 
March .... 
April .... 


June . • , , 


August . . 
October . . 


Number of Hours in which the Wind 
is in each Quarter. 
























































These observations 
} were taken during 
five years. 

Four years. 

Three years. 
Four years. 

How beautiful an illustration, exclaims the writer, of the little variation 
we find in the general laws of nature ; though how often do we remark how 
changeable is the weather. From these observations, carried on nearly five 
years, the wind blows from the N.E. during 474 days 9 hours, from the 
opposite direction, S.W., during the contrary monsoon, 470 days 13 hours; 
another deduction is made, that during the months of December, January, 



February, and March, the wind blows more continuously from the N.E. 
than any other direction ; while in the months of June, July, August, and 
September, the wind is principally to the S.W. During November the pre- 
vailing wind is N.W., while its antagonist, S.E., blows in the month of 
June. Another fact is elicited, viz., that in April we have the winds blow- 
ing from the direction of N.W. and N.E. 1,852 hours ; and from the S.W. 
and S.E. 1,868 hours. In October we have them blowing from the N.W. 
and N.E. 1,567 hours; and from the S.W. and S.E. 1,'395 hours : thus the 
wind, in changing from the N.E. monsoon to the S.W., seems to do so 
gradually from N.E. to N.N.E., then N.W. to West, then S.W. ; and, in 
changing from the S.W. to the N.E., retraces its progress by retaining: its 
westerly direction, and not reaching the N.E. by S., then S.E. and E., but 
adopting the same direction, by which it reached the S.W. from N.E., viz., 
a westerly. 

In the same paper the following facts' are announced with regard to the 
fall of rain and quantity of moisture in the atmosphere. In 1820, rain fell on 
229 days; in 1821, on 203 days; in 1824, on 136 days; and in 1825, on 171 
days ; giving an average on 4 years of 185 rainy days, and 180 dry in ayear. 
The quantity of rain that falls is well illustrated in the following table : — 








Total of 
4 years. 

Average of 
1 year. 



















































































It will be observed, from the above, that the greatest fall of rain during 
these four years occui'red in January, 1842, and the least in June, 1843. 
The year 1841 was unusually dry, 73 inches only having fallen, while the suc- 
ceeding was unusually wet, 116 inches having fallen. This was caused by 
the unusual drj^ness of January and October, in the former year ; and the 
unusual wetness of both in the latter. By examining the average for each 
month, the seasons will be found to be very equable, the least average being 
for September and June, which respectively have 4.400 and 5.526 inches, 
and the greatest being, for January and October respectively, 13.656 and 
11.855 innhes. During the other months the rain averages from 6 to 9 in- 
ches. The annual average fall is 92.697 inches, a quantity which is about 2 
inches less than the average fall for the latitude of Singapore, as stated by 
Humboldt, who gives 96 inches as the average fall at the equator. 

With regard to the temperature of the atmosphere, in 1841 to 1845, the 
mean was 81°. 247, the lowest mean of a month being, for January, 72°. 55, 
the temperature increases to May, June, and July, which have 82°. 30, 82°.29, 
and 82°. 24 respectively. It is concluded, from the above, that the tempera- 
ture of Singapore is 2°. 90 less than other localities in similar latitudes, and 
that the range between the mean temperature of May and January extends 
over 2°.76, and adding up the mean temperature of each month of each year, 
we have the mean temperature as follows : — 

Of 1841 1842 1843 1844 and 1845 
As 81.28 81.6 81.09 80.82 and 81.66 
From which this inference is drawn, that in five successive years the mean 
temperature did not vary one degree. 

Deduction made from other tables gave the maximum temperature for five 
years at 87°. 5, and the extreme minimum 7 4°. 7 ; the former occurred in June, 
1842, and the latter in January, 1843, giving the greatest range as 9°. 8. To 
this I may add, that I have seen the thermometer down to 68°.5 in January 
of the present year, at Bonny Grass, the residence of Dr. Little, where the 
thermometer was hung iu a building, well protected from the sun, but open 
on all sides. 

From observations taken by Captain Davis during six years, the mean 
temperat;ire was — 

In 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 and 1825 
As 79.5 79.5 80.2 79.8 81.0 and 81.4 

These observations were taken at 6 a.m. and noon, and the following taken 
at Singapore Observatory, during the same hours, gives — 

In 1841 1842 1843 1844 and 1845 
As 82.0 82.08 81.58 83.7 and 84.©4 

Thus showing that, in 20 years, the temperature of Singapore Town has in- 
creased 2°.48. The cause of this advance of the temperature is assigned to 


the country, within 3 miles of the town, being now clear of jungle, and cul- 
tivated, which formerly was covered with primeval forest. 

Dr. Little concludes his remarks by stating the mean annual solar radia- 
tion to be 12r.50, the mean terrestrial 66°. 10, and the hourly mean reading 
of the barometer 29.884 inches, which never varies more than the twentieth 
of an inch. 

Thunder showers frequently occur, particularly at the breaking up of the 
monsoons. That interesting and wonderful atmospherical phenumenon, 
called a water spout, is often to be seen in the seas and straits adjacent ; 
they would more properly be called whirlwinds charged with vapour. They 
occur generally in the morning, between eight and twelve o'clock, and rise 
to the height of half a mile, in the distance appearing like large columns, 
supporting the heavy masses of Cumuli above them. I noticed, in October, 
1841, six of these attached to one cloud, under action at the same time. In 
August, 1838, one passed over the town and harbour of Singapore, dismast- 
ing one ship, and sinking another, and carrying off the comer of the roof of 
a house in its passage landward. No other atmospherical disturbances of 
any moment occur. The typhoons of the China Sea, or Bay of Bengal, do 
not reach these parts, nor are there hot winds to parch the land. The 
equable and quiet state of the atmosphere and seasons of these regions con- 
sequently create analogous properties in the face of indiginous vegetation. 
Evergreens abound, few trees shed all their leaves at one time, and many of 
fruit trees produce all the year round ; such that have their seasons of 
fruit will frequently produce their crops out of season, having small irregular 
ones at intervening times. This continual verdure is perhaps more grateful 
to the eye of the stranger than to those who have been accustomed to it ; to 
the former it bears the pleasant appearance of exuberance and fecundity, 
where the lofty forest not only hangs over the beach, but clothes the moun- 
tains to their tops, so unlike the sterile bareness of higher latitudes ; while 
to the other, the continued sameness palls the senses, which lack variety and 
call for a sterile winter only that they may renew, with doubly keen concep- 
tion by the contrast, their acquaintance with the beauties of returning 
summer that here always reigns. 

STEAIT of BANKA, &c.— The winds in Banka Strait follow the direction 
of the coasts, though with slight variations from the influence of the land and 
sea breezes ; and fresh breezes may always be expected when working against 
the monsoon. 

During the shifting months of the S.E. monsoon, sailing vessels are often 
five and six weeks in making the passage from Singapore to Banka Strait. 
In the month of September H.M.S. Saracen had the S.E. monsoon strong, 
with much rain ; about the equinox there were several heavy squalls. This 
monsoon is generally supposed to shift about the beginning of October, but 
during the whole of this month the wind was only 4 hours from the north- 


ward, there being a succession of calms, light southerly airs, a close muggy 
atmosphere surcharged with electricity, and frequent heavy Sumatra squalls 
or south-westers. On the 9th of November the monsoon shifted with furious 

These squalls at this season generally take place at night, accompanied 
with heavy rain, thunder, and lightning. They are of short duration, and 
it was noticed that when one occurs about the time of full and change, 
another may be expected an hour later every night till the next change of 
the moon. 

In the Strait of Sunda the winds vary between S.S.E. and E.S.E. from 
April to October, and are then called the eastern monsoon. They are gene- 
rally W.N. W. and N.W. during the western monsoon, which succeeds the 
preceding one. This monsoon comes in November, and brings bad weather. 
There are alternate breezes in this strait ; they blow from the South before 
noon, and from the North in the afternoon, and are separated by an interval 
of calm. 

On the South Coast of Java the wind blows from the N.W., while the N.E. 
monsoon is blowing to the North of the line, from October to April : it ceases 
in March. In April the winds are variable ; and in May are settled in the 
East. The weather is fine, and the winds are strongest from June to 
August. In October the S.E. monsoon becomes weaker; and, till the re- 
turn of the N.W. monsoon, the winds are variable. In May and November 
a great deal ctf rain falls on this coast. In February and the first part of 
the month of March, as well as in October, that is when the monsoon changes, 
the land and sea breezes are alternately regular ; they are weaker in October, 
February, and March. In these two last months, and also in April, the land 
breezes commense with squalls, or at times with a heavy storm. After tins 
has passed, the breezes from the land are moderate till the return of the sea 
breeze. In April and May, on this coast, the sea breeze commences with a 
heavy squall, or a storm, which does not last long. 

JAVA SEA. — The following summary is by Captain Jansen, as quoted 
by M. Krecke: — 

During the month of February the westerly monsoon is still strong and 
steady : in March it is interrupted by calms and squalls, which become less 
frequent and less violent in April. Now the easterly winds burst in suddenly ; 
clouds Collect and darken the sky, while there are incessant thunderstorms 
by day and night, and waterspouts are very common. 

If the wind changes again to West or North, the sky clears again ; but this 
wind does not last, and the clouds soon re-appear. The rain gradually ceases 
during the day time, and the S.E. winds prevail throughout the mouth of 
May. At the time of the reverse change of the East to the West monsoon, 
the calms last for a shorter period, as the wind assumes a decided N.W. 
direction at once, and the showers of rain, accompanied by violent squalls, 


are felt only for a short time. Thunder storms are abundant, but only on 
land, or close to the coast. Toward the end of November the N.W. mon- 
soon is again permanent. 

On the North Coast of Java, from May to July, the winds blow from the 
S.E. with a return of the opposite winds, which vary to the N.E. near the 
West point of the island. During the S.E. monsoon, the winds are S.S.E., 
varying to E.S.E., and it is fine weather. In October the winds are light, 
weak, and variable. The N.W. monsoon generally commences in October, 
but sometimes it occurs in September, or is retarded till November, and ends 
in March. This is the season of the heavy rains. In the month of Decem- 
ber the West winds predominate. Towards the middle of February squalls 
and tempests occur, accompanied by rain. At Batavia, from April to No- 
vember, the weather is tolerably fine ; but, after that, rain ensues till the end 
of the year. 

On the Southern Coast of Borneo, from thePulo-Laut to the Strait of Sunda, 
the S.E. monsoon prevails from May to September, like the West of Java. 
At the same time, in the Indian Ocean, the S.W. monsoon is found to the 
North of the line. From September to April the West winds blow on this 
coast, the rams are constant, and the weather often very bad. During the 
S.E. monsoon the weather, though still humid, is less rainy than during the 
N.W. monsoon. 

Observations carried on for a series of years (1850 — 1856) at Palemhang, 
on the N.W. coast of the south-eastern part of Sumatra, have led to the 
foUowing results: — From November to March the prevalent winds are 
westerly and north-westerly. This is the regular rainy season during the 
West monsoon. April is the month of the change of the monsoons, when 
thunderstorms are most frequent. From May till September, easterly and 
south-easterly winds (of the East monsoon) are permanent, and the change 
comes in September or October. 

From this it appears that the wind shifts pretty regularly round the com- 
pass, for its mean direction for each month in rotation, counting from South 
to West, is — 

Jan. Feb. March. April. Slay. June. 

S. 7° W. I S. 20° W. I S. 30° W. | W. 2a° N. | W. 79^ N. | W. ^b" N. 

July. Augn.'st. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 

K. 6° E. I N. 21° E. I N. lt>° E. ] N. 2o° E. | E. 30° S. | S. 4° W. 

At Banjermassing, on the South coast of Borneo, the S.W. monsoon prevails 
from December to March ; the S.E. monsoon from April to October. The 
change seems to be of short duration. Rain is most abundant from July to 
October, while thunderstorms are more frequent in the months of November, 
December, and May, at times consequently later than the changes of the 
monsoons. There is, ho wever, in this respect, a considerable variation be- 


tween individual years. In 1851, eighteen thunderstorms were observed, 
while eighty-three took place in 1857. 

A close examination of the direction of the wind leads to the following 
results : — The predominant direction of the wind in December is S.W. and 
W.S.W., and it becomes more westerly in January and February. In 
March the direction during the day is less constant. In April the S.E. wind 
becomes prevalent, and increases in steadiness up to August and September. 
In October it gets round to the southward. In November this is the case, 
in the morning hours, in a still higher degree ; in fact, in the afternoon the 
wind goes somewhat past the South towards the West. At last, in Decem- 
ber, the S.W. monsoon is definitely established. — {Kreclce.) 

GTJLF of SIAM. — The following account of the winds and weather is by 
Lieutenant John Eichards, E..N., who surveyed the guK in H.M.S. Saracen, 
in 1855-8. The N.E. monsoon in the Gulf of Siam sets in early in Novem- 
ber. It is usually preceded by a month of squally, variable, and uncertain 

In the months of November, December, and January, the wind blows be- 
tween N.N.E. and East ; generally strong breezes, with the temperature 
occasionally as low as 65°. Along the eastern shore of the gulf at this time 
the sky is frequently unclouded for a week together, but on the opposite 
coast the weather is wet and stormy. 

In November and December, strong squalls, with heavy thunder and light- 
ning, are occasionally met with near Pulo Panjang. 

Towards the end of January the wind blows more from the eastward, is 
steadier, and abates in strength. 

In February the wind is more constant from E.S.E. than from any other 
point; it veers between S.E. and N.E., with occasional calms and squalls. 
Fine weather and smooth water now prevail all over the gulf. 

In March the monsoon cannot be depended on. In the middle of the 
gulf calms prevail ; with southerly winds near the shore, and occasional land 
and sea breezes. Towards the end of the month the weather becomes hot 
and sultry. 

April is the hottest month of the year ; calms may be expected near the 
middle of the gulf ; land and sea breezes near the shore, and occasional 
slight squalls. From the 2nd of April until the 15th of May, 1856, the 
Saracen remained at anchor off the Bangkok Bar, during which interval the 
river was siirveyed, and the four-mile boundary line round the town of 
Bangkok defined. Towards the middle of April the weather changed, and 
became gloomy and threatening ; at the latter end of the month there were 
several days continuous and heavy rain, after which the weather became 
snowery, and continued so during the remainder of the above period. On 
the 15th the Saracen sailed for Singapore, and in the upper part of the 
gulf had calms and light winds from the eastward, drawing round to the 

CAMBODIA. •■ 17 

sontliward as the Itedang- Islands were neared. A southerly current was 
experienced the whole way down to Pulo Aor. 

S. TV, Monxoon. — In May clouds begin to bank up, and an occasional shower 
relieves the intensity of a vertical sun. The S.W. monsoon sets in about 
the middle of the month, sometimes preceded by light flaws of wind and fine 
weather, but usually with squally weather, and occasional heavy falls of rain. 
In June, July, and August the S.W. monsoon blows strong, with occasional 
showers, but generally very fine weather along the western shore of the 
Gulf; oxit in the middle a rough sea, and along the eastern shore strong 
breezes with much rain, and occasionally a fresh gale. 

In September the wind is very unsteady, veering between S.W. and 
W.N.W. in strong gusts. Heavy and continuous rain may be expected in 
this month. 

In October the wind veers between West and North, and abates consi- 
derably in strength ; the rain squalls are less frequent. Towards the end of 
the month the wind settles in the North, and the cold weather and fine sea- 
son set in. Vessels bound to the Gulf from Hong Kong will not profit much 
by leaving China earlier than the middle of this month. 

At the bar of Bangkok Eiver land and sea breezes generally prevail, 
veering by the East or West according to the monsoon. 

The S.W. monsoon is scarcely felt close in shore, between Cape Patani 
and the Eedang Islands, its course being inten-upted by the high land in 
that neighbourhood. To the southward of Pulo Kapas it takes the direction 
of the coast, veering a few points on or off shore by day or night, under the 
influence, alternately, of the sea and land breezes. 

White squalls are said to prevail in the Gulf, particularly in the month 
of May. 

Black squalls are frequent in the S.W. monsooh ; they rise in the west- 
ward, accompanied by a heavy bank of clouds, and blow with great violence 
for a short time, and are frequently accompanied by heavy rain. 

Heavy gales are unknown in the Gulf. 

Cambodia. — On the coast of Cambodia, in June, July, and August, there 
are heavy rains, accompanied by S.W. winds. The monsoons are not regular 
on this coast, and land and sea breezes are met with when the prevailing 
monsoon is weak. The breezes do not last more than five or six hours 
during the S.W. monsoon, and are not so Iresh as those which prevail at 
the end of the N.E. monsoon. In Pulo Timoan and Pulo Condore the N.E. 
monsoon is established towards the 15th of October with fine weather. The 
S.W. monsoon brings rain, and lasts during eight months. Near these 
islands, in November, there are alternately calms, storms, accompanied by 
rain, and typhoons. At Pulo Condore the rains last for a month after the 
N.E. monsoon is established, and at Pulo Timoan the wind becomes un- 
settled in September, and the change of monsoon brings bad weather. In 

I. A. i> 


November the weather is fine. On the coast which extends between the 
Gulf of Siam and Cape Padaran the S.W. monsoon blows along the shore. 
Sometimes, near the land, during the night, a light land breeze is found 
succeeded by an interval of calm, which is followed by the wind <if the mon- 
soim, wliich blows fresh during the rest of the day. On the same coast the 
N.E. monsoon is established from the end of September or beginning of 
October to the middle of April. 

Cochin China. — On the coast of Cochin China wintry weather is found 
with cold northerly winds and rain, which prevail from December to Febru- 
ary. Heavy rains occur in the months of September, October, and Novem- 
ber. During the N.E. monsoon easterly winds are frequent. Between the 
Paracels and the coast the same wind is found as far as Cape Varela ; and 
in this channel calms are frequent, while on the offing from this bank the 
monsoon blows fresh and regularly. During the S.W. monsoon, on this 
coabt, the land and sea breezes are tolerably regular, the sea breeze being 
replaced by a land breeze every evening, which blows every night, followed 
by a calm light wind, although not always commencing at the same time. 
This wind generally lasts till noon, when the S.E. wind again sets in. On 
the coast of Cochin China the winds are variable during the whole year, and 
the monsoons generally light. The leeward coast is not dangerous with the 
N.E. monsoon. 

The EASTERN PASSAGES.— The foregoing reuarks refer to the great 
highways which lead directly into the China Sea from the Indian Ocean, 
and are taken by most ships during the favourable monsoon. 

The following will describe the winds and weather of that part of the 
Indian Archipelago to the eastward of Java, among the islands and channels 
which are sometimes called the eastern passages, those used during the ad- 
verse monsoon. Some of these remarks are extracted from the late Captain 
de Kerhallet's work on the meteorology, &c., of this region. 

Around the islands East of the Strait of Sunda, as far as Timor, the mon- 
soons are the same as have been described before ; that from the East com- 
mences in May, and tlie winds vary from East to S.S.E. These winds are 
strongest in June and July. This monsoon is finer than that from the West, 
which brings bad weather during November and December. The rains 
commence in this month, accompanied by squalls and winds. The western 
monsoon commences in November, and attains its greatest force in January. 
The rains tall from December to the middle of February, accompanied by 
storms and tempests. Then the monsoon gradually weakens till March ; in 
April the winds are variable, and the weather is fine. 

Among the Archipelago and the intervening seas to the South and East of 
Borneo there are usually two monsoons, generally called the North or West 
monsoon, and the South or easterly monsoon, some saying that the wind 
hangs more to North than to West in the former and mi>re South than East 


in the latter. The first corresponds with the N.E. monsoon North of the 
equator, and the second with the S.W. monsoon. But from the configuration 
of the islands, the direction of their mountain chains, and the efi'ect these 
have in causing the rain clouds to deposit their moisture, these alternating 
monsoons are much less regular than they are in the open ocean, far from 
these disturbing causes. In general, it may be remarked that to the South 
of the equator, as far as the parallels of 10° or 12° S., the direction of the 
wind differs ten or twelve points from that prevailing to the North of the 
equator at the same period ; that is, to the North of the equator if the wind 
or monsoon is from Narth, that to the South of the line will be N.N.W. ; 
and if the southerly monsoon is blowing North of the equator, in the Eastern 
Passages, it will be from E.S.E. or East, 

In the Strait of Bali the wind often blows from the North with much 
violence, and in that of Sapy there are alternate breezes from land and sea. 
They blow from the South in the morning, and from the North about two 
hours after noon. There is often an interval of calm between them. In the 
other straits, to the East of Java, the winds are of a singular nature, and 
also very variable. 

In the Java Sea, as in the neighbourhood of the Moluccas, the N.W. 
monsoon commences in the first part of November, but does not attain its 
greatest force till near the end of December. It lasts till the end of March, 
when the intervals of calm commence, with variable winds, squalls, and 
rain. The S.E. monsoon commences in April, and gets gradually stronger 
till May ; it ends in October, during which month the winds are variable. 
This is the law generally observed in these two seas, except that it must be 
remembered that there are variations in the direction ; it draws sometimes 
to the North and West, and sometimes to the South and East. Besides this, 
the changes of the monsoons do not take place at settled times ; that of the 
S.E. is subject to calms, and the wind is less stormy, while it lasts, than 
during that of the N.W. monsoon. 

Arafura Sea.— In the sea lying between New Guinea and Timor, the 
easterly monsoon commences in April, and continues until the beginning of 
October, when, after a few weeks of variable winds, the westerly monsoon 
sets in, and continues without intermission until the beginning of March. 
In the southern part of the Indian Archipelago generally, the easterly mon- 
soon is attended with fine weather, but on the S.W. coast of New Guinea, 
and among the islands to the westward, as far as the East coast of Celebes, 
frequently squalls, with heavy rain, are experienced at this season, often ac- 
companied with considerable swell from the southward, while, during the 
remainder of the year, the weather is fine. This rule, however, does not 
extend farther to the westward, for from Celebes to the western extremity of 
the Archipelago, and also on the North coast of Australia, the westerly is 
the rainy monsoon. The monsoons, when at their height, usually blow in 


an E.S.E. and W.N.W. direction ; but towards the change they draw round 
more to the southward, sometimes continuing several days at S.W. 

The easterly monsoon brings rain, on the eastern part of the Archipelago, 
as far as Celebes ; beyond this, to the westward, the westerly monsoon is the 
rainy season. The effect of this on the vegetation of the different islands 
has been. before alluded to. It would seem to be only accounted for by the 
fact that the monsoons are deprived of their rain-cloud soon after encounter- 
ing the land. The easterly monsoon, blowing over the Pacific, breaks over 
New Guinea, the Moluccas, and the eastern side of Celebes, the high moun- 
tains of the first-named keeping the rainfall off the North coast of Australia 
and Timor. The southern part of the latter and northern Australia are open 
to the westerly rain-bearing winds of the Indian Ocean. 

On the West Coast of New Guinea two monsoons occur, one from the S.E., 
which lasts from April to October ; and the other from the N.W., which 
commences at the end of October, and terminates towards the end of April. 
In January the wind near this island varies from N.N.W. to N.E. ; in the 
spring the weather often changes ; and in March, April, and May, the 
weather is squally. From June to September a great quantity of rain falls ; 
and from October to May the weather is fine and calm, without clouds 
or fogs. 

To the North of Bourou and Ceram the S.E. monsoon varies between 
S.S.E. and S.S.W., and at the Isle of Amboyna from East to S.E. In the 
same isles the N."W. monsoon varies from W.S.W. to N.W. This last, 
which is often called the westerly monsoon, is during the stormy season in 
these isles, and ends in April. The S.E. monsoon commences in March, and 
lasts till November, and is the rainy season. During this monsoon violent 
storms occur in the Moluccas, and rain falls abundantly over the largest 
islands of the Archipelago. This monsoon ceases in November. The North 
and N."W. monsoon does not set in till some time after; for, during two 
months, the winds are alway variable in these seas towards the end of the 
monsoons. From October to April the weather is moderately fine. 

In the Moluccas, which occupy a space between 5° North of the equator, 
and 1° South latitude, the winds are much less regular, because there is a 
great difference between the monsoons which exist in the two hemispheres 
at the same time. 

In that part of the Arafura Sea between New Gruinea and Australia, 
during the month of January and the commencement of the western mon- 
soon, the winds are generally from the N.E. to North, occasionally drawing 
to the westward. Near the N.E. coast of Australia, as far as the parallel of 
14" S., winds which vary from N.E. to W.N.W. prevail, and more to the 
South they come from East and E.S.E. 

Between these two monsoons there are frequent calms of long duration, 
and tlie time of the change from the S.E. to the N.W. monsoon is the period 

TIMOE. 21 

■when these long calms mostly prevail. When the monsoon is about to be 
established, westerly winds blow for five or six days ; then they cease, and 
are sometimes succeeded by light variable winds for a month. Then, at the 
following syzygy, the monsoon becomes established, accompanied by gloomy 
rainy weather, and sometimes squalls, for two or three days. The weather 
then clears, and there is a moderate breeze for some time, producing clearer 
and finer -weather than is felt during the S.E. monsoon. Two or three days 
•wet weather is to be expected at the time of the syzygies, although sometimes 
for five or six weeks continual fine weather may have prevailed. Near the 
land the weather is always more stormy and rainy than it is farther out at 
sea, although at the limit of the monsoon in the parallel of 15^ S. latitude 
the weather is generally wet and stormy. The mean direction of the wind 
is nearly W.N.W., varying to N.W. and S.W. at the time of the syzygies ; 
during these periods it is often "W.S.W. 

In the Timor Sea, and that part of the sea situated between the Arru 
Isles and the North coast of Australia, as well as in the vicinity of Torres 
Strait, the S.E. monsoon blows with much regularity. Towards the middle 
of it, from May to August, it varies from E.S.E. to S.E., and is then very 
strong. The Malays call this the white season. In the beginning and near 
the end of this monsoon the wind is due East, sometimes veering to E.N.E. 
During this munsoon the breeze is generally fresh and steady when the 
moon quarters, and we find calms and unsettled wea';her at the time of the 
syzygies. This fact has also been remarked in the trade wind of the eastern 
coast of Australia. In Torres Strait easterly winds prevail. The westerly 
monsoon does not blow steadil}', but is often modified by the East wind, 
which is then light and variable, lasting several days, till it strengthens to 
a fresh breeze. 

On the North-west Coast of Timor, in September and March, the N.W. 
monsoon, varying to N.N.W., is in force. In April or May it is followed by 
that from S.E., varying to S.S.E., which ends in October. The N.W. mon- 
soon, as before stated, is the bad weather season, and the winds in December 
are very violent. This monsoon is only well established at the end of 
November or December, and heavy winds, accompanied by rain, blowing 
between West and North, continue till February. At the end of April, or 
beginning of May, the wind returns to East, varying to South ; they are 
very strong on the North coast of the island, where it is then the fine season. 
The strongest winds vary West by South and N.N.E. On the opposite coast 
of this island there is a great diflference between the winds. The S.E. mon- 
soon is very feeble on the South coast, and strong on the North. On the 
South coast there are storms during the part of October ; while on the 
North these are only felt in December. During the fine season the land and 
sea breezes are strong on both coasts. On the South the land breeze varies 
from N.E. to North, the sea breeze from S.S.E. to S.S.W. 


The Island of Celebes, like that of Borneo, is divided into two parts by the 
equator, and the same remarks given previous! j' for the monsoons at Bnrneo, 
are appliacable here. On the South coast the S.E. monsoon is established 
from May to October, and the S.W. monsoon prevails on that part of the 
island which is North of the equator at the same time. The S.E. monsoon, 
which lasts from May to October, on the coast of Celebes, situated South of 
the equator, brings the driest season. The N.W. monsoon replaces the S.E. 
towards October, and continues till April, when rain is almost perpetual, and 
the wind strong. During the two months when the sun is vertical over ihe 
island, and near to the syzygies, there are invariably northerly winds aTid 
rain. On that part of the island situated North of tlie equator, the N.E. 
monsoon in October replaces the S.W., making the fine season. In the 
North part of the Strait of Macassar, from May to October, a S.E. monsoon 
is found on the East coast of Borneo ; also between Celebes and Grilolo, it is 
succeeded by the N.W. monsoon, continuing from November to April. In 
the South part of the Strait the wind is N.E. in April, May, and June ; but 
there is less in August and September. During October, November, Decem- 
ber, and following months, fresh breezes prevail from W.S.W. to W.N.W. 
in these latitudes. Near the West coast of Celebes, from May to October, 
we find land and sea breezes, while on the opposite coast of Borneo the wind 
is steady from the South. From November to April, on the western const 
of Celebes, the wind varies from W.S.W. to W.N.W. ; in April, May, and 
June, it is from N.E., but is light during the month of August. It has 
been remarked that when the S.W. wind prevails on the Celebes coast,, 
about 6 leagues off the coast it becomes W.N.W. and N.W. on the coast of 
Borneo. During the S.E. monsoon, from May to October, a vessel cannot 
oontend against it on the low coast of Borneo ; and on this coast, in this 
season, light land breezes are found, while on the corresponding coast of 
Celebes, which is elevated, a fresh land wind blows during the night, followed 
during the day by a sea breeze. In December we generally find alternate 
winds near Celebes. In August and September the winds are light ; but 
sometimes off this coast storms from the S.W. occur, and long calms. 

In the Celebes Sea and Sooloo Archipelago easterly' winds prevail in October, 
but are not regularly established till November. In May they are replaced 
by westerly winds, and in a month become established to terminate in Oc- 
tober ; the climate is then made up of rain, squalls, and tempests, which 
take place generally in July and August. In September a heavy mist hanga 
about the coast of Mmdanao. At the commencement of the westerly mon- 
soon the winds are light for some time, with heavy rain, during which the 
wind blows in an opposite direction, sometimes lasting from tlie eastward 
more than a week. Occasionally heavy storms happen until the westerly 
wind becomes established. During this monsoon the weather is cloudy, 
rainy, and sometime;* stormy ; and in this reason we find between Mindanao 


and Celebes that heavy storms take place from N.W. ; the westerly winds 
sometimes last till November. 

In the Sooloo Sen the East and N.E. monsoon is not a steady fresh breeze, 
but often varies. In the neighbourhood of Mindanao the northerly winds 
never blow fresh,- but are often displaced for several days by light changeable 
winds, which again occurs at the end of January, and it is considered that 
the same winds prevail from the Sooloo Archipelago to Manila. 

The Island of Borneo forms the N.W. and western boundary of the China 
Sea, and is intersected by the equator, and the result is as in Sumatra, that 
the monsoons of the N.W. coast do not take place at the same time as those 
on the West coast. The S.W. monsoon prevailing on the N.W. coast from 
May to October, at the same time as the S.E monsoon is on the West coast, 
and the N.E. monsoon blows on the N.W. coast, while the N.W. monsoon 
prevails on the AVest coast. On the northern part of Borneo the S.W. mon- 
Boon is not established till between the 15th and 30th of May, when there is 
continual rain. The weather is not so bad in September, and the dry season 
sets in with the N.E. winds, varying to the East. However, this can hardly 
be called the dry season ; for, in consequence of its position under the 
equator, the island is incessantly inundated with rain. On the West coast 
the S.E. monsoon prevails towards the end of May, and fine weather then 
sets in. From September to April the West or N.W. monsoun occurs, with 
continual rain and heavy gales. 

The weather at Lahuan, on the N.W. coast of Borneo, is generally very 
fine ; the land and sea breezes are seldom interrupted. A large quantity of 
rain falls annually, but this generally comes off the coast ot Borneo in 
squalls, which most frequently oc( ur between 8 p.m. and midnight, and blow 
heavily, especially in June and July. In tiie S.W. monsoon the land breeze, 
which usually commences with these squalls, lasts until 7 or 8 a.m., and is a 
steady, fresh breeze, whilst in the N.E. monsoon it is light and variable, 
and, if blowing hard in the China Sea, it is not felt at Labuan. 

The sea breeze in the S.W. monsoon usually commences at noon, and 
lasts until 4 or 5 p.m., seldom exceeding a royal breeze ; but in the N.E. 
monsoon it commences earlier, and lasts until 7 or 8 p.m., hanging well to 
the northward, and blowing fresh. January, February, and March, are the 
dry months ; only 2.2 inches of rain fell in those months in 1865. 

Ihe monsoims on the coast of Palawan are so subject to interruption, being 
influenced by local circumstances and other causes, that it is dilfic.ult to say 
at what period either fairly sets in. The barometer is of little use in prog- 
nosticating the changes ; the difierence in the column of mercurj' for the 
whole year, seldom exceeding two-tenths of an inch. In general the mercury 
rises to N.E. and easterly winds, and falls to S.W. and westerly. 

In January to April moderate N.E. and easterly winds prevail on the 
coast of Palawan, and on the coast of Luzon land and sea breezes have been 


experienced with considerable regularity. May, and the early part of June, 
appear to be the finest period of the year on the coast of Palawan, when, 
land and sea breezes prevail with tolerable regnlarity, the former coming 
fresh from the South and S.E. in the morning, and the latter from the North 
and N.W. in the afternoon. 

Towards the end of June, and throughout July, unsettled weather, gene- 
rally commencing about the change of moon, may be expected. A slight 
depression of the mercury, after a succession of fine weather, frequently in- 
dicates the approach of strong W.S.W. squalls, which are usually accompa- 
nied by dark cloudy weather and much rain, lasting for a week or ten days. 
These are generally succeeded by a period of fine weather, with N.W. and 
S.W. winds, which draw to the southward and eastward in the mornings. 
If June or July have been unsettled, it may be expected that August gene- 
rally will be fine, with moderate S.W., but more frequently westerly winds, 
particularly in the afternoon. If, on the contrary, June or July has been 
tolerably fine, very unsettled weather may be expected in August. 

In September and October the wind generally blows strong from the 
W.S.W., with dark, cloudy weather ; and oG the S.AV. end of Palawan 
squalls, which veer to W.N.W. and N.W., sometimes blowing with great 
violence, succeed each other rapidly, and are accompanied by rain. Between 
the squalls the wind very often shifts to S.E. In November and December 
the weather is variable ; N.E. and easterly winds, changing at times to S.E., 
more frequently prevail. 

Among the Philippine Islands the two regular monsoons prevail, which are 
met with in the China Sea. These monsoons sometimes extend as far South 
as the Mariana Islands in the Pacific Ocean, and as far North as the 
coast of Japan. The Philippine Islands, lying North and South, their high 
lands naturally intercept the course of the wind ; and the result is that at 
forty or fifty leagues from them much bad weather is encountered, which 
becomes much worse as the islands are approached. The N.E. monsoon 
commences about October, with fine weather, lasting till April, with winds 
varying from North to N.E. If it should occasionally veer to N.W. it 
blows hard. The S.W. monsoon is not observed here till between the com- 
mencement and end of May, and does not become regular till June. During 
this monsoon the \^eather is gloomy, cloudy, and very wet. About this 
period severe storms sometimes occur, called " collas tempestados," which 
are generally accompanied by thunder and rain, the wind changing about 
and blowing from all points of the compass with the same force. These 
collas and bad weather take place at the end of July, or middle of August, 
and sometimes in October. They are not unlike the typhoons. In September 
the wind loses strength, the rain is less, and the sky is fine ; but in the 
morning there is a thick fog, which lasts till noon. At the change of the 
monsoons bad weather is sometimes felt, as in the China Sea. During 


February and March, about the end of the N.E. monsoon, on the coast of 
Lu9on, the wind varies, often with a tendency to follow the course of the 
alternate land and sea or solar breezes. The alternate winds are well esta- 
blished in April ; and from June to October, the period of the S.W. mon- 
soon, the wind brings rain, which blows on the coast at right angles. 


It will be manifest that if it be difficult to define exactly the direction and 
seasons of the monsoons which blow over the Indian Archipelago, it will be 
still more difficult to describe the currents. Ocean currents are induced, in a 
great degree, by the prevalent direction of the wind, which having free scope 
over both land and sea, has a much more persistent character than that of 
the surface water, driven through tortuous channels, often lying transverse 
to the normal direction of the wind. 

Again there are anomalies arising from the tidal streams, the flood tide 
from the Pacific, and that from the Indian Ocean, both being directed to the 
same quarters, produces many apparent complications. 

As a general rule, the true current sets to leeward, impelled by the trade 
wind or monsoon prevailing at the period, and when the waters have to 
pass through the narrow straits between the islands it often rushes past with 
great velocity. 

But then this true current is frequently overcome or accelerated by the 
tida,l streams reaching it in opposite directions ; and, therefore, each strait 
requires special exemplification, and this will generally be found in the de- 
scription of the coasts which follow these preliminary chapters. 

One general remark may be made. A large portion of the archipelago 
lies between the two great tropical drifts to westward ; in other parts of 
the world, as on the Guinea Coast, and in the Gulf of Panama, a counter 
current is found near the equator running to eastward, between these westward 
drifts. It cannot be said that such a counter current is found in the Indian 
Archipelago ; but the same causes, difficult to define, which produce this 
equatorial counter current, will help to make the movements of the waters 
here more complicated and difficult of comprehension. North and South of 
this central belt on the eastern coasts of Asia and Australia, the equatorial 
streams recurve and form streams analagous to the Gulf Stream in the At- 
lantic ; and this is especially the case in the stream flowing through the 
Formosa Channel past the Japan Islands. This was first defined by the 
Editor in his Pacific Directory fts the Japanese Current. 


The temperature of the ocean in the Archipelago is high, as might be ex- 
pected ; and, from its peculiar condition, it may be looked on as the head 
waters of that great circulatory system, which reaches every portion of the 
ocean in its course, and gives one universal character to the waters of the 
ocean. Sea water, as is well known, possesses the same characteristics in 
every known part of the world, and from the surface to its bed. This 
can only have arisen from the entire circulation and intermingling of the 
whole mass of the waters of the ocean, which has passed over every portion 
of its bed. A few brief remarks on each locality will suffice to give a more 
particular notion of the movement of the waters in its vicinity. 

Malacca and Singapore Steaits. — The great island of Sumatra, from its 
lying directly across the line of direction of the two monsoons, causes the 
currents which enter, or run out of the China Sea by the Malacca Strait, to 
be much modified by tidal influences. As a broad rule, it may be stated 
that the waters flow to West and N.W. during the N.E. monsoon, between 
November and March, and set in the opposite direction with a lesser velo- 
city during the S.W. monsoon, which blows the water into the Bay of 
Bengal. In September, while the S.W. monsoon still lasts, a strong current 
sets eastward around the South part of Ceylon, and thence directly for 
Acheen Head in Sumatra, where it is divided, a portion running down the 
West Coast of Sumatra to S.W., and the other as a weak current down the 
Strait of Malacca. In October this drift is weak and uncertain, but in No- 
vember, when the N.E. monsoon is in full force, the current to N.W. and 
along the North Coast of Sumatra runs at the mean rate of a mile an hour. 
From December to February this current still moves to leeward, and in 
March and April is sometimes very strong. When the S.W. monsoon seta 
in, iu May or June, the reverse current commences, and in July and August 
attains considerable strength, and thus continues, with some fluctuations, 
until September or October. 

But all these movements of the waters are much mixed up with the tidal 
streams. The flood tide enters the Strait of Malacca from the N.W., and 
is met somewhere in the Strait of Singapore by the flood stream coming from 
the China Sea. 

In the Strait of Singapore the true current streams become still more 
marked by the tides. During the construction of the Horsburg Lighthouse 
at its eastern entrance, and therefore open to the influences directly coming 
from the China Sea, Mr. Thompson made the following observations: — The 
tidal currents set through the Middle Channel, that is, to the North of Pedra, 
Branca, in a N.E. and S.W. directioa, through the South Channel, between 


Pedra Branca and the Bintang shore, in an E.N.E. and W.S.W. direction, 
and through the North Channel between Romania shoal and islands, in a 
N.N.E. and S.S.W. direction. The currents are much affected by the pre- 
vailing winds ; they set strongly into the straits during the continuance of 
the N.E. monsoon, and in a contrary direction during the S.W. monsoon. 
This is particularly the case during neap tides. It is high water at full and 
change at Pedra Branca at 10'' 35™ a.m. The flood runs into the Straits and 
the ebb outwards, but the current does not generally turn till half ebb or 
half flood, that is, if low water be at 6 a.m. the current will run ebb till 
9 a.m., although the water be rising on the rock. At 12*" noon it would bo 
high water, after which the tide would fall, but notwithstanding this the 
current would run flood till 3'' p.m. before turning ; but there are frequent 
exceptions to this rule, for I observed during the months of May, June, and 
July, when the morning ebb tides fall strong out till three hours after the 
tide began to rise on the rocks, and then continued slack water all day ; 
while in the months of October and November, when the evening ebb falls 
much lower than the morning one, the tidal current would set strong out all 
night and continue slack inwards during the next day. At full moon, in 
August, 1851, I found the perpendicular rise and fall of tide was only 2 ft. 
9 in., but three days afterwards it was 6 ft. 7 in., which was the greatest 
during three springs. In July the greatest rise was 7 ft. 9 in. The neap 
tides only rise and fall 1 ft. 7 in. 

Again he says:— The current at times is not less than 4 miles an hour, 
and probably nearer 5, though this is unusual, and 2 to 4 knots may be 
taken as the usual strength, though much variation was observed during 
different months. Strong ebbs prevailed during the mornings of May, June, 
and July, and on the evenings of October and November strong ebbs also 
prevail. During the S.W. monsoon the floods do not run so strong as the 

Strait of Sunda. — The currents in this Strait are more of the nature of 
tides, although very much affected by the winds. During the S.E. monsoon 
the ebb tide on the South side of the Strait frequently sets to westward at 
from 1 to 2 knots, and lasting for fourteen hours, succeeded by a slack water 
or weak flood for six hours. In the middle of the Strait the velocity is 
greater, from 2 to 3^ miles per hour. "When the winds are light, the flood 
to N.E. and the ebb to S.W. succeed each other regularly, and their rate is 
about equal, but at spring tides and in the middle of the Strait they attain 
a rate of 3 or 3i miles an hour. In the opposite season of the westerly mon- 
soon the ebb and flood are generally regular, but during strong gales the 
flood lasts longest. In February and March a strong set to the W.S.W. is 
sometimes met with on the North side, reaching a velocity at times of 4 to 
4 J miles an hour. In the description of the Strait in a subsequent page, 
this topic will be again alluded to. 


In Banka Strait and the adjacent passages there is much complication in 
the movements of the waters, arising from two causes, the one is the meeting 
of the flood tides from the China Sea and from the Indian Ocean, and the 
other is from the peculiarity of the monsoons, which, as explained in our 
Indian Ocean Directory (pages 29 — 36), are here an intermediate belt be- 
tween the northerly and southerly monsoons on either side of the equator. 
Occurring during the southern summer months, November to March, and 
coming from the N.W. is called the middle or cross monsoon. During its 
greatest strength, January to March, the current or ebb tide sets to south- 
ward for fourteen to eighteen hours at a time, with a rate of 2 to 3^ knots, 
and the flood from South is then scarcely perceptible. The reverse occurs 
during the S.E. monsoon, the flood stream setting with great velocity to the 
northward, while sometimes the ebb runs out weakly for eight or ten hours. 
To the northward the N W. monsoon has more eflFect than the S.E. mon- 
soon, and the reverse is the case in the opposite season. Between the mon- 
soons the tidal streams are regular, but when the monsoons are blowing 
strongly, a constant surface drift is found setting to leeward on the Sumatra 

Gulf or Siam. — The following is by Lieutenant Richards, who surveyed 
the Gulf :— 

The currents in the Gulf of Siam, near the middle, are generally weak and 
variable, but near the land, in the strength of the monsoons, strong sets may 
be expected. In the S.W. monsoon a strong northerly current was found, 
from Lem Chong P'ra to Sam-roi-yot Point. In the N.E. monsoon there is 
frequently a strong set across the head of the Gulf to the westward. 

In the neighbourhood of the Redang Islands and Pulo Obi, the strong 
currents prevalent in the China Sea may be expected. The China Sea cur- 
rent does not appear to enter the Gulf further than a few miles, but is said 
to set across its mouth in both monsoons. 

The flood tide from the China Sea appears to meet the western shore of the 
Gulf, and divides somewhere near Cape Patani ; for at the Redang Islands 
the flood sets to the southward, and at Singora and Koh Krah it was found 
setting to the northward. 

CHINA SEA in the South-west Monsoon. — The currents in the China 
Sea are very changeable, their direction and velocity depending much upon 
local circumstances. Late in April, or early in May, they generally begin 
to set to the northward, in the southern and middle parts of the sea, and 
continue to run in a north-easterly direction until September, while the 
S.W. monsoon is strong; but they are not constant in this monsoon, for at 
times, when the wind is moderate or light, they are liable to change and set 
in various directions. After the strength of the monsoon has abated, there 
is often little or no current in the open sea, running to the north-eastward ; 
but sometimes its direction is to the southward. 


Along the coast of Cochin China, from Pulo Obi to Cape Pandaran, the 
current sets mostly to the E.N.E., parallel to the shore, from April to the 
middle of October; and during the same period its direction is generally to 
the northward along the East coast of the Malay peninsula, from the entrance 
of Singapore Strait to the Gulf of Siam. To the northward of Cape Padaran 
there is but little current in the S.W. monsoon, near the Cochin China coast ; 
for, from thence to the Gulf of Tong King, a small drain is sometimes found 
setting northward, at other times southward. When a gale happens to blow 
out of the latter gulf from the N. W. and westward, the current at the same 
time sets generally to the S.W. or southward, in the vicinity of the Paracel 
islands and reefs, or where these gales are experienced ; and this current 
running obliquely, or contrary to the wind, a turbulent and high sea is 
thereby produced. 

On the Southern Coast of China the current is much governed by the wind ; 
when strong S.W. winds prevail, it runs along shore to the eastward, but 
seldom strong. Near and amongst the islands, westward of Macao, there is 
generally a westerly current, occasioned by the freshes from Canton River, 
which set in that direction ; frequently sweeping along the islands from 
Macao to St. John between W.S.W. and W.N.W., about 1 or 2 knots per 
hour. This westerly current is, however, not always constant in the S.W. 
monsoon, for it slacks at times ; then a weak tide may sometimes be expe- 
rienced running eastward. 

On the coasts of Luzon and Palawan, the current generally sets northward 
in the SW. monsoon, but frequently there is no current, and near these 
coasts it seldom runs strong. Near the Bashi Islands it sometimes sets 
eastward when strong westerly winds prevail ; but generally strong to the 
northward, or between N.N.W. and N.E. 

In the North-east Monsoon. — The current in the China Sea during the 
N.E. monsoon generally runs south-westward, with a velocity depending on 
the strength of the wind. When the force of the monsoon is abated, or 
during moderate and light breezes, there is often little or no current. 

In the western parts of the sea, along the coasts of Cochin China and the 
Malay Peninsula, the current generally begins to run to the southward about 
the middle of October (sometimes sooner on the former coast), and continues 
until April. During the month of March its direction is constantly to the 
southward about Pulo Aor, with light easterly winds and calms at times. 
On the coast of Cochin China, and adjacent to Hainan Island, a current 
varying from South to S.W., commences sometimes about the middle of 
September; near the land, from lat. 15° N. to 11° or 11^° N., it increases in 
strength ; but its rate decreases in proportion as it flows southward. During 
the prevalence of the N.E. monsoon, from about lat. 14° N. to Cape Padaran, 
the current near the coast frequently runs 40 or 50, and sometimes 60 miles 
to the southward in 24 hours ; the rate, however, is variable, and it is only 


in the limits above mentioned that it is occasionally so strongs, for its strength 
abates at Cape Padaran, and runs with less velocity to the S.W., towards 
the entrance of the Gulf of Siam. 

On the Southern Coast of China the current, during the N.E. monsoon, 
runs almost constantly to the W.S.W., nearly parallel to the land ; and 
sometimes with inconceivable rapidity, when a typhoon or a storm happens. 
At the distance of 70 or 80 miles from the coast, it seldom runs so strong 
as near it ; and in 30 or 40 fathoms soundings there is much less current 
than in shoal water, near the shore and amongst the islands. The westerly 
current sometimes slacks, and, contiguous to the land, is succeeded by a 
kind of tide. 

Between Formosa and the China coast the current runs to the southward 
during the N.E. monsoon. When strong N.E. winds prevail, its direction 
is generally to the S.W. or southward, between the South end of Formosa 
and the North end of Luzon ; but here, in light variable winds, it often 
sets to the northward. On the West coast of Luzon the current is change- 
able, sometimes setting southward along the coast, at other times northward. 
On the coast of Palawan it is also mutable, governed by the prevailing 
•winds, but seldom runs strong in any direction, unless impelled by severe 
gales. To the eastward of Formosa, about Boteltobago Island, it frequently 
runs strong to the northward and north-eastward, so early as the 1st of 
March ; and although changeable at times, it sets mostly in that direction 
during the S.W. monsoon ; and in the opposite direction during the N.E. 
monsoon. — (China Sea Directory. J 

EASTERN PASSAGES.— The currents in the passages East of Java are 
very various, and, like the monsoons, do not seem to be reducible to any 
fixed laws, a feature doubtless due to their geographic relations, lying as 
they do between the wind systems of the northern and southern hemispheres. 
But as their action is frequently of importance in endeavouring to make a 
passage against an adverse wind, they require much attention. The follow- 
ing imperfect notes, derived frequently from the Dutch, are given as a guide 
to their general character. 

South Coast of Java. — The monsoons here are liable to great deviations, 
although they frequently shift about the middle of April and November. 
This is owing in some degree to the mountainous character of the island ; 
and there are some remarkable reverse currents experienced when within a 
degree or two of the coast. The Dutch officers, Lieutenants Rietveld, 
Eschauzier, &c., say that during the easterly monsoon, April to November, 
a constant easterly current is encountered, or running against the monsoon at 
times so strong as to ripple, but on an average of 10 to 12 miles per day. 
The drift is frequently to S.E. two-thirds of a mile an hour. Captain M. H. 
Jansen has stated that in the eastern monsoon the current sets to the west- 
ward from full to change of the moon, and either to the eastward from the 


change, or that there was no current. It is also certain that there is a con- 
siderable set to the westward in this monsoon, especially near the shore. 
In the westerly monsoon the current is sometimes to the S.S.E. and South, 
decreasing' in force to between 11° and 15°, and then ceases, and a strong 
westerly current is encountered increasing in velocity as the Strait of Sunda 
is approached, amounting at times to 42 miles per day. 

Bali Strait. — The currents or tides run through the Narrows of Bali 
Strait with great velocity, some say 6 knots, and cause great ripplings, 
eddies, and a boisterous sea, particularly near the Bali shore during the 
eastern monsoon, when the S.S.W. winds blow so strongly that it is often 
impossible to manoeuvre a ship. The flood runs to the northward and the ebb 
to the southward, and at full and change of the moon it is high water there 
between 12 and 1 o'clock. About quadrature of the moon, and particularly 
near the last quarter, the tides are very irregular ; they change first on the 
Java side of the strait, and only If or 2 hours later on the Bali shore. 
During the eastern monsoon the flood is often found only near the Java 
shore, and even there not to the northward of Batu Dodol, but diu-ing the 
western monsoon the northerly currents prevail. A tide lasts often for 7 or 
8 hours. 

TiMOE, Etc. — The currents are strong, with great ripplings, in the Ombay 
passage, and the Straits to the northward of Timor, generally setting to the 
N.E. during the western monsoon, and during the opposite to the south- 
westward ; but in some places, close in-shore, a kind of weak tide has been 
experienced. Near the entrance of the Straits of Alloo and Pantar the 
current takes a northerly direction during the eastern monsoon, but during 
the western monsoon it sets out S.S.W. The strong current in the Ombay 
Passage seems to cause a strong easterly current along the North coast of 
Ombay during the eastern monsoon. 

In June the S. W. or westerly currents in the Ombay Passage seem to have 
attained their greatest strength, amounting to 72 or 82 miles in twenty-four 

Near the end of the eastern monsoon (in August and September) strong 
easterly currents take place in the Ombay Passage, though in October they 
often run with great velocity to the south-westward. 

Ships from Java or Macassar, bound to Amboina, during the eastern 
monsoon, work along the North coasts of Sombawa, Flores, &c., till they 
have reached the N.W. or North point of Wetter ; or further to the east- 
ward, if bound to Banda ; and the voyage is often much accelerated by 
favourable currents. 

New Guinea, Etc. — During the easterly monsoon, the current sets to the 
N.W. along the western coast of New Guinea and between the Ki and Arru 
Islands, and thence eastward along the South coast of Ceram, at the rate of 
a mile or a mile and a half an hour, according to the strength of the wind 

32 TIDES. 

the velocity being greatest along the coast of New Guinea. At this period 
an easterly current prevails on the North side of the islands, extending from 
Timor to Timor-Laut, so that a moderately fast vessel would experience no 
di£B.culty there in beating up against that monsoon. In the westetrly mon- 
soon the current in these seas usually sets with the wind, but its velocity is 
not so great as during the other season. 

Of the currents on the North coast of New Guinea we have buc few par- 
ticulars, and these chiefly from D'Urville, who sailed along it in August, 
1827, where he found strong westerly and N.W. currents of more than a 
mile an hour. It is probable that this westerly drift is constant, and that, 
arriving at the Moluccas and Philippine Islands, it is diverted more to the 
northward, and finally assumes the N.E. direction along the coast of China, 
which has been previously adverted to. 

1 1 1.— T IDES. 

But little can be said here to give a general view of the tides in the Indian 
Archipelago. Each particular locality and strait would require a special 
exemplification, which as far as we have the means, is given in the local 
descriptions in a subsequent part of the work. 

The flood tidal wave from the Indian Ocean, proceeding in a N.E. direc- 
tion, is mainly obstructed b.y the line of islands which it encounters in its 
whole breadth. It passes through the various channels with considerable 
rapidity when favoured by the monsoon, or is almost annihilated by the 
contrary season. In the former case it passes on till it meets that which 
comes from the Pacific and China Sea, thus neutralizing each other, and 
occasioning much complication, and the phenomena of double tides. In the 
difl'erent seasons the tides from this cause are in some cases quite reversed, 
the high water hour corresponding in one case with the low water, period of 
the other. 

Free from the entanglements of the Archipelago, the great tidal wave pur- 
sues a normal course in the Pacific, and, according to the China Pilot, it strikes 
upon the eastern coast of China, from Hong Kong to the Yang-tse kiang, 
nearly at the same period ; it being high water on fuU and change days in 
the neighbourhood of the Lema Islands, at about 8^ 30", and at the outer 
islands of the Chusan Archipelago it is an hour later. The rise and fall, 
however, increases considerably to the northward ; probably owing to the 
obstruction which the wave receives from the Philippine Islands ; and in 
some instances the diurnal inequality is great. By the Tide Table it will 
be perceived that to the eastward of HoDg Kong, and as far as Breaker 



point, the tideg are irregular and weak, the current occasioned by the mon- 
soon overcoming them. 

After passing Breaker Point, the coast trends more northerly, and the 
flood stream will be found useful to vessels bound to the northward. The 
rise and fall increases, passing from 7 ft. at Namoa Island to 12 ft. at Tong- 
sang, and 20 ft. at Amoy. Between Amoy and the Eiver Min, the rise of 
the tide varies from 16 to 18 ft. at springs, and the flood enters on the North. 
as well as on the South side of Hai-tan Strait. 

To the northward of the Min, the flood sets more determinately to the 
North ; it seldom, however (unless ofi" headlands or in narrow channels), 
overcomes the current caused by the monsoon, but has the effect of slacken- 
ing it. 

Throughout the Chusan Archipelago and the estuaries to the North, 
great care and attention to the tides is necessary. Particular instructions 
for this purpose will be found in the body of the work ; and it only remains 
here to caution the navigator that, as his vessel approaches the coast to the 
northward at Chusan, the tides increase in rapidity, and unless precaution is 
taken, she will be set among the small islets of this rugged archipelago. 

The following Tide Table, extracted faom that published by the Admi- 
ralty, and drawn up by Commander Burdwood, E.N., will give the times of 
high water and the ranges of the tides. 



Malacca Strait, Malay 

Junkseylon Island (E 

Pulo Tubah 


Penang (Georgetown) 

North Sands 

Light vessel (One Fa- 
thom Bank) 


Cape flacbada 


Binding River 

Malacca Road 

Full and 


5 30 

5 30 

2 30 

7 30 



















Off i^Iount Formoza , . 

Tanjong Bolus 

Singapore, New Har- 
bour * 

Rhio Strait 

Malacca Strait, Sumatra 

Diamond Point ...... 

Bala wan River 

flattie Point 

Siak River (entrance) 
„ off the town .... 

Full and 

Sps. Nps. 

8 30 

9 30 

9 45 
9 50 






7 10 
7 10 





* The low water at Singapore is affected by a large diurnal inequality, amounting at 
times to 6 feet. 




Hiffh l 


Full and 

Change. Sps. 



Full and 

Sps. Nps. 

Sumatra^ N.E. Coast. 

Pulo Aor 

St. Barbe 

Badas Island, 


Batoo Barra . . 
Dheli River . . 


Sumatra, West Coast. 


Sillebar Rivpp (Bar) . . 
Mensular Island (S.E. 


Padanfj Road 

Tappanoely Harbour . 

Acheen Head 

Diamond Point 

Durian Strait. 

Sabon Island 
Deep Point . . 
Red Island . . 

Banka Strait. 

ToboeAli Point. 

Laboh Point . . 
Lucipara Pass 
Nangka Island 
Kalian Point . . 
Bersiap Point. . 
Cape Oelar , . . . 

Gaspar Strait. § 

Pulo Memlanao 
Pulo Leat 

Java Sea. 

Ciimon Islands .... 
Sourabaya Strait (Zee 



Jansen Channel. . 
Banjoewangie , . . , 
Segoro Wedie Bay 

h. m. 



2 50 




6 10 

8 45 



8 30t 

10 0+ 

11 Of 


6 30 
6 30 

2 30 
2 30 














Patytan Bay 

Tylatiap Harbour (S. 


Tytando Inlet 

Wynkoops Bay (S.W. 

Coast) . . 

Zand Bay 



Knlang Bayang Harb. 

Baly Strait 

Badong Bay (S. Coast) 

Tebunkos Road (North 


Lombock, West Coast. 

Ampanam Bay 
Peejow Bay . . 


Ragged Island . 

Sapie Bay 

Britannia Bay . 
Bima Bay 

Sumba or Sandelhout, 
North Coast. 

Nangamessie Harbour 
Palmedo Road 


Koepang . 
Dilhi ... 

Flora Sea. 

Adenara, Floras 
Alligator B.iy, 


h. m. ft, 


8 45 

6 30 








8 10 




11 30 


4 40 




* From observations made in the month of September by W. Stanton, Commanding 
H.M. Surveying brig Saracen. 
+ In S.E. monsoon. 
J In N.W. monsoon. 
§ Only one high water in 24 hours, and very irregular. 



Full and 

Sps. Nps. 


Batchian, Gilolo .... 

Sanguir Island 

Geby, Fohou Island. . 
Manganitoe Bay .... 

Limbe Strait 

Stnaana Bay 

Koplwatte Bay 

Wahaay and Hatiling 


Bouro, Cajili Bay .... 


S:tparooa Island .... 
Cambing or 

Island . . . , 
Banda, Banda Islands 
Dampier Strait 

Borneo, China Sea. 

St. Pierre, Island .... 

Rendezvous or Kum- 
pal Island 

Tanjong Api 

Sarawak hiver (Mora- 
tabas entrance) * . . 
„ Santubong . . 
„ Sarawak Junc- 

„ „ City 

Burong Island 

Rajang River 

Bruit River 

Bintula River 

Bruni River 

Labuaii Island, Victo- 
ria Harbour 

Mungalum Island, . . . 

Malludu Bay 

Balambansran Island, 
South Harbour .... 


Ragged Point 

Pamaruug Islands , . . , 

Balabac Island. 

Dalawan Bay 


North Balabac Strait . 

Palawan, West Coast. 

Eran Bay 

a. m. 



1 32 

33 irr. 









5 15-18 
5 20 15-18 

4 45 

4 45 

5 45 

9 45 
10 30 



10 50 

10 10 









Full and 
Change. Sps 


Taj'-bay-oo-bay .... 

Ooloogan Bay 

Mayday Bay 

Port Barton? (Bubon 



Bacuit Bay 

Cavern Island 

Millman Island 

Observatory Island . . 

Palawan, East Coast. 

Ursula Island 

Port Royalist 

Casuariiia Point 

Barren Island 

Calandasan Islands, 

Bird Isl .nd 

TaJ-Tai Bay 


Philippine Islands. 

Port Zebu 

Port Buluagan, O'sta 


Port Iloilo 

Port San Jacinto, Ticao 


Paluan Bay (Mindoro) 
Manila (Luzon) .... 

Port Sual „ 

Port Laguimanoc „ 
Alabat Harlionr ,, 
Busainga (Burias Id.) 
Sarangani Point, Min- 

Scarborough Shoal . . 

Sulu Sea. 

Ubian Island (Kpena- 
poussan Group) f . . 

Cagayan Sulu t 


Pearl Bank 



Tanj Unsang 

Dalrymple Harbour, 
Sulu Island . 

h, m. 


10 15 


9 30 


9 55 


10 55 


9 40 




9 30 


10 27 






11 0? 


9 30 


9 30 


9 30 


9 30 










6 30 



10 40 



1 30 










6 15 


6 10 




6 5 


6 50 


6 40 




7 50 


* At Sarawak River the highest tides occur at the change of the monsoons, viz.. May and 
November. In the N.E. monsoon the higher tides occur at the new moon, and those of 
the day are higher and more regular than those of the night ; while during the S.W. mon- 
soon the contrary takes place, and the higher tides are then at full moon. 

t In the N.E. monsoon. 




Full and 

Sps. Nps. 


Full and 


Sps. Nps, 

Babuyan Islands. 

Port Pio Quinto, Ca- 
migiiin Island . . . . 

Port Musa, Fuga oi 
New Babuyan . . . . 

Pratas Shoal 

Batanes, Bashee Ids. 

Takau Harliour. . . 
Port Kok-si-kon , 
Wanckan Bank.s , 


Tam-Sui Harbour. 
Kelung Harbour , 
Sau-o Bay 

Meiaco Sima Group 
Port Haddington . . . 

Loo Choo Islands, 

Nafa Kianfif 

Port Uoriiinar 

Oho Sima, Vincennes 


„ "Wild Wave Bay 

China Sea, West Coast 
{Malay Peninsula) 

Eomania Point 
Sidili Eiver . . 
Blair Harbour 

Gvlf of Siam. 

Tringano River.. ., 
Menam Eiv., Paknara 
Bangkok River .... 

Cape Liant 

Chentabnn liiver , 

Pulo Panjang- , 

Rocky Island , 

Cochin China. 

Pulo Condore* 
MithoRod .. 
Cape St. James 
Saigon City .. 

b. m. 


4 0? 

10 30 
5 60 

6 45 

6 7 

5 7 




















Nhatrang Bay 
Hon-cohe Bay 
Touron Bay . , 

China Sea, S.S. Coast. 
Bay, Hainan 


Yu-lin-kan Bay .... 
Qnan-rhow-wan .... 
Tien -pak Harbour .. 


Namoa Hnrbour .... 
Boddnm Cove, Ladrone 


Canton River (entr.) . . 
Broadway River (ent.) 
Typa Anchorage .... 


Cumsingmun Harbour, 

Canton River 

Urm stone Bay 

.Junk Fleet entrance, 

Canton River 

Tnilung Channel „ 
Wang-nnni Channel.. 
,1 unci ion Channel .... 
Laiikeetlsland, Canton 


Lintin Island ,, 

Fan-si-ak Channel ,, 
Chuen-pee Point „ 

! March 
May & 
Kuper Island, ( March 
oflf Canton < May & 
City (.June 

Sham-shui, Si" 

KiangorW. | 


Wu-chu „J 
Hong Kong Road 
Ninepin Group . . 
Tide Cove, Mirs Bay 
Tooni-ang Island, Bias 

Tsang-chow Id., Bias 

Bay , 

Hong-hai Bay , 

Kin-siang Point, Hie 

chechin Bay 

Chino Bay 

Haimun Ray 

h. m. 

8 30 
11 30 




9 5 



8 30 

9 40 







10 30 



11 50 

1 50 
11 50 



11 20 



1 40 
1 15 




2 40 


1 40 


10 15 





8 30 




* l-'rom a French Survey, 1862. 

t At Whampoa Docks — In March, the day and night tides rise to the same level. From 
April to October, the day tides are the higher, and from November to February the lower 
In May and June the level of spring tides ib 4 feet and the 


neaps 2 feet higher than in 




Full and 

Spa. Nps. 


Full and 


Sps. Nps. 

Cape of Good Hope . . 

Cupchi Point 

Swatow (Double Id.) . . 
Clipper Eoad, Namoa 


Chauan Bay 

Tongsang Harbour . , 
Chimney Island, Rees 

Pass , 

M ikung Harbour (Pes 

cadores) , 

China, East Coast. 

Amoy, Inner Harbour 
„ Chiang Chin, 
West River 

Hu-i-tau Bay 

Chimmo Bay 

Chinchu Harbour .... 

Meichen Sound 

Haitan Strait 

White Dog Islands . . 

Min River, Temple Pt. 
,, Losing Id. 

Chang-chi Island .... 

Spider Island 

Lishan Bay 

Namquan Harbour . . 

Namki Islands 

Pih-ki-.-)han Islands . . 

Fong-whang Group, 
Bullock Harbour .. 

Wan-ehu River (entr.) 
City . . 

Chin-ki Island 

Tai-chow Islands .,. . . 

St. George Island, San- 
moon Bay , 

Kweshan Islands . . . 

Nimrod Sound 

Vernon Channel, Cbu 
san Archipelago 

Ting hae Harbour . 

Poo-too I^land 

Lansew Bav 

Volcano Islands 

East Saddle I^land . 

Yung River, Chinhae 
,. Ninsj-po-fu 

Hang-chu Bay, Seshan 


,, Fog Islands 





11 30 

10 SO 


3 40 


10 20 





10 45 


9 30 


10 15 


8 30 

8 30 

8 30 

9 30 
9 20 

10 20 
9 30 

10 30 

9 40 

8 15 


11 30 
11 20 


11 45 
11 45 

















Hang-chu Bay, Chapu 

„ (off Can-pu) 

Gutzlaff Island 

Yang-tse Kiang (light 

ship at entrance) . . 
,, entrance to 

Wusnng River .... 


tLangshan Crossing. . 



Ydlow Sea. 

Wang-kia-tai Bay .... 
Wei-hai or Kyau-chau 


Ching-tau Bay 


Tau-tsui Head 

Tsing-hai Bay 

Staunton Island 

Wang-kia Bay 

Shihtau Bay 

Sang-tau Bay 

Aylen Bay 

Litau Bay 

Shantung Promontory 
Wei-hai-wei Harbour 
Lung-mun Harbour.. 


Hope Sound (Mi-au- 

tau Group) 

Miau-tau (Depot Bay) 
Ta-tsing ho or Yellow 


Chi-Ho .... .... 

Peiho or Peking River 

(entrance) j 

Tien-tsin, Peiho Riv. 

Peh tang ho 

Sha-lui-tien Banks (W. 


Liau-tung, Chingho. . 

Lau-mu ho 

Tai-cho ho 

Yang ho 


Sand Point, Gulf of 


N.W. Head of Gulf of 


Liau Ho (Bar) 

h; m. 

11 30 



1 30 
1 40 



2 30 


9 30 

10 34 




10 24 


10 35 


4 10 




3 30 






2 50 


1 20 


1 30 








4 50 


6 30 




* From tidal observations made at Shanghai by the engineer to the Customs for the last 
six months of 1872, the night tides in July and in the following three months average con- 
siderably higher than the day ones. The reverse occurs in the months of November and 
December. — The North China Herald. 

t At the Langshan Crossing the tide rises for 3 hours only, and falls for 9 hours. — 
H.M.S. Acttpon, 1861. 

t Time and rise much affected bv winds. 



Full and 

Sps. Xps. 

Liau Ho (Yin-koa) . . 
Vansittrtrts Saddle .... 

Hulu Shan Bay 

Society Bay, Sulivan 


Port Adams, Mary Id. 

Pigeon Bay 

Ta-lien-whan Bay . . 

Encounter Rock 

Hniyun-tau, Thornton 


Chang-zu-do Island . . 


Pin?- Yang Inlet .... 

Chodo Island 

Ta-Tong River 

Salee River, Kapkot-i 

,, Buisee Id. 

Seoul River, Poteu- 


„ Kampa-oui 

„ Sfcukkol . . 

„ Seoul ... 
Marjoribanks Harbour 

Basil Bay 

Ko-kon-tau Group . . 

Kuper Harbour 

Crichton Harbour. . . . 

Tracy Island 

Hooper Island 

Port Hamilton 

Tsu-sima Sound .... 
Tsau-liang-hai or Cho- 

san Harbour 

Yung-hing Bay 

Port Lazaref, Brough- 

ton Bay 

Expedition Biiy 

Novogrod Bay 


Sagitsu-no-ura Harb. 
Yama Gawa Harbour, 

Kigoaima Gulf .... 

Nagasaki Bay 



Tama-no-ura Harbour, 

Goto Island 




Whitsed Bay 

Mikuni Roads 

h. m. 




4 20 


2 30 






11 4.5 


10 47 


10 44 


9 30 


9 30 


9 65 


7 45 


6 1^0 


6 30 


6 40 


5 20 


7 20 

7 50 

8 45 

9 30 


3 80 


4 15 


2 25 


9 28 


9 50 


8 58 


9 10 


8 30 


8 30 


7 45 


5 20 


5 20 


2 30 


2 30 




7 15 


7 15 


9 44 


9 16 


8 40 



9 16 


8 30 


8 30 













Sado (Yebisu) 

Tsu^ar Strait 

La Perouse Strait .... 
Yezo Id., Notske Bay 

,, Nemorro An- 

„ Akishi Bay . . 

„ Endermo H. 


Malo Yama 

„ Hakodadi Harb. 
Yamada Harbour .... 

YoKo-HAMA, Yedo B.f 
Yokoska Harbour 


Tatiyama Bay 


Port Simoda 

Heda Bay 

Eriora Bay 


Matoja Harliour .... 


Owasi (Rodney Bay) . . 



Tanabe, Kii Channel 
Yura-no-uchi ........ 


Hacbken River 

Kata Channel 

Sus iki and Nomi Har- 


Inland Sea. 

Hiogo and Kobe Bays 
Oosaka River (entr.) . . 

„ City 

Yura Harbour 

Naruto (Fukura) .... 

Benten Sima 

Nisi Siuia 

Sakoshi Bay 


Maiko Fort 


Awasima Island .... 

Siyako Island 





Hime Sima Road .... 

Full and 


h. m. 


1 30 






10 30 


4 50 




4 30 


4 35 








4 30 




5 15 


5 55 


5 50 








7 30 


6 50 


6 15 



7 30 

6 1 

6 50 



6 1 



5 55 


6 4 


6 4 






7 15 


7 30 


8 17 


6 5 


6 14 


11 20 


10 15 


19 10 



11 27 


6 27 


11 25 






11 25 


10 37 


10 36 


11 0? 

8 45 


* in the Rivor Seoul, spring tides rise from 16| feet at the entrance, to 6^ feet at Seoul, 
t With southerly winds the tide rises about 2 fuot higher. 


( 39 ) 


liemarks on the Temperatures of the China, Sulu, Celebes, and Banda Seas, hy 
Staff- Commander T. H. Tizard.* 

The temperatures obtained in the seas partially enclosed by the Indian 
Archipelago, prove that they have, each of them, deep basins cut off from 
the general oceanic circulation by ridges connecting the islands which sur- 
round them ; for although in each sea soundings of over 2,000 fathoms were 
obtained, in no case did the temperature decrease in a regular curve from 
the surface to the bottom, as is usual in the open ocean ; in every case, after 
attaining a certain depth, the temperature below that depth remained the 
same : thus, in the Banda and China Seas the temperature remained the 
same from 900 fathoms to the bottom, in the Celebes Sea from 700 fathoms 
to the bottom, and in the Sulu Sea from 400 fathoms to the bottom. 

In the China Sea three temperature soundings have been obtained, one by 
Commander Chimmo in H.M.S. Nassau, in lat. 12° 53' N., long. 110° 31' E., 
the depth being 1,546 fathoms; and two in the Challenger, one of which is 
in lat 17° 51' N., long. 117° 14' E., the depth being 2,150 fathoms, and the 
other in lat. 16° 42' N., long. 119° 22' E., the depth being 1,050 fathoms. In 
these three soundings the minimum temperature, which varied from 36°. 1 to 
37°, was found at a depth ranging between 600 and 1,050 fathoms. 

In the Sulu Sea three temperature soundings have been obtained, one in 
lat. 8° 5' N., long. 119° 45' E. of the depth of 1,778 fathoms, by Commander 
Chimmo; one of 2,550 fathoms in lat. 8° 32' N., long. 121° 55' E. ; and one 
of 2,225 fathoms in lat. 8° 0' N., long. 121° 42' E. The latter soundings 
were obtained by the Challenger in October 1874 and in January 1875. 

In each of these three soundings the minimum temperature of 50°.5 was 
reached at the depth of 400 fathoms. From that depth to the bottom the 
temperature remained unchanged. 

In the Celebes Sea three temperature soundings were obtained in the 
Challenger, one in lat. 2° 55' N., long. 124' 53' E., in October 1874, the depth 
being 2,150 fathoms; a second in lat. 5° 44' N., long. 123° 34' E., also in 
October 1874, the depth being 2,600 fathoms ; and the third in lat, 5° 47' N., 
long. 124° 1' E., in February 1875, the depth being 2,050 fathoms. In each 
of these three soundings the minimum temperature of 38°.5 was reached, at 
a depth of from 700 to 800 fathoms, from which depth to the bottom the 
water remained unchanged. 

In the Banda Sea three temperature soundings were obtained in September 
1874, one in lat. 5° 41' S., long. 134° 4' E., the depth being 800 fathoms; a 
second in lat. 5° 26' S., long. 133° 19' E., depth 580 fathoms ; and the third 
in lat. 5° 24' S., long. 130° 37' E., depth 2,800 fathoms. 

* Extracted from the " Geographical Magazine " for March 1876. 


In the last sounding, 2,800 fathoms, the minimum temperature of ST'.S 
was reached at the depth of 900 fathoms ; from thence to the bottom no 
alteration in the temperature of the water was detected. 

In the Molucca Passage, which connects the Banda Sea with the Pacific 
Ocean, one temperature sounding of 1,200 fathoms was obtained in lat. 
0° 41' N., long. 126° 37' E., in October 1874, and the temperature was found 
to decrease regularly from the surface to the bottom, the minimum tempera- 
ture at the bottom being 35°.2. 

Two soundings and temperatures were also obtained in January 1875 in 
the waters of the Philippine Islands, which separates the water of the Sulu 
Sea from that of the Pacific Ocean. One of these soundings (700 fathoms) is 
in lat. 12° 21' N., long. 122° 15' E., in the basin formed by the islands of 
Panay, Tablas, Eomblon, Sibuyan, and Masbate ; and the other (375 fa- 
thoms) in lat. 9° 26' N., long. 123" 45' E., South of Bohol Island, in the 
channel leading from Suriago Strait to the Sulu Sea. In the first sounding 
the minimum temperature of 51°. 5 was reached at the depth of 220 fathoms ; 
and in the second, the minimum temperature of 54° was reached at the depth 
of 230 fathoms. 

A temperature sounding of 2,550 fathoms was obtained, in February 1875, 
in lat. 4° 19' N., long. 130° 15' E., in that part of the Pacific Ocean adjacent 
to the Celebes Sea and Molucca Passage. Here a minimum temperature of 
34°. 6 was reached at 1,300 fathoms. 

An examination of the chart of these regions will show that the deep ba- 
sins of the China and Celebes Seas are alone in communication with the 
Pacific Ocean, and that consequently their temperature must be greatly de- 
pendent on the temperature of that part of the Pacific immediately adjacent 
to their openings into that ocean, for although both seas are in communica- 
tion indirectly with the Indian Ocean, they are cut off from the deep basin 
of that ocean by a large tract of shallow water, which, in the China Sea, ex- 
ceeds a breadth of 600 miles, and in the Celebes Sea is apparently about 
half the length of the Macassar Strait, 

The Sulu Sea receives its waters from the China and Celebes Seas and 
Pacific Ocean ; its temperature depends, therefore, to a great extent on the 
temperatures of those seas. 

The isotherm of 80° is found at a depth of 20 fathoms in the Sulu Sea; 
at 40 fathoms in the Celebes Sea ; and at 22 fathoms in the Banda Sea. In 
winter the China Sea has a large range of surface temperature from 64° at 
Hong Kong to 84° at Singapore, while the surface temperature of the other 
three seas varies only slightly all the year round. The specific gravity of 
the water in the Celebes, Sulu, and Banda Seas, was found to be less than 
in the Pacific Ocean : this may be accounted for by the excess of rainfall 
over evaporation in the area occupied by them. 

( 41 ) 


In the older works which described the navigation of this Archipelago, 
the important element of the compass variation was disregarded, because the 
magnetic meridians so nearly coincide with the geographic meridians, that 
they are in most parts practically the same. 

The isogonic lines, as shown on the illustrative chart, have a great pecu- 
liarity in the eastern seas. A line of no variation passes across the Coast of 
China and down through the Philippine Islands, while another, traversing 
the Bay of Bengal, passes southward of, and parallel to, the Island of Java. 
Between these lines the amount of easterly variation does not exceed 2° in 
the western, and 4° in the eastern parts of the area. The chart will best ex- 
plain this. 

But there are other considerations respecting the compass, apart from the 
amount of its deviation from the true meridian. This is the amount of the 
different terrestrial and local magnetic forces which act on the compass 
needle. The lines of equal dip will give one of these elements, but the 
works specially devoted to the subject will show how important it is that 
the commander should be aware of the effects of those varying magnetic 
changes he will have to pass through in his long voyage to the field of the 
present work. 

The epoch assumed in the chart is 1878, but there has been no appreciable 
change in the amount shown since magnetic observations have been con- 
ducted with accuracy, so that, for the present at least, it may be taken as 
correct for a long period, sufficiently so to draw attention to any unsuspected 
change in the magnetism of the ship, should the compass show a different 
amount to that given on the chart. 

I. A. 



One general principle may be laid down for ships traversing the Indian Ar- 
chipehigo, and that is that during the S.W. monsoon, April to September, 
ships approaching China must go by the channels westward of Borneo, and 
in the opposite season they will take one of the passages to the eastward of 
Sunda and of Borneo ; the return voyage being also reversed in these par- 

Therefore the passages through the Archipelago, which lie westward of 
the great island of Borneo, are termed generally the Western Passages, being 
the Straits of Sunda and Malacca; and those which pass eastward of Java 
and Borneo are called the Eastern Passages. To these may be added what 
was termed the Great Eastern Passage, or that to the southward and eastward 
of Australia and Van Diemen's Land, and which was first followed by Capt. 
Butler, in the Walpole, in the northern monsoon of 1794. Of this route 
Captain Maury says — This now is never or very seldom used, and should 
never be attempted except tor very special reasons. 

An exception may be made to this absolute conclusion in favour of clipper 
or well handled ships, which sometimes have successfully attempted to beat 
up the China Sea against the N.E. monsoon. Of this more will be said here- 

The Strait of Sunda is then the great portal of the Archipelago and China 
Sea, and is used in all seasons for the ports South of China, and frequently 
in all seasons as an entrance to the Eastern Passages. In the remarks as to 
the most advisable routes, which will follow, the passages from the Atlantic 
through the Strait of Sunda will be first considered. 


In the volume on the navigation of the Indian Ocean, to which this is a 
continuation, full descriptions of the winds and currents of that ocean are 
given, so that by reference to that work an insight will be gained into those 
influences which affect a vessel's course in crossing it. On pages 158, 159, of 
that work, too, some brief remarks on the best track for approaching the 


Strait of Snncla, or the passages eastward of it, are given : but as this topic 
has more especial reference to the scope of this book, some further observa- 
tions will be given. 

Notwithstanding all the long discussions which have ensued since the vast 
extension of Oriental commerce, and the consequent accumulation of expe- 
rience, it is still a disputed point as to which is the best parallel for crossing 
the Indian ocean in sailing eastward round the Cape of Good Hope. On 
the one hand it is contended that by not going too far southward, better 
weather, and as much advantage otherwise, is gained. On the other hand, 
it is said that by keeping more approximatively to the great circle course, 
that is in higher latitudes, the " brave West winds " are more constant and 
of greater force, and that the distance to be sailed over is proportionately 
shortened. The following will illustrate this. The first remarks are 
taken from the Admiralty Sailing Directions, advocating a comparatively 
low parallel. 

On leaving the cape, steer boldly to the southward, so as to run down the 
easting in lat. 39° or 40° S., where the wind blows almost constantly from 
some western point, and seldom with more strength than will admit of carry- 
ing sail ; whereas in a higher latitude the weather is frequently boisterous 
and stormy, with sudden changes of wind. 

Some navigators prefer making their easting in a higher latitude than 
39" or 40° S., whilst others steer a more direct course for Java Head than is 
here recommended ; but the above directions are those usually followed in 
H.M. ships, and are generally believed to be the best. 

Now, respecting this choice of the parallel of about 39°, on which to run 
eastward, the distance to be traversed, or the approximate 75° of longitude 
from the offing of the cape to the point where you must bear oflF to the north- 
ward, is about 3,508 miles, a distance of nearly 600 miles would be saved if 
the latitude of 50° were taken. 

On this point Captain Maury, who differs from the Admiralty, says as 
follows : — 

A vessel bound through the Straits of Sunda, after crossing the equator, 
usually holds her wind, hauling up to the eastward as the S.E. trades of the 
Atlantic will allow, until she gets into the calm belt of Capricorn. Here, 
though she may not find long continued calms, she finds, nevertheless, those 
light winds which are always found to prevail in that sort of debateable 
ground which is always between any two systems of winds. This calm belt 
is between the S.E. trades on one side, and the variables, or " brave West 
winds," of the southern hemisphere, on the other. 

Having cleared the trades, the present practice of mariners is to edge oflF 
a little to the East of South until they gain the parallel of 35° — 37° ; crossing 
this, they haul up due East, between the parallels of 37° and 39°, and run 
between them — the place of all others where the southern edge of the cy- 


clones which traverse those parallels is most apt to be felt adversely — from 
the prime meridian to longitude 80° — 85° E. Now, if any one were seeking 
to find a route that passes through the regions most beset with light and 
baffling winds, this is the route to which I should point. The idea of sailing 
5,000 miles along the borders of the calm belt of Capricorn, as many East 
Indiamen do, when there is sea room for the Great Circle route, with the 
" brave West winds " " following fast," is simply absurd. 

Having run along this " debateable ground," and reached the meridian of 
80° or 85° E., another mistake is committed by crossing this calm belt in the 
Indian Ocean again obliquely, which should never be done. These calm 
belts should alway?, whenever the land and dangers will admit, be crossed 
as directly on a meridian as the winds will allow ; for the sooner you cross 
them, the sooner you will get winds that will drive you along. 

Such is the course of the present route, as the Dutch crossings abundantly 
show, and has been shortened for the Dutch, and may be shortened for the 
Americans and all others, ten days or more, by all vessels that will follow 
this course. 

(1) After crossing the parallel of St. Roque, stand through the S.E. trades 
with a rap full and topmast studding sail, as if you were bound to Australia, 
not caring to make better than a S.S.E. course good, until you lose the 
trades, clear the calms of Capricorn, and get the " brave West winds " on 
the polar side of them. Vessels that do this will generally clear the calms, 
and get the " brave West winds " by the time they reach latitude 3.5°— 40°, 
finding themselves at this juncture somewhere between the meridians of 20° 
and 30° W. Now shape your course per Great Circle for the intersection of 
parallel of 40°, with the meridian of 80° — 85° E., or any other near which 
it may be deeiiied advisable, with the changing seasons, to enter the region 
of the S.E. trades of the Indian Ocean. 

The following route, from 30° W. 35° S. to the intersection of this parallel, 
with 85° E., difi'ers so little from the Great Circle, that the difference becomes 
practically of no moment. 

(2) Suppose you clear the calms of Capricorn in latitude 35°, longitude 
30° W., now steer fur the meridian of 10° E., at its intersection with the 
parallel of 48° or 50° S. ; then run on between these parallels to longitude 
50°. From this point steer for the intersection of 85° E. and 35° S. The 
total distance to be run South of the parallel of 35° being 5,000 miles, the 
distance by the present route being 5,500 miles; so here is one day's sail 
gained by the " short cut," and certainly better winds. 

(3) But suppose you have good luck in the South Atlantic, and can clear 
the calms of Capricorn in 20° W. instead of 30° W., but in the same latitude, 
your course then is to aim to strike the parallel of 50° in 20° E., and then 
run along it as before to 50° E., the distance South of 35° by this route being 
4,900 miles. 


But suppose the winds favour you still more, and you be in 10° W. before 
you reach the parallel of 35° ; in this case you should run between the 
parallels of 45° — 46° till you come to the meridian of 50° E. You should so 
shape your course from 10° W. as to get between these parallels, near the 
meridian of 20° E. The distance South of 35°, by this route, is 4,400 miles ; 
in other words, the distance from the usual place of crossing the parallel of 
St. Roque to Java Head is — 

By present route, 9,200 miles; by (1), 8,940 miles; by (2), 8,730 miles; 
by (3), 8,520 miles. 

There is no part of the world where the master of a sailing vessel can turn 
his knowledge of the principles of Great Circle sailing to more advantage 
than he can when his course is East in that great expanse of ocean on the 
polar side of the calm belt by Capricorn. Here, when his course has easting 
in it, the famous westerly winds of that region will drive him ahead with the 
force and velocity of steam power. 

Suppose, therefore, a navigator, bound for the Straits of Sunda, should, 
instead of heading up East on crossing 35° S., near 30° "W., after having 
crossed the equator near this meridian, proceed to 40° S. before heading 
up East, how much would his distance from the equator in the Atlantic to 
the crossing of 40^ S. in longitude 85° E. be increased ? Answer, 100 miles. 
His gain in time to off-set this increase of distance would be a quicker run 
through the calms of Capricorn by reason of going straight across them, and 
the further advantage of strong winds along the more southern route. 

The best course, under all circumstances, is as a rule, to do thus : — Run 
from the equator in the Atlantic to the South as fast as you can, caring little 
for easting until you have cleared the calms of Capricorn, and caught the 
" brave West winds" on the polar side of that belt ; then shape your course 
so as to cross 20° E. between 47° and 52° S. ; leave these parallels about 
the meridian of 60° E., and then steer thence for the parallel of 40° S., near 
its intersection with 85° E. 

This description of the course to be run, and the points of intersection to 
be gained, is given only for those navigators who may be unable to get out 
of the true Great Circle routes and courses. 

It is well to remark that most ice has been seen along this route, between 
20° and 40° E., and that much is to be gained by running down your easting 
as near to the South as ice and safety will permit. So impressed have I 
been with the gain to be made by running well to the South in this part of 
the ocean, that I formerly said, with regard to the route to Australia — 

" In further proof that the route recommended in the Sailing Directions 
of the Admiralty is too far to the North, and as an illustration of the advan- 
tage of the route which I advise, I have prepared some tables, and it appears 
from them that there is no longer room for difference of opinion as to the 
advantages of going farther South than 39°— 40°; how much farther, though, 


still remains to be decided. But so far as the facts before us go, they justify 
the assertion that for every degree you go South of the Admiralty route to 
Australia, you gain three days on the average, until you reach the parallel 
of 45° — 6°, for the averages of the table are not below this parallel ; and I 
believe it will turn out that the best streak of wind, in the long run, is to 
be found between 45° and 50° 8. It seems to be almost as steady, between 
these parallels, from the westward, as it is anywhere to the East, between 
the trade wind parallels of 15° and 20°. The average "vertex" of those 
that go South of 41° is 53° 33' ; the average "vertex" of those that go 
North of that parallel is 39° 7' S. The mean parallels upon which the latter 
run down their longitude is 38° 52', and the former 43° 59' ; for this diifer- 
ence of 5°, the average gain of those who take the more southern parallels is 
14 days, which comes very near to an average of 3 days' gain on the voj'^age 
to Australia for every degree you go South of the Admiralty route. As far 
as 80° E., the Admiralty route to Australia and the old route to Sunda are 
the same. The average speed to Australia by the Admiralty route is 134 
miles a day against 154 by the new route ; so that the route well to the 
South has in its favour not only better winds, but shorter degrees and longer 
daily runs. 

If the winds were fair all the way, the nearest route to Java Head from 
the fairway off St. Roque would be via the Cape of Good Hope ; indeed, the 
Great Circle from St. Koque to Java runs through the unexplored regions of 
Africa. But both the winds and the land render such a route in navigation 
impracticable ; for the former generally compel the outward Indiaman, in 
spite of herself, to cross the meridian of 25° W. as far South as the parallel 
of 30° — 33° S. ; and the Great Circle thence to Java Head passes some 
8° or 10° South of the Cape of Good Hope. Moreover, the winds in the 
Indian Ocean render a departure from the Great Circle again necessary. 
The winds, however, are such as to admit all four of the routes on pages 
42, 43, ante. 

The route No. 3 is 600 miles shorter, and has better winds than the 
present route. But, after clearing the S.E. trades of the Atlantic, the pre- 
sent route runs about 1,000 miles obliquely across the calms of Capricorn, 
where the average rate of sailing is not over 100 miles a day. Now, by 
going straight across these calms as by route (1), you will clear them gene- 
rally in two days, and then get those " brave West winds," which will waft 
you along at the rate of 200 or 300 miles a day, according to the heels of 
the ship. 

The navigator, therefore, will act most wisely who will wait, and let things 
as he may find them govern him as to where, after clearing the S.E. trades, 
he will begin to shape his course for the Great Circle to the meridian of 85° 
East, or for the meridian near which he proposes to cross the calms of Ca- 
pricorn in the Indian Ocean. Suffi' e it to say, he may begin to do it any- 


where South of 30°, and between the meridians of 30° and 10° W., and reach 
Java Head several days sooner, on the average, than he would by continuing 
to follow the present; route. 

In attempting to follow these Great Circle routes, navigators should recol- 
lect that the greate&t saving of distance, as compared with the rhumb-line 
route, is always along those arcs that lie nearly East and West, and are 
farthest from the equator ; and that, so far as distance is concerned, he 
might as well be out of his way on one side of these arcs as the other. As 
illustrative of this route, I may refer to the track of a ship whose log I 
have, and with regard to which I only say that, it she had stood on from lat. 
28° to 35° S., at that season, in long. 20° W., and then shaped her course 
per Grreat Circle route, she would probably have done better ; as it is, she 
crossed the meridians as follows : — 0° in 36° 20' S. ; 20° E. in 38° 20' S. ; 
40° E. in 38° 35' S. ; 60° E. in 38° S. ; 70° E. in 38° 20' S. ; 80° E. in 36" S. ; 
90° E. in 33° 0' S. ; which is a fair representation of the average June route 
of the Dutch. 

"Arriving in lat. 28° 0' S., long 22° W., I projected," says her master, 
" on my chart, the Great Circle course thence to Java Head, the vertex being 
in lat. 44° S., and long, about 25° E. I adhered to this course as far as 
practicable, having in view the favourable sailing points of the vessel, and 
being compelled to run her before some of the heavy seas of the high lati- 
tudes until reaching the parallel of 30° in long, about 69° E., when I deemed 
it prudent to keep to the eastward of the Great Circle course, and approach 
the meridian of Java Head larther South, to forelay for the chance of there 
being considerable easting in the trades. I crossed the tropic in about 
94° 30' E. long., and fetched Java Head, sailing upon an easy bow-line 
(which is a good sailing point of the vessel, and, I believe, of most sharp 
vessels). I will remark here that I could find nothing explicit in ' Hors- 
burgh' regarding the direction of the wind in the S.E. trades; but, after 
many unsatisfactory remarks, the whole is summed up on page 161, vol. i. 
5th edition, thus : — When the sun has great North declination, it may not 
be absolutely requisite for ships which sail well to reach the meridian of 
thoir port so far southward, the trade wind then blowing more from S.E. and 
E.S.E. in general than from East and E.N.E. 

Accompanying my abstract is an abstract of the log of the ship Minstrel, 
of Boston, which vessel (commanded by my brother) pursued the Admiralty 
route in running up her easting ; and, although he crossed the equator in 
the Atlantic 12 days before me, yet I made Java Head the day before him, 
and there was not much difference in the sailing of the vessels. Where I 
gained on him most was in high latitudes. Although I made a fair passage 
by pursuing the circle course so far as the latitude of 33°, yet I would not 
again adhere to it farther than the vertex ; thence, I would sail East on or 
near, that parallel until reaching the longitude of 90", or thereabouts • then 


hauling North across the belt of variables to the southward of the trades, at 
right angles, and be upon the safe side, after reaching the trades, at any 
season of the year. 

A good passage could, perhaps, be made by sailing on a circle course from 
the Atlantic to a good position relative with Java Head, in the Indian 
Ocean, say 95° E. and 33° S. ; but the vertex should be far South of 53°, or 
thereabout. And I should not feel justified in attempting to pursue such a 
route, until we have some definite information relative to the existence of 
danger from ice, against which Horsburgh cautions navigators. 

Navigators, by taking the old route, are liable to meet with another diffi- 
culty, especially when they attempt to run down their longitude near the 
parallel of 35° — 6° S. About this parallel is a famous place for circular 
storms— cyclones. They revolve with the sun, and the parallel of 35°— 6° ia 
frequently traversed by the southern edge of them ; consequently, as these 
storms travel East or West, the wind on the southern edge of them is gene- 
rally from the eastward." 

Thus far Captain Maury, to which two remarks may be appended, the 
one on the dangers from ice in high southern latitudes, the other on the 
occurrence of cyclones in the lower parallels. 

The frequency of ice and its peculiarities in the Southern Indian Ocean is 
dwelt upon in our Directory for the Indian Ocean, pages 86 — 91, and it is 
there shown that the drifts attain a lower latitude in the southern winter 
than at other seasons, nearly approaching the Cape of Good Hope in July 
to September, but then it is considered that they leave a clear space to the 
southward. In January to March they are not frequently encountered north- 
ward of 55° S. 

In the same work the question of the occurrence of cyclones on the paral- 
lels indicated is discussed, and to those pages the reader is referred. 

There can be no doubt but these revolving storms do sometimes attain 
these latitudes after recurving from the northward, and passing to the east- 
ward. Should the well-known indications of these meteors be clearly ascer- 
tained, of course it behoves the commander to seek that edge of the disk (the 
northern edge), which will help him forward on his voyage, rather than be 
opposed by the contrary gales on its southern margins. 

But it is argued by some that these gales are generally not revolving, but 
are right lined winds, or so slightly curved in their paths that they cannot 
be classed as cyclones. Upon this topic see pages 12, 13, of the Indian 
Ocean Directory — the whole subject and its application being given in pages 
5 to 17, and 151 to 159. 

To the two opinions given above, as to the best parallel for running down 
the easting after passing round the Cape of Good Hope, we may add that of 
Mr. Towson, whose labours on this subject are well known. It is true that 
his object was to shorten the road to Australia, and therefore the tracks lie 


to the southward of that great continent ; but they will hold good equally 
for that which diverges to the northward before reaching this eastern exten- 
sion. He chooses the parallel of 51° S. for passing across the Southern 
Indian Ocean to the southward of Kerguelen Land. 

With all deference to these great authorities, may it not be that all are 
right, if their views are followed in different seasons. It would seem to be 
quite natural that a lower latitude would carry all the advantages during the 
winter season that a high parallel does in the summer. The limits between 
the trade winds and the westerly anti-trades certainly vibrates in latitude 
with the progress of the sun in the ecliptic ; and therefore, during the in- 
clement winter, the Admiralty parallel of 39° — 40° may be quite as advan- 
tageous (except as regards the distance to be run) as the probably more bois- 
terous but shorter course in higher latitude. Aguiii, in the summer months 
the parallels advocated by Maury and Towson may certainly be safely fol- 
lowed ; but in this, also, some other considerations may enter. The sailing 
powers of the ship, the nature of her cargo, and the health of the crew and 
passengers (especially if the latter be an important item in the account) 
would lead the commander to hesitate before he would carry his vessel into 
climates very much colder than that he has recently left, and which he will 
soon enter again, and where he will probably meet with heavy winds and 
turbulent seas. 

As has been said above, the point does not appear to be entirely decided, 
nor can it be so when each ship may, from motives of expediency, require 
different handling. The above facts and opinions are given, and the com- 
mander must make his own choice of them. For pursuing the voyage to the 
northward, the following is given in the Admiralty Directions. 

In the South-east Monsoon, i.e., from the middle of April to the middle 
of September, vessels, having passed the island of St. Paul, should not edge 
away too quickly to the northward, but should endeavour to reach first as 
far to the eastward into the S.E. trade wind as the meridian of Java Head, 
crossing the southern tropic in about 102° E. In this season a westerly 
current runs along the South coast of Java, and in the months of June, July, 
and August, when it is at its greatest strength, it will be indispensable to be 
well to the eastward, or otherwise the ship will be liable to fall to leeward 
of Java Head. In the vicinity of Java the S.E. monsoon also veers some- 
times to East or E.N.E. 

In the North-west Monsoon, i.e., from the middle of October to the mid- 
dle of March, but especially in December and January, the southern tropic 
should be crossed several degrees to the westward of the meridian of Java 
Head, when a direct course can be steered for Sunda Strait, or to make En- 
gano Island, or the land about Flat Point, the southern extreme of Sumatra. 
Great care must be taken during this monsoon not to fall to leeward of Java 
Head, for the westerly winds blow with great violence along the South coast 

I. A. ii 


of Java, and their strength, united with the strong current setting to the 
eastward, make it impracticable to beat up along this coast ; a vessel may 
thus have to steer to the southward, and re-enter the S.E. trade, in order to 
make sufficient westing to fetch Flat Point. When nearly on the parallel of 
Java Head, and one or two degrees to the westward of it, a direct course may 
be steered for the Strait, with an allowance for a probable current setting to 
the southward. 

If contrary winds are met with shortly after leaving St. Paul Island, in 
November, December, or January, a vessel may steer at once to the north- 
ward, and cross the tropic in 80° or 90° E., when she will meet with westerly 
winds to carry her to the strait. 

Shifting of the Monsoons.— During the period when these changes occur, 
i.e., from about the middle of September to the end of October, and from 
about the middle of March to the end of April, the winds are variable and 
uncertain. It is advisable at those times to make sufficient easting in the 
S.E. trade to bring Java Head nearly North, and then to steer direct for it, 
borrowing a little to the eastward or westward, when it is approached, as 
may be required by the prevailing wind or other circumstances. 


In the S.W. Monsoon. — In this, the fair wind season, there is no great 
difficulty in making a passage around the South end of Ceylon, or from 
Madras, or any of the Coromandel ports. Having passed Ceylon, steer so 
as to pass, in lat. 6° 20' N., through the channel between Pulo Eondo and 
the South end of the Great Nicobar. If the monsoon be strong from southern 
quarters, and the weather overcast, so that there may be some uncertainty 
in the latitude for want of observations, keep southward towards Acheen 
Head, to guard against the chance of a northerly current. But great caution 
is necessary in such weather, because, should the wind have had much 
westing in it, it may have caused a south-westerly current down the West 
coast of Sumatra, Such a contingency must be guarded against when it is 
neared in dark, stormy weather. Acheen is generally best made from the 
southward at this season, passing with great precaution either through the 
Surat Passage iwithin the islands, or, which is better, northward of Pulo 
Brasse, by the Bengal Passage. 

Bound through the strait, and having passed the islands off Acheen Head, 
which is then best to be avoided, stand on towards Pulo Bouton, on the 
eastern side of the Strait of Malacca, because, as has been before explained, 
the high land of the Pedir Coast, intercepting the monsoon, causes light 
baffling winds all along the Sumatra side. When Pulo Bouton is made 
bearing to eastward, you may be able to carry brisk westerly winds up to 
Pulo Penang. Should the winds be light, a northerly current may be 


encountered setting out of the entrance to the strait, and this may set the 
ship to northward of Pulo Bouton ; but when once the islands on the Malay 
coast are made, there will be no difficulty in getting along that coast to the 
S.E. Keep within a moderate di^stance of the coast, in 35 to 20 fathoms, 
making for the Sambilangs, carefully avoiding the mud bank off the coast 
between Penang and Pulo Binding, in lat. 4° 14' N. The outer edge of this, 
as is shown in the subsequent descriptions, is steep-to, shoaling suddenly 
from 10 and 8 fathoms to 9 ft. in some parts, and it must therefore not be 
neared into less than 12 to 15 fathoms. Passing between the steep, rocky 
Sambilangs and the isolated Pulo Jarra, in the middle of the strait, which 
is perfectly clean with the deepest water in the strait around it, you make 
for the West end of the North Sands, those dangerous shoals which run 
parallel with the coast, but which danger is much diminished by the light- 
ship on the One-fathom Bank, between the North and South sands. Should 
you meet with an adverse wind when up with the Sambilangs, keep along 
the Perak coast in moderate depths, not less than 10 or 11 fathoms, as there 
may be a useful counter-tide and good anchorage in doing so. Having 
arrived at the One-fathom Bank and its lightship, and sighted the Arroa 
Islands, there will be no difficulty in getting up to Singapore, as shown in 
the subsequent descriptions. 

In the N.E. Monsoon. — The passage to the eastward against this fine 
weather monsoon is tedious and lingering. Having passed Ce^-lon, it is best 
to keep to the northward, passing between the Nicobar Islands and the 
Little Andaman ; or, if from Madras, through the Sonibreiro Channel. 
Those from Ceylon should keep well in with the South end of the Great 
Nicobar, if the wind will permit, in entering the strait. But should you get 
drifted to leeward of Pulo Brasse, enter it by the Surat Passage, around 
Acheen Head. When past Acheen Head, a westerly current will be en- 
countered running along the coast between that and Diamond Point ; but 
in the offing and on the Malay side it sets more or less to the northward 
throughout the ^ear. Therefore, when within the strait, get away from the 
{Sumatra coast, and try to gain the Malay side, where there are more 
favourable winds, tidal streams, and the alternating land and sea breezes 
by which you may work to the S.E. 


In the S.W. Monsoon. — It is best to keep on the Sumatra side of the 
Malacca Strait in going westward during this monsoon, because there is an 
eddy current at its entrance on that side, especially along the Pedir Coast. 
Having, by means of every shift of wind and this favouring drift got up to 
Acheen Head, pass between Pulo Way and Pulo Brasse by the Bengal 
Passage, keeping close to the latter island and around the islets at its North 


end. If bound to Madras the passage will be very tedious, and every slant 
of wind must be zealously taken advantage of. 

If bound for Ceylon or the western ports, and having cleared Acheen 
Head, make for the southward, keeping off the islands along the West coast 
of Sumatra as far as possible. Having crossed the equator, and got into 
the S.E. trades, run down your westing till up with the meridian of the 
port of destination. Then bear up northward, and if bound to Point de 
Galle, make the land of Ceylon to the westward ; or, if to Trincomalee or 
the East coast, make the S.E. part of the island, for strong westerly winds 
and very violent easterly currents prevail about the South part of Ceylon at 
this season. 

This passage to the eastward, during the adverse monsoon, is seldom at- 
tempted if it can be avoided, and unless a vessel can keep well on the wind 
it may be very difficult. 

In the N.E. Monsoon. — There is do difficulty in this passage. Keep on 
the Malay coast until up with Junkseylon, and then steer so as to pass be- 
tween Car Nicobar and the South end of the Little Andaman, if early in the 
season. If bound noi'thward of Madras, either the above or the Sombreiro 
Passage may be chosen, taking care to make the coast to the northward of 
the destined port. 


Having passed through Sunda Strait, for which directions will be given in 
the subsequent pages, and bound to Banka Strait, it is usual to steer a direct 
course for the Two Brothers. With a working wind, it will be prudent to 
keep within a moderate distance of the Sumatra coast; 11 or 12 fathoms ia 
a good depth. A good mark in daylight is, when standing in-shore, to tack 
when North Island is just on with the highest Zutphen Island ; the sound- 
ings will then be generally 7 or 8 fathoms, and a large ship should not risk 
a less depth when working between North Island and the Swallow Eock, 
which she will pass eastward of, if the South Brother is not brought east- 
ward of N. by E. 

Although the space between the Thousand Islands and the Two Brothers 
can be navigated with more confidence since its partial examination by Com- 
mander Bullock, in H.M.S. Serpent, in 1865, yet, as no complete survey has 
been made, the mariner is recommended to proceed with caution. The 
Brothers may be passed at a prudent distance on either side. On passing to 
the eastward, take care to avoid the Lynn and Brouwers Eeefs ; and when 
passing between the islands and the Shahbundar Banks, a vessel should not 
keep larther from the islands than 3 miles, and not nearer the coast of Su- 
matra than the depth of 9 fathoms. 

Having passed the Brothers, steer to the northward towards Lucipara, 


keeping the Brothers to the westward of South, to avoid the reported posi- 
tion of the Clifton shoal, and endeavouring to keep in soundings from 9 to 
12 fathoms, as a direct course cannot be depended upon, on account of irre- 
gular currents or tides setting out from the rivers. Neither can the sound- 
ings in this track be implicitly trusted to, being irregular, from 8^ to 11 or 
12 fathoms in some places, particularly contiguous to Tree Island bank, and 
the edges of the other banks projecting from the coast of Sumatra, also in 
the vicinity of the Arend and Boreas banks in the offing. It will be, how- 
ever, prudent to borrow towards the main if the depths increase to 12 or 13 
fathoms ; and to haul off from it if they decrease to 8A or 9 fathoms towards 
the banks that line the coast. Near these the soundings are generally hard 
and more irregular than farther out from the land, in 12 or 13 fathoms ; 
but, in the latter depths, a ship will be too far off the coast with a westerly 

When the weather is clear, during the day, it may be proper to get a sight 
of the coast from the poop of a large ship at times, edging out occasionally 
in the night, or when the depths decrease to 8J or 9 fathoms. Having passed 
the bank off Tree Island, the coast may be approached with greater safety, 
and the depth will decrease, regularly steering northward for Lucipara, to 
6| fathoms, when it bears N. ^ E. about 10 miles. 

If at night a vessel should come into shallow water between the Two 
Brothers and Lucipara, and not being certain whether she is on either the 
Arend or Boreas banks, or the bank off the coast of Sumatra, it is advisable 
to anchor immediately, and to wait for daylight, for the depths are moderate, 
and the bottom throughout this track generally favourable for that pur- 


When bound from Banka Strait to that of Sunda, the proper course will 
be about S. by E., keeping in from 9 to 13 fathoms ; but the currents are 
too variable to trust implicitly to any course, and the depths also are top 
irregular to depend on them alone, for the 5 and 4^ fathoms Boreas and 
Arend banks may be easily mistaken for those south-eastward of Tree 
Island, which are very dangerous. It will therefore be advisable in day- 
time to keep on the Sumatra side in 8 or 9 fathoms, from which depths that 
shore is generally visible from the deck, and at night to keep off shore 
when the water shoals to less than 9 fathoms, and to approach it when it 
deepens to more than 13 fathoms, as that depth with westerly winds would 
be too far off. 

Having arrived in about 3° 40' S., or about 30 miles distant from the Two 
Brothers, keep as nearly as possible in 9 or 10 fathoms, so as to get sight of 
these islands bearing South, but not to the eastward of that bearing in order 
to avoid the Clifton Shoal ; otherwise, if made when in 1 1 fathoms, it would 


be difficult to weather them with a westerly wind, especially as the current 
runs to the south-eastward during the western monsoon. When passing 
to the eastward of the Two Brothers, recollect the Brouwers and Lynn Eeefs. 

Coming from the northward the Two Brothers appear like one island, and 
hence some vessels have been led into danger by mistaking Mound Imbong, 
or Knob-hill, in Sumatra, when seen in the twilight, for these islands. Sail- 
ing past these islands at night, the vessel's position should be well ascertained 
before dark, or else it would be better to anchor. 

Having passed on either side of the Brothers, the safest bearing to bring 
them upon appears to be N. ^ E. After losing sight of them upon that 
bearing, a course about S. by W. may be steered for the entrance of Sunda 

Captain Ste-phens, of the shi-p ffarkawat/, says: — "In May, approaching 
Sunda Strait from the eastward the Java side should be steered for, and kept 
aboard, as then the winds are light, those from S.E. prevailing at night, and 
from N.E. during the day ; this precaution will prevent the vessel being 
carried by the current to the westward of the Button Islet ; this current runs 
constantly to the S. W. in the middle of the strait, it is checked by the short 
flood, but runs strong with a long ebb." 


Vessels bound from Banka Strait to Singapore seldom adopt the O uter 
route to the eastward of the islands of Linga and Bintang, most vessels pre- 
ferring to proceed by Ehio Strait ; it, however, forms part of the main route 
into the China Sea, and is therefore of great importance. 

Outer Eoute. — The ordinary route for vessels bound northward is be- 
tween the Toejoe Islands and Pulo Taya ; they may, however, pass on either 
eide of Pulo Taya, which, being high and bold, is very convenient to make 
in thick weather or at night. 

At night, or in thick weather, the lead will be very useful in detecting the 
drift caused by cross currents between the Toejoe Islands and Sumatra, for 
the depth decreases generally towards Sumatra, and increases towards those 
islands ; but care should be taken in approaching them, as the remarkable 
irregularities of the currents have brought many vessels into the danger of 
being entangled among them. Near Sumatra a mud bottom mixed with 
Band prevails, and near the islands mud only. 

The Castor Bank, lying to the N.E. of Pulo Taya, carries not less than 5 
fathoms water, but a vessel will pass eastward of it by not bringing Pulo 
Taya South of S.W. ^ W., and westward of it by keeping that island South 
of S.S.W. ^ W. The East point of Linga (which, with a point to the w^est- 
ward of it, appears at a distance like two islands) bearing N.N.W. will lead 
from 4 to 5 miles to the N.E. both of the Castor Bank and the Ilchester 
Shoal. But in order to avoid the last-named danger, if the channel between 


the Castor Bank and Linga is used, take care not to bring the East point of 
Linga to the East of North. 

Having passed eastward of Pule Taya, a course may be steered to cross 
the equator in 20 or 21 fathoms, or in long. 106° 30' E. From the equator 
steer about North until past the Frederick and Oeldria shoals, observing in 
the night not to come under 23 or 24 fathoms between lat. 0° 30' and 0° 50' N. 
to avoid those dangers ; if it be day when Pulo Euig or Ragged Island ia 
seen, keep it westward of N.W., and it will lead eastward of these shoals. 
When abreast of Pulo Panjang, and in soundings of 24 or 25 fathoms water, 
a N.W. or N.W. by W. course, according to tide, will lead to the entrance 
of Singapore Strait. 

The Inner Route, by the Strait of Rhio, will be noticed in connection 
with the description of the coast of the strait hereafter given, as the various 
marks, &c., will be best understood by referring to those descriptions. 

Vessels bound from Banka Strait to Singapore during the strength of the 
N.E. monsoon frequently adopt the Inner Route by the Varella and Durian 
Straits. During the prevalence of strong northerly winds in the months of 
December and January, sailing vessels will save much time by doing so, for 
here they will have smooth water, good anchorage, and but little tide, 
whereas on the eastern side of Linga, at this season of the year, there ia 
generally a heavy sea, and a southerly current sometimes running at the rate 
of 3 knots an hour. In Yarella Strait they will also be greatly assisted by 
the squalls from the Sumatra coast. 

Varella, or Brahalla Strait, is situated at the southern part of this route, 
and Durian Strait at its northern part ; the intermediate portion has not 
received a specific denomination. The entire route is about 120 miles in 
length from Pulo Varella to the Carimon Islands, and is bounded on the 
western side by the coast of Sumatra, False Durian, Sabon, and the con- 
tiguous islands ; and on the eastern side by Sinkep and the other islands off 
the South and West coasts of Linga, and by Great and Little Durian, and 
the adjacent islands. 

The Strait of Malacca and Strait of Singapore, and their navigation, 
will be also described in subsequent pages. 


In South-west Monsoon. — When June approaches, and the S.W. mon- 
soon is set regularly in, the track from Singapore to China by the main 
route^ eastward of Pulo Sapatu and over Macclesfield Bank, is preferable, 
the winds being more steady in the open sea than near the coast. About 
full and change of the moon, and as early as April, a westerly breeze will 
sometimes be found blowing out of the Gulf of Siam to carry a vessel 
to Macclesfield Bank, and afterwards easterly winds to run her to Hong 


Thia route becomes precarious if a sailing vessel is not up with Pulo 
Sapatu early in October ; for near this island, about the middle of that 
mouth, strong southerly currents begin to prevail with light northerly winds, 
variable airs, and calms, by which many vessels have been delayed lor 
several days, and have made no progress to the northward. Fresh winds 
from the southward have been met with, even so late as 1st of November, 
but these instances are rare. 

Some vessels proceeding by the main route have carried strong S.W. and 
southerly winds, when others taking the inner route have at the same time 
experienced N.W. and westerly gales blowing out of the Gulf of Tong King, 
with dark weather and rain, and have been in danger of being driven among 
the Paracel Eeefs ; the inner route ought, however, to be chosen in the 
strength of the S.W. monsoon if the vessel is weak and making much water, 
for the sea will be smooth, and being near the land she may reach an an- 
chorage if required. The gales out of the gulf are not frequent, and the land 
may be kept in sight nearly all the time. 

Taking the inner route, steer from Pulo Aor along the coast to the Eedang 
Islands, thence across the Gulf of Siam, and along the coasts of Cambodia 
and Cochin China, keeping the latter aboard to Cape Touron. From thence 
Bteer for the S.W. part of Hainan, coasting along this island, and passing 
between it and the Taya Islands ; then cross over to make the coast of 
China about Tien-pak, or Hailing Island. The islands from thence to 
Hong Kong may be coasted along at discretion, or shelter may be found 
amongst them on an emergency. If this route is taken before the middle of 
March or 1st of April, the passage will be tedious unless the vessel is a 

good sailer. 

Bound to Hong Kong in the strength of the S.W. monsoon, with the wind 
steady between S.E. and S.W., endeavour to make the Great Ladrone Island 
bearing about North, then steer between it and the Kypong Islands, and 
between Lingting and the Lema Islands, for the West Lamma Channel. 
After the middle of August, when easterly winds are likely to prevail seve- 
ral days together, as they are more or less at all seasons, it will be necessary 
to make the N.E. head of the Lema Islands, and proceed in by the Lema 
Channel, towards the West Lamma Channel. The East Lamma Channel is 
also safe in both monsoons, for although the water is deep, if the wind falls 
light it is safe to anchor in, and there is little or no tide. 

In North-east Monsoon. — Sailing vessels leaving Singapore for China in 
February, March, and part of April, may expect a tedious beating passage, 
if they adopt the main route. In March, April, or May, they can proceed 
by the inner route along the Coast of Cochin China, which is generally the 
most expeditious route in these months. 

The passage to China by the coasts of Palawan and Luzon may be fol- 
lowed late in the S.W. monsoon ; without much difElculty in October and 


November ; and it is now often made in December, January, and at every 
period of the N.E. mcnsoou.* 

In December, January, and February,! sailing vessels should not leave 
the entrance of Singapore Strait, in strong N.E. winds, but anchor on the 
northern shore, under the Water Islands, in 9 or 10 fathoms. In those 
months gales often occur at new and full moon ; the weather is then thick, 
the rain lasting two or three days, and the current outside accelerates to the 
S.S.E. ^ E. from 2^ to 3 knots an hour. A vessel leaving the strait then, 
instead of fetching St. Barbe Island, would fall bodily to leeward, and have 
to work up the West coast of Borneo. Fine weather follows, the wind 
backing round to North and N. W. ; the current in the offing decreasing in 
strength to about 1 i knot. 

Leave the Water Islands with the first of the ebb, and keep clean full. 
Stand to the north-eastward to go through the channel between Subi Island 
and the Great Natuna ; a passage that may without much difficulty be 
made, in these months especially, at full and change, when the wind, after 

• It was formerly the general custom for the clipper vessels employed in the opiuni 
trade hetween India and China to beat up the middle of the China Sea in the strength of 
the N.E. monsoon, keeping as close to the western edges of the reefs as possible, where 
the current was found to be generally in their favour. Many commanders who have been 
accustomed to make their passages in that way are strongly of opinion that it is the best 
route for vessels later in the season than the month of November, whilst others who have 
been accustomed to proceed by the Palawan have just as strong opinions in favour of that 
route. The following remarks of Mr. T. B. White, who was for many years in command 
of clipper vessels engaged in the opium trade, appear to be exceedingly valuable, inasmuch 
as thej' furnish a balanced opinion on the respective advantages of these routes. He says : 
" I am sorry I cannot say much from experience in oeating up the Palawan in a sailing 
vessel, for during the entire period of my command of the Lanrick I never once went that 
way, but always along the western edges of the shoals. I am, however, now quite certain 
that I should have often made much quicker passages, and saved much wear and tear, by 
going up the Palawan. In the Fiery Cross, although a powerful steamer, I found it pre- 
ferable to take the Palawan, and always did so during the strength of the N.E. monsoon 
(November to February), saving fuel and wear and tear ; and, though a longer route, mads 
better passages by getting smooth water and often favourable currents. I believe nearly 
all heavily laden ships now take the Palawan from October until the end of February in 
preference to the outer passage, and a current to the north-eastward is generally felt the 
nearer the Borneo coast is kept aboard, and usually the weather is moderate, with a rolling 
beam swell on ; at l^ast that has been m.y experience when going up in the steamer, Mr. 
Eeynell, in the clipper Waterwitch, usually took the Palawan in the N.E. monsoon, and 
made some very good passages. Now that it is so thoroughly well surveyed, I consider it 
quite as safe as the outer passage." 

t These directions (as far eastward as the Natuna Islands) apply with equal force to 
vessels bound either to the Gulf of Siam or the River Saigon. They have been compiled 
chiefly from " Sailing Directions between Singapore and the River Saigon, by Mr. A. J. 
LoituR, commanding the ship Kensington," by Commander J. W. King, E.N. 

I. A. t 


a few hours' calm, frequently hauls to the westward with squalls and rain, 
and then veers round to S.W. and South, blowing moderately for 2^ hours. 

By taking avantage of these slants, Subi may be easily weatliered, and 
the intricate channels between it and the N.W. coast of Borneo avoided. 
After fetching Low Island, in long. 107° 48' E., if the wind continues 
easterly, take the starboard tack to the northward, passing westward of 
Low Island, keeping not less than 3 miles from the south-western side, to 
avoid the shoal water as far as 2 miles from its shore. Q-ive Haycock a 
berth of 3 or 4 miles in passing, as the coral shoal about that island extends 
fully 3 miles from its S.W. side. Large ships should not pass eastward of 
Haycock at night, as this locality is said to have hidden danger. 

Alter passing Haycock there will be no difficulty in working up to the 
S.E. point of the Great Natuna, as that island, when approaching it from the 
S.W., shelters against the strong N.E. current of the monsoon. Off its 
southern shore at night, in fine weather, the wind is ofi" the land, which 
should not be appi'oached nearer than 2 or 3 miles without a good breeze, as 
the water is deep close in-shore, and no good anchorage. 

Vessels fetching to leeward of Subi with a northerly wind should take the 
Koti Passa'2;e, between Pulo Panjung and Sirhassen Island. The Sirhassen 
Passage is also a good channel, and quite safe when the South side of 
Sirhassen Island is kept aboard. The currents among these islands are 
more regular ; but not so in the Api Passage, where they set in various 
directions, and with great velocity to the S.W. from 16 to 19 hours at a time ; 
for large ships any of the other passages are preferable to this, for great 
caution and perseverance are requisite in working through, as the Borneo 
coast in from 10 to 11 fathoms water must be kept aboard to avoid the cur- 
rent and profit by the land winds.* 

In taking the Koti Passage, give Pulo Panjung a good berth to avoid the 

* For steam vessels (especially those of small power) proceeding; to China by the Palawan 
passage against the N.E. monsoon, the route by the Api Passage and the coast of Borneo 
presents the following advantages : hrst, light, variable winds and smooth water will often 
be found close to the Borneo coast, when a strong monsoon is blowing a hundred miles off 
it ; and next the Api passage route affords convenient landmarks to lead a vessel safely and 
expeditiously to the entrance of the Palawan ; whereas by the ordinary route much diffi- 
culty and delay frequently occurs in making Low Island, and in passing between the Royal 
Charlotte and Louisa iShoals. 

Steamers leaving Singapore should pass southward of Victory Island, then steer to sight 
the small island of St. Pierre (carefully observing and allowing lor the set of the current), 
and afterwards for the Api Passage, keeping over towards Marundiim Island rather than 
Api Point. Ha\'ing passed Marundum and Data Point, the course is cl^ar up to the en- 
trance of the Palawan, passing between the South Luconia shoals and Barram Point, and 
keeping as close to the Borneo coast until abreast of that point as circumstances may make 
convenient.— Navigating-Lieutenant J. W. Reed, commanding Her Majesty's surveying 
vessel Itifleman, 1866. 


dangerous reef wliich suirouudB it. The winds amongsst these islands, aud 
as far eastward as the meiidian of Cape iSirik, are generally from Nurth to 
N.N.W. The passage cleared, proceed to the north-eastward; endeavour- 
ing, if not ct-rtaiu oi the longitude, to make the Royal Charlotte or Louisa 
IStioal, whichever is the weathermost, by running on its parallel of latitude ; 
and as the currents appear to be influenced by the prevailing winds, vessels 
sduuld bt; prepared to anticipate a set in the direction in which it is blowing, 
tiie velocity of the current being proportionate to the force of the wind. 

Having made either the Royal Churlotte or Lcjuisa Shoals, on passing 
mid-channel between them, steer E. by N. 100 miles, aud then about N.E. 
for lat. 8° N., long. 116° 15' E., when Balabac Peak will probably be seen 
bearing about east-southerly, and making like a r.ither flat-topped island, 
with a small peak rising in the centre ; when about 40 miles distant from the 
island, the low hills may be seen on either side of the peak, having at first 
the appearance of detached islands. 

Having brought Balabac Peak to bear about E.S.E. at the above distance, 
a N.N.E. f E. course should be steered, when the high land of Bulanhow 
will soon be discernible, bearing about N.E. by E. f E. This course should 
lead about 6 miles eastward of the reported Roger Breakers, 10 miles west- 
ward of the elbow of the bank of soundings fronting Palawan Island, and 
midway between the Ro_)al CapiHUi Shoal and the edge of the bank (the 
most dangerous part of the channel). When Bulanhow Mountain bears fcj.E. 
by E. I E. the vessel will be in line with it and the Royal Oiptain Shoal, and 
in the narrowest part of the channel, which is 27f miles wide, and the high 
land of Alantaleengaliau will then bear E. i S. 

If the wind be well to the southward, and the weather thick, Balabac 
Island may be approached nearer, in order to get well hold of the land, but 
extreme caution sliould be taken not to go within 12 miles of it, as sound- 
ings of 26 and 20 fathoms extend that distance off, in a westerly direction 
from the peak, having shoal patches immediately inside them. 

If the wind be to the westward, with thick cloudy weather, Balabac 
Island should nut be approached nearer than 36 miles, for these winds 
usually force a strong current tiirough the straits to the eastward, and when 
off the S.W. end of PaLiwau, it is not unusual for them, particularly in 
squalls, to veer to W.N.W., and sometimes N.W., blowing with great 
violence, aud placing the vessel on a lee shore with respect to the shoals 
inside the ed^e of the bank. It generally so happens, that about the time, 
September and October, when vessels adopt the i'alawan route, this weather 
prevails off the S.W. end of Palawan, rendering it uncertain and uiffivuit 
to hit the narrowest part \>f the channel, owing to the laud being ob- 
scured, especially if neither the Royal Charlotte nor the Louisa Shoal has 
been made, aud the longitude corrected. 

Uuder these circumstances, it is advisable to advance with caution, regu- 


lating the speed of the vessel so as to be in the fairway, viz., lat. 8° N., long. 
116° 15' E., for making the channel at daylight. Horsburgh recommends 
lat. 8° 30' N., and long. 116° 30' E., but this may be running too close at 
night, unless confident of the accuracy of the reckoning. 

If not certain of the vessel's position, endeavour to get soundings on the 
edge of the bank to the north-westward of Balabac Island, and the safest 
part to approach for this purpose is that about the elbow, on the parallel of 
8° 30° N., or immediately to the southward of it, for it is believed the portion 
of the bank whicli is embraced by the bearings of Balabac Peak, S.E. by 
E. ^ E. and S.S.E., comprising a distance of 25 miles, is free from danger. 
If the peak be obscured, the same bearings of the body of the island will, 
if taken with care, answer. Or should the North extreme of the island be 
discernible (showing like a hillock, with a low double hill to the southward), 
the part of no danger will be included within the lines of bearing of it, East 
and S.S.E. | E. 

During the period in which the Eoyalist was engaged upon this survey, 
experience led to the belief that in the thickest weather the land is seldom 
totally obscured for any length of time. 

Having obtained soundings, which will be about 90 fathoms, if close to 
the edge of the bank, and from 45 to 55 fathoms, sand, if inside, haul off to 
the north-westward, to give the edge a berth of about 10 miles, then steer 
the channel course N.N.E. f E. When Bulanhow Mountain bears eastward 
of E. by N. ^ N., the elbow has been passed, and the bank then trends 
N.E. by N. It is between the elbow and the parallel of 9° 15' N. (a distance 
of 60 miles) on the East, and the Half Moon, Eoyal Captain, and Bombay 
Shoals on the West, that the most dangerous part of the Passage lies. 

When Montaleengahan Mountain bears S.E. ^ E., or the Pagoda Cliff, 
(generally seen when the more elevated land is obscured), S.E. ^ S., the vessel 
will be on the line of the Bombay Shoal, where the channel is 28 miles broad. 

Having passed the Bombay Shoal, abreast of which the bank trends N.E. 
^ N., steer a course parallel with its edge, preserving a distance of 8 or 12 
miles from it, and 27 or 30 miles from the land, or nearer, if convenient, and 
the peaks on Palawan are sufficiently distinct to get good cross bearings. 
It is, however, not desirable to get too close, as the edge of the bank in 
about the parallels of 9° 30' and 10° N., is not uniform in its outline, and 
several rocky patches lie within a mile, and in some places only 3 cables* 
lengths from the 100 fathoms line. 

This N.E. A N. course, edging a little more to the northward when abreast 
of Ulugan Bay, where the bank extends 28 miles from the shore, will take 
a vessel through the passage clear of every known danger. 

Vessels working through the Palawan Passage, having conformed to the 
directions given for making the S.W. end of Palawan, should, in fine 
weather, endeavour to make their inshore boards in the afternoon, for the 


8un then being astern of the vessel, the patches lying near the edge of the 
bank will generally be distinguished from the mast-head in ample time to 
tack off. In squally weather, also, during heavy rains, these patches have 
been observed imparting a yellowish hue to the surface of the water. 

It is almost needless to remind the seaman (when the land is obscured) 
of the desirableness of getting hold of the edge of the bank before dark, in 
order that he may have a good departure for the night ; and on making 
his inshore board, it must also be borne in mind, that the probability of 
coming suddenly into soundings is great, as the approach on this tack will 
generally be at right angles to the edge of the bank. He should therefore 
be prepared to go round immediately on getting indication of soundings. 

Proceeding northerly from the Palawan Passage, it is customary to beat 
up the West coast of Luzon to Piedra Point, and thence direct for Macao or 
Hong Kong, passing leeward of the Pratas. But if bound to any of the 
ports northward, much time might be saved by passing along the eastern 
coast of Formosa, thereby avoiding the heavy labour, wear, and loss of time, 
by the attempt to work against the monsoon along the coast of China, which 
even a clipper sometimes fails in effecting. 

In working along the Luzon coast, particularly about dawn or sunset, 
less sea, and much lighter winds, and at times even land breezes will be ex- 
perienced by hugging the coast by short boards ; but great caution should 
be observed, particularly between Piedra Point and Cape Bojeador, as 
several coastline dangers do not find a place in the charts. 

The first strong gust of the monsoon will be experienced on clearing 
Cape Bojeador, but this should not induce the navigator to stand further 
westward than will enable him to make his eastern stretch to weather it, 
when he will at once experience less wind. This generally is the case on all 
lee shores backed by mountains, either resulting from obstruction, reaction, 
or the effect probably, after sunset, of counteracting land winds. Among 
the groups northward of Luzon there are no dangers which are not easily 
avoided, and no continuous strong breezes will be experienced, at all com- 
parable in force, or attended by high sea, similar to those which prevail 
between Piedra Point and Hong Kong. On the contrary, good working 
breezes, and at times light winds prevail, enabling a sailing vessel of mode- 
rate speed to make the range of 6 degrees northing in 8 days. Typhoons 
are likely to happen in both monsoons between the North coast of Luzon 
and Formosa. 


In North-east Monsoon. — Ships bound from China to Singapore, or to 
the Straits of Gaspar and Banka, should in March and April adopt the main 
route by the Macclesfield Bank, which is the most expeditious in thesa 


months, keeping to the eastward on leaving the China Coast ; and also in 
passing Pulo Sapatu they ought to borrow to the eastward towards the 
fihoals, where the winds are more favourable in these months than farther 
to the westward. In April, the Vansittart, by keeping about 3 degrees more 
to the eastward than the Herefordshire, made as much progress in one day as 
the latter did in ten.* At all other times, the inner route by the coast of 
Cochin China seems preferable ; for it is the shorter, and the ease afforded 
to ships by steering from the Grand Ladrone immediately before the wind, 
when blowing strong at N.E., is a great advantage ; whereas, by the main 
route, a S.S.E. course is shaped for the Macclesfield Bank, often bringing 
the wind and sea before the beam, which strains a deeply-laden ship. Many 
have strained so much, that, in order to gain upon the pumps, they were 
forced to bear away for the inner ro)ite ; others, by persevering in the main 
route, have laboured excessively, and some of them at last foundered with 
their crews. Some of the ships which, after leaving China, have been 
missing, have probably suffered from the same cause. Had those ships, on 
leaving Canton River, steered S.S.W. h W. or S.S.W. I W., the direct 
course for the inner route, they probably would not have strained in the 
least, but have reached their ports of destination in safety. 

Vessels may, according to circumstances, pass either to the eastward or 
westward of the Catwick Islands and Pulo Ceicer de Mer, or thin^ugh any 
of the channels between them ; but since the Rawson Shoal is known to 
have no existence, it would seem advisable, in thick weather, to pass 20 or 
30 miles eastward of Pulo Sapatu, especially at night : from thence, passing 
westward of the Charlotte Bank and the Anamba Islands, steer to make 
Pulo Aor. 

Should the weather be thick, and a fresh breeze blowing, when near Pulo 
Aor, round to under its lee, and wait a convenient time to bear up for the 

* Captain Stephens says : — " Vessels leaving the coast of China or Manilla, and bound 
towards Sunda Strait, in March, April, or in the early part of May, may expect a tedious 
passage down the China Sea if proceeding by the old route which passes Pulo Sapatu, par- 
ticularly if they do not sail before the 5th or 10th of April. Whereas, if the track be taken 
alono- the coast of Luzon, down the Palawan Passage, along the coast of Borneo, past 
Direction Island, round Soruetou, and through the Carimata Strait, passing close round the 
North Watcher, and on for St. Nicholas Point on Java, they are likely to carry easterly 
winds, with fine weather and a smooth sea, the whole distance, thus making a direct course, 
and will avoid calms. The current will also be more favourable than otherwise until May 
is well advanced. To prove the advantages of the eastern route, it may be stated, that in 
April, 1861, two American ships sailed fram Fu-chau-fu; one proceeded by Pulo Sapatu on 
the West side of the China Sea, the other by the Palawan Passage and Carimata Strait ; the 
letter ship passed Anjer twenty days before the other. The Harkaway, on her passage in 
Aonl and May, 1862, carried an easterly wind the whole way down, and had no occasion to 


strait.* The current between tliis island and the East point of Bintang sets 
about S.S.E., by which it often happens that vessels leaving Pulo Aor steer 
too much southerly, and are swept with the current and the ebb tide coming 
out of the strait, so far to leeward of Bintang, that they have been obliged 
to proceed round it, and come up through Rliio Strait, 

In March, during the latter part of this munsoon, the winds are steady 
from the eastward, the weather settled, and the current weak. In April the 
prevailing winds are also from the eastward, and are much lighter and ac- 
companied with calms and squally weather ; from the latter end of this mouth 
to about the middle of May the monsoon gradually breaks up. 
In South- West Moxsoox.— Captain Blake, of H.M.S. Lame, remarks: — 
Although formerly considered impracticable, it is now a common practice 
for ships to work down the China Sea at all periods of the S. W. monsoon. 
After leaving Hong Kong, the usual course is to stand towards Hainan, 
which will be often fetched without tacking, as the wind frec^uently blows 
for days together from the S.E. or eastward in that part of the China Sea ; 
from thence across the Gulf of Tong King to the Cochin China coast. 
Land and sea breezes and smooth water generally prevail close to that coast, 
for which reason it is usual to work down as close to the shore as possible, 
taking advantage of every slant of wind, but being careful not to get too far 
off the land. It is sometimes possible to get as far to the southward as Cape 
Padaran in this way, but generally after passing Cape Yarela the monsoon 
is found blowing very fresh, with frequent hard squalls out of the Gulf of 
Siam, rendering it impassible for a ship to do much to windward. From 
Cape Varela, or from Cape Padaran, if a vessel has been able to fetch it, 
stretch away to the southward — making a tack, if necessary, to weather the 
Arest London or other shoals — till the coast of Borneo is reached, along 
which work, and pass out through any of the South Natuna channels. Stand 
across to Singapore, keeping well to the southward before closing Bintang, 
to be sure of your landfall, as the currents run very strong, sometimes 2 
miles an hour to the northward. 

In Noeth-East Monsoon. — Sailing vessels bound from Singapore to the 
Gulf of Siam in the N.E. monsoon generally pass eastward of the Natuna 
Islands. Smart sailing vessels proceed between the Anamba and Natuna 
Islands, and endeavour to make Pulo Obi ; they then steer for Pulo Dama, 
if bound to Kamput, in the Gulf of Siam ; or outside Pulo Panjang and Pulo 
Way, direct for Cape Liant, if bound to Bangkok. In February and March 
it frequently happens that vessels fall in with an easterly wind off Pulo Aor 
that takes them right up to Pulo Obi. — Captain Loftus. 

* Since the edtablishment of the Horsburg light on Pedra Branca, there is really now 
no difiBculty in making Singapore Strait at any time, with proper attention. 


The directions given on page 55 for proceeding from Singapore to Hong 
Kong apply also to vessels bound to the Gulf of Siam or to Saigon, until 
they have arrived to the eastward of the Natuna Islands, either by passing 
between the Great and South Natuna, or by the Koti Passage, when— 

Jf hound to the Gulf of Siam, proceed to the north-eastward to about long. 
11 Tor 112° E., which can easily be done, as the wind here is invariably 
from North to N.N.W. as far as the meridian of Cape Sirik, when it gene- 
rally hauls to the north-eastward ; then with a full sail stand on the star- 
board tack towards Pulo Obi. Little or no current will be experienced until 
lat. 6° or 7° N. is gained ; when it will be found setting strong to the S.W., 
governed considerably by the prevailing winds. 

In April and May the best passages to the gulf are made by keeping the 
Malay coast aboard ; but expect squalls, calms, and rain. The current will 
also begin to set weakly to the N.E. — Lieut. J. Richards, R.N. 

If bound to Saigon, proceed to the north-eastward to about 112° E., when 
stand over with a full sail on the starboard tack, to make Cape Tiwane. 
From lat. 7° N. until the mouths of the Cambodia Rivers bear West, distant 
about 70 miles, strong currents will be found setting to the S.W., governed 
considerably by the prevailing winds, for when strong gales blow in the 
early part of this monsoon, the south-westerly current is stronger, and often 
runs 3 knots an hour. The tides are regular, and set pretty strong in-shore 
on the Cochin China coast during both monsoons. 

In the latter part of March and April an easterly wind is often found to 
the eastward of the Anamba Islands, that will take a ship to the Brothers, 
W. by S., about 24 miles from Pulo Condore ; and afterwards she may work 
up to Cape St. James inside that island, keeping close to the Cambodia coast, 
which is very low, and can seldom be seen at night. 

After opening out the mouths of the Cambodia Eivers, strong ebbs will be 
found setting to windward, greatly assisting ships on tlie in-shore tack ; but 
they should not stand near these mouths during the flood tide, and on no 
account shoal the water to less than 12 fathoms in the night. The lead 
should never be neglected when standing towards this low land, which may 
be seen about 10 miles oflP on a fine clear day. 

N.E. and N.N.E. gales often blow in the latitude of Pulo Sapatu, and 
between it and the Cochin China coast, in December, January, February, 
and sometimes March. They continue for two or three days with a heavy 
sea and strong current. A gradual rise in the barometer is a sure indication 
of one of these gales ; while at their height the mercury fluctuates about ,'o*o of 
an inch during the twenty-four hours, and commences falling before the gale 
is over, the sky being generally thick and hazy throughout. 

After sighting the land, the vessel should gain the meridian of Cape St. 
James in one of these gales, bear up for Pulo Condore, and anchor either iu 


the Great Bay, or in Pulo Condore Harbour, where good shelter will be 
found ; otherwise the vessel will be drifted to leeward of that island, and 
require several days to beat back to regain her former position. 

In Sotjth-west Monsoon. — In this monsoon the winds prevail between 
S.E. and "West in Singapore Strait, and vessels will have no difficulty in 
sailing through to the eastward. 

If bound to the Gulf of Siam, having cleared Singapore Strait, shape a 
course to make the Redang Islands ; and from thence keep the western shore 
of the gulf aboard, passing inside Puly Lozin and Koh Krah. 

If bound to Saigon, steer to pass to the westward of Pulo Condore, mak- 
ing allowance for a current setting out of the Gulf of Siam, whilst crossing 
the entrance of that gulf. When the body of Pulo Condore bears about 
South, steer North, or N. ^ W., if an easterly current prevail ; which will 
soon bring the vessel on the edge of the bank that fronts the mouths of the 
Cambodia Rivers, and extends to the entrance of Saigon Eiver, Steer then 
northward along the edge of the bank, keeping in 8 to 12 fathoms ; if the 
water shoalens under 7 or 8 fathoms, haul to the eastward, and it will imme- 
diately deepen, the soundings being regular on the edge of the bank. 

Directions for making the land about Cape St. James, and for proceeding 
up the Donnai Eiver to Saigon, are given hereafter. 


In North-east Monsoon. — From Bangkok the passage down the gulf will 
frequently be shortened in the N.E. monsoon, by sighting the Kusrovie 
Eock, and passing between the Tanqualah group and Koh Tron. Keep 
well to the westward of Pulo Panjang, and if bound to Singapore, the 
passage will be made quicker by hauling well out into the China Sea ; 
passing about 20 miles outside Pulo Brala, outside Pulo Aor, and then 
steering for Barbukit Hill, so as to allow for the southerly current setting 
across the strait. 

Approaching Pulo Timoan at night or in thick weather, a good lookout 
should be kept, and allowance made for the current setting to the south- 
westward, as vessels have several times found themselves close to the North 
end of that island when their reckoning has placed them well to the east- 
ward of it. 

In South-west Monsoon. — From Bangkok to Singapore keep the western 
shore of the gulf aboard, passing inside the Eedang Islands, Pulo Kapas, 
and Pulo Brala. Below Pulo Kapas, everything depends on keeping in 
shore out of the current, and taking advantage of the land and sea breezes. 
{Lieut. J. Richards, E.N., 1858.) 

I. A. K 



In N0ETH-EA.8T Monsoon. — From Cape St. James shape a course to pass 
to the eastward of Pulo Condore, and from thence direct to make Pulo Aor. 
From Pulo Aor to Singapore proceed according to directions previously 

In South-west Monsoon. — Many good passages have been made by 
keeping the Cambodia coast aboard as far as the Brothers or Pulo Obi, and 
then crossing the Gulf of Siam with a strong north-westerly wind until the 
Malay coast is reached, and afterwards working with the tides, keeping 
close inshore, by passing inside of Timoan group, Siribuat, and Pulo Sibu,* 
and thence to the Strait of Singapore, taking advantage of the regular tides 
and the land and sea breezes which prevail during settled weather in this 

This route is generally adopted by ships from Siam, and sometimes from 
Saigon ; but the passage to the eastward of the Great Natuna is considered 
the best, particularly for large vessels. 

Vessels leaving Cape St. James should take every advantage of the North 
and N.E. winds, which frequently blow at night, and in some parts of the 
day, within a short distance of the coast, by running to the south-westward, 
until the regular monsoon breaks them ofiP to the S.E. These- local winds 
often carry ships 40 or 50 miles to the south-westward of Pulo Condore 
without any interruption. 

While standing over to the S.E. the full strength of the north-easterly 
current will be met with about the Charlotte Bank ; it gradually decreases 
and becomes slightly favourable when the Great Natuna is brought to bear 
S.W. Hereabouts S.E. and easterly winds will generally be met with, and 
smart sailing ships frequently pass through the channel between Subi and 
Low Island, and fetch direct into Singapore Strait. 

Strong westerly winds with rain frequently happen during the early part 
of this monsoon, and from this cause or by fetching 2° or 3° to the eastward 
of the Great Natuna with scant southerly winds alter leaving the Cambodia 
coast, dull sailing vessels have often made the northern part of Borneo 
about the meridian of Cape Sirik. When this is the case, make for the Api 
passage, keeping the N.W. coast of Borneo aboard from Tahjong Datu 
until the Boerong Islands are reached. f This will be accomplished without 

* The inside chanDel, extending from Pulo Sibu to Siribuat, and formed by a chain of 
islands and rocks parallel to the main, is a good and safe one, having but few hidden 
dangers, and good anchorage all the way through. 

t Many vessels, through leaving the coast of Borneo too soon, have fetched no higher 
than Pulo Aor or Pulo Timoan. 


difficulty, for strong land and sea breezes prevail, and the current is weaker 
near the coast. 

The current in the offing runs strong to the northward and through the 
Api passage. Ships coming through this passage should never shoal their 
water to less than 12 or 14 fathoms between Tanjong Datu and Tanjong Api, 
and never pass them nearer than 2 or 3 miles, but should be ready to anchor 
in it off any other part of the coast, as the tides are greatly influenced by the 
currents, which often change without warning. 

Leaving the Boerong Islands, pass either northward or southward of the 
Tambelan group. Should the wind be scant from the S.W. after leaving 
these islands, steer as high as possible, and endeavour to make Pulo Pan- 
tang, off the East side of Bintang Island. ( Captain Loftus.) 



Captain Mc Konzie gives the following remarks on this passage :— The 
passage to Singapore, &c., through Balli and Lombok, and the Eastern 
Straits, late in the S.E. monsoon is often tediuus, as the S.E. currents begin 
to prevail in October, and light winds, which frequently haul to West and 
N.W. after passing Pulo Mancap After leaving the Straits of Lombok or 
Balli, easterly winds will carry you past Pulo Mancap. The best track thus 
far will be between Pondy and Gallon (safe in the night time), and then to 
the"southward of Lubeck, going well to the westward of the Mancap Shoal, 
and just giving the Discovery Bank, and other dangers on the West side of 
the passage, a fair berth. Steer for the Eastern Montaran Island, passing 
between it and the next westerly one, the passage is quite clear ; steer then 
to the W.N.W. along the coast of Billiton. It is best not to go inside the 
Montaran Shoals, as the wind there at that time of year is seldom more 
westerly than S. W., consequently a vessel will lie up high enough, from the 
East Montaran, to pass South of Pulo Dogan, Taya, and Sinkep (if possible 
to weather the last), if not the Straits of Dasse are quite safe, and quickly 
passed through with the tide. 

After passing through either of these straits, run for Singapore by Durion 

As to beating down the Carimata against the S.E. monsoon, I believe the 
best plan is to go through Rhio Strait, then stretch over to the Borneo coast, 
and work down it close in, anchoring for the tides. From Rendezvous Island 
make for the Java shore, and if bound easterly work along it. This passage 
is easily made to Sourabaya in tilteen to twenty days. But it is beating up 


from Balli, Lombok, or the East end of Java, in the West monsoon, that 
requires some remarks ; and for vessels usually deeply loaded with rice, it is 
a difficult thing to beat up against a strong monsoon and lee current. Two 
routes have been generally adopted, one to the southward of Java, and the 
other by beating up the Carimata. By both these routes I have known some 
vessels get to Singapore in forty days, and some have been fifty, sixty, and 
eighty days. I should say sixty was an average passage from Balli or Lom- 
bok ; and the vessel much strained, sails worn, and cargo probably more or 
less damaged. I should, therefore, confidently recommend an eastern route, 
which I have no doubt has been by this time followed by the commanders of 
Balli vessels, at my suggestion. This is, to go through the Molucca, or even 
Gillolo passage, and then with the North and N.E. winds through the straits 
of Balabac into the China Sea, and thence to Singapore. A fair wind would 
be secured all the way, and the passage made in twenty-five or thirty days, 
with ease and comfort to the vessel. This may seem a very circuitous track, 
yet I am certain that it is the quickest way to Singapore. And any one wha 
had once tried either of the other routes would find the difference, when 
comparing with the eastern route, the harassing work from Pulo to Singa- 
pore, and the strong rush of current from the China Sea that begins so early 
as October before the N.E. monsoon has set in. 


The passages hitherto described are those which are entered by the Straits 
of Malacca or Sunda, the two principal highways into the China Sea. But 
during the adverse N.E. monsoon it may be thought preferable to take one 
of the channels eadward of Borneo, and thus avoid the wear and tear of 
beating up the China Sea in the teeth of the monsoon. In this case, the 
former universal practice was to follow one of the eastern straits, passing to 
the East of Borneo, and taking the Strait of Macassar, which leads into the 
Celebes Sea, from thence, according to circumstances, from this sea proceed- 
ing North, and passing East or West of the Philippines. A vessel can also, 
in this season, take Pitts passage to the East of the Celebes, crossing the 
Moluccas, and entering the Pacific Ocean by Pitts Strait, Dampier Passage, 
or that of Gilolo, then keep to the eastward of the Philippines, entering the 
China Sea by the Strait of Formosa. 

Thus, in a general way, it may be taken as a rule, that when the mon- 
soon is favourable in the China Sea, ships must pass to the West of Borneo, 
but with a contrary monsoon must pass to the East of that island. 

October and November are considered the two most favourable months in 
which to pass the Strait of Macassar quickly. This is the first of the eastern 
routes. In the other months it is more advantageous to take Pitts Passage^ 
especially from the middle of December to February. 


On arriving at the eastern straits in the latter part of January or in 
February, the Strait of Lombok is generally taken, and generally in passing 
it, cross the channel East of Banditti Island. You can also round this 
island to the West, but the channel is very narrow. The channel between 
Lombok and Banditti Island is generally preferred, and then the East coast 
of this strait is soon reached. From there ships pass to the strait of Ma- 
cassar, by passing to the East of Hastings Island and Little Pulo Laut, then 
the coast of Celebes must be passed in order to enter the strait of Macassar. 
If instead of taking Lombok Strait that of Balli is chosen, with the intention 
of passing in the Macassar Strait, ships return to the North by passing by 
the channel between Pondy and Gallon Islands ; then round to the West at 
a good distance from the islands and banks of Kalkoon, and pass the little 
island of Pulo Laut on whichever side seems best. 

On coming from Alias Strait a vessel would steer for Hastings Island, 
and pass East of it, the same as if coming from Lombok Strait. On arriving 
from Sapy Strait during the months of September and October, a ship 
would, according to the prevailing winds, pass to the East or West of the 
Postilions, and proceed to the North between Tanakeke and the Tongu 
Islands ; then pass at a good distance the isles and banks of Spermonde, 
which are N.W. of Macassar Bay, and enter the strait and keep on the 
Celebes coast to pass through. A vessel going out of the strait in March or 
April off Cape Donda must cross the sea of Celebes, and steer for the ex- 
treme East of Bassilan. 

A vessel making for the channel between Basilan and the West point of 
Mindanao, must take care to keep well to the East, if the winds will permit, 
so that she may not be drifted among the Sooloo Islands by the westerly 
currents. If she gets to leeward of them, she will find good channels be- 
tween the isles situated to the West of Sooloo ; and then crossing the sea of 
Mindoro, keep near the coast of the Philippines (Mindanao, Negros, Panay, 
Mindoro, and Luzon). At the opening of the channel between Mindanao 
and Negros, and also between Panay and Mindoro, strong winds from the 
N.E. and westerly currents are generally encountered. A ship must guard 
against these currents in passing from one island to another, so as not to be 
set to leeward. 

If a ship leaves Basilan Strait with steady winds from S.W. and South, 
she may steer directly for Point Naso, or keep rather to the East of its 
meridian ; but if the winds are variable or uncertain, she should keep close 
to Mindanao till Point Galera is reached, and then cross to Naso Point, tak- 
ing care to keep near Negro Point in crossing from one point to another. 

From Naso Point steer North along the coast West of the island of Panay, 
taking every precaution against the dangers which lie to the West of this 
coast. Then passing the islands lying near the S.W. point of Mindoro, 
she will enter the channel either East or West of them and the Apo Bank. 


With easterly winds in entering the eastern channel, keep 2 or 3 leagues 
from the coast of Mindoro ; but with a westerly wind, take care not to go 
more than 9 or 10 milts from the coast until you are North of the Apo 
Banks, thus clearing the Strait of Mindoro ; and after having doubled the 
promontory ot Calavite, and passed Luban and Goat Island, you must fol- 
low the coast of Luzon as far as Cape Bolinao. Having reached this cape, 
you may be pretty sure of passing East of the Pratas and reaching Macao. 
However, it is more prudent to steer North as far as Cape Bojeador before 
crossing for the coast of China. Also, at this season, a vessel may enter the 
Pacific Ocean by passing South of Mindanao, when the sea of Celebes has 
been reached. For which, if the wind permit, steer direct for the Serangani 
Islands, passing between them and Mindanao, or else South of the former. 
From thence pass between the Meangis and Tulour Isles, in order to double 
the North cape of Morty Island with the wind at N.E. If any difficulty arise 
in taking this route, the channel between the Tulour and Sangir Islands 
may be adopted. 

But after having proceeded from the Strait of Macassar, and passed be- 
tween Siao and Tagolanda, or one of the neighbouring Sangir Channels, 
steer to the East, so as to double the North cape of Morty. For the same 
reason, ships that have passed South of Siao must run N.E. if the wind will 
permit. When she has entered the Pacific Ocean from the Philippine 
Islands, passing to the West of the Pelew Islands, afterwards sail towards 
the North, so as to enter the China Sea by the Formosa Channel. 

Pitt Channel, which leads, as has been already stated, into the Pacific 
Ocean by either Pitt, Gilolo, or Dampier Channels, is preferable to the 
Macassar Strait during the months of December, January, and February. 
On arriving, at this season, at the Strait of Sunda, on the way from Bengal, 
or at the eastern straits on the way from the Cape of Good Hope, I would 
adopt this channel when bound to China. This is the Second Eastern Route. 

If, as often happens, a ship, in coming from the Bay of Bengal, passes 
through the Strait of Sunda instead of along the South coast of Java, in 
going out of this strait she should pass North of the Thousand Isles, and then 
steer to the East, leaving the Watcher Isle to the North, on her way to the 
Strait of Salayer. In case of touching at Batavia, after having passed Edam 
Island on leaving this port, she would steer so as to leave Burakin Island to 
the North, and after having passed it, would steer for Salayer Strait. With 
a N.W. wind the best course through this strait is to pass South of Mansfield 
Shoal. At night, or when the wind is not steady, it is better to keep to the 
North of it, along the coast of Celebes. From the Strait of Salayer make 
for Bouton Strait ; or, if the wind is West, it would be better to pass South 
of this island, keeping the S.W. point well on board, with the view of 
avoiding the rocks off it to the southward of Tonkan Bessy. You then pass 
along the eastern coast of Bouton Island, and having reached the N.E. end 


of it, if the wind is fresh from N.W., steer North from the island of Waigiou, 
and from thence for the Xulla Bessy Island. This is an indispensable pre- 
caution for slow sailing vessels in December and the early part of January, 
because about this period the wind becomes variable, and veers to N.N.W., 
causing strong southern currents. The winds and currents in Eitt Channel 
are very variable, and it may be crossed almost anywhere. It is prudent, 
however, when northerly winds prevail, to keep the weather shore. 

In the case of a vessel falling to leeward of the N."W. point of Bouro 
Island, every exertion should be made to pass it quickly. Instead of work- 
ing to windward to do this, it is better to run southward of the island, and 
pass into Eitt Strait to the eastward of it. During the N.W. monsoon 
vessels which leave Amboyna make to the northward along the East coast 
of Bouro, where the wind is variable, and squalls come from off the land. 
Strong currents are rare, and are sometimes favourable for the run north- 
wards ; while beyond Manipa and the channel which separates it from 
Ceram, southerly currents prevail in this season. Having reached Eitt 
Eassage by the foregoing routes, a vessel will be guided by the directions 
hereafter given. 

A vessel wishing to pas8 through. Eitt Strait should take either the strait of 
Bally, Lombok, Allass, or Sapy, and make for that of Salayer on leaving 
them ; crossing the eastern part of the Java Sea, afterwards steer for Eitt 
Channel. In coming from the Cape of Good Hope the Ombay Strait is pre- 
ferable, it being the most direct and more open than those farther West, and 
the winds being generally less variable there. 

In making for Ombay Strait, pass either North or South of Sandalwood 
Island ; but it is better to pass South of it, and then between Ombay and 
Timor, and after having steered to the eastern extremity of the first of these 
islands, then steer North, keeping to windward, so as to pass West of Bouro 
Island ; but if this is impracticable, pass to eastward of this island, between 
it and Manipa, and then take the Eitt Channel. After having entered Eitt 
Channel steer East, passing between Xulla Bessy and Bouro ; but in case 
you should pass to the West of this island, if no current be found, then steer 
direct through Eitt Strait ; if the current sets northward, keep off the islands 
which border the northern side of this strait. 

When near the meridian of the East point of Oby Major, and wishing to 
take Dampier Strait, keep on to eastward. This strait seems favourable 
for good sailing vessels, especially in January and February, when N.E. 
winds are getting more easterly. In March, when the N.E. winds become 
weaker, the Strait of Gilolo is preferable for entering the Facific Ocean. 

This last strait is wider, and a ship can work both night and day in it, 
and the currents are seldom very strong. On leaving Eitt Strait, and also 
that of Dampier, you must take great care not to be drifted on the North 
coast of New Guinea, and should therefore contrive to round Eoint Eigot 


close, looking out sharply for Buccleugh Bank, whicli lies to the East of the 
East coast of Waigiou. 

Pitt Strait should only be taken when it cannot be avoided. In this case, 
a ship should keep in the middle of the channel to avoid being set to either 
side by the tides, and should therefore make short boards, not approaching 
either shore, and should try to make Jackson Isle, and pass 5 miles to north- 
ward of it. When a ship has passed the reef, which lies to the northern 
extremity of Batanta Island, she must steer northward for Point Pigot. 

To enter Dampier Strait on passing the meridian of the East point of Oby 
Major, steer East, to pass between the Canary Isles and Pulo Popo. Some- 
times vessels pass between the Bou Islands and Pulo Popo. This last chan- 
nel is advantageous with the winds from the N.W., and then run for Fisher 
Island and Mabo Cape, and from thence pass between Pigeon Island and 
Foul Island, always keeping a good lookout for the dangers which exist on 
the North shore of Dampier Strait. In coming out keep nearer Pigeon Isle 
than Foul Island, and steer so as to sight Pigot Point, so as not to be horsed 
on to the coast of New Guinea by the northerly swell which prevails in the Vessels should always carefully avoid the Buccleugh Bank. The 
tides are very strong in Dampier Strait, and the currents very irregular, 
their rate varying from 1 to 5 miles an hour. In the height of the N.W. 
monsoon, in the narrow part of the strait between Pigeon Isle and Foul Isle, 
the ebb at the time of the spring tides runs 4 or 5 knots to the E.N.E. for 
six or eight hours, and between 1 and 3 miles in neaps. The flood sets S.W. 
for three or four hours, but is weak. During the height of the S.E. monsoon 
in this part, the flood runs to the West for eight or ten hoiu-s at a time, and 
turns successively to W.S.W., S.W., and S.W. by S. ; it then attains its 
greatest velocity, which at springs sometimes exceeds 5 miles an hour, and 
is reduced to 4 miles an hour in neaps. The ebb at this season runs to 
E.N.E. or N.E. ; it is not strong or of long duration. 

On leaving Dampier Strait, when a ship is in the Pacific Ocean, she 
should run down her easting quickly, keeping in a low latitude, or between 
the parallels of 1° 30' and 3° N., which she can easily do. Sometimes even 
in December and January easterly currents are frequently found in that 
track, being that eastward counter current on the equator which has been 
spoken of in the chapter on this subject. She will thus be enabled con- 
veniently to pass either East or West of the Pelew Isles, but this depends 
up'in the sailing powers of the ship, and the strength of the N.E. monsoon. 
A vessel must not go too far to eastward, for fear of falling in with the 
islands of Goulou and Guap, near which, in November and December, heavy 
squalls from the westward are encountered. From the Pelew Islands, steer 
for the Bashee Islands, allowing for the westerly currents, which run at a 
rate of 12 or 15 miles a day. From December to the middle of February it 
is most prudent to pass to the East of the Pelew Islands. 


Should a vessel leave Dampier Strait towards the end of the N.E. mon- 
soon, she should not run far East into the Pacitic Ocean. At the end of 
February and in March ships can pass to the West of the Pelew Islands, as 
the winds at this time often vary and shift to E.N.E. When the North part 
of Luzon is reached the China Sea can be entered by either of the great 
routes, or the channel of Balingtang, or any of the good channels formed by 
the Bashee Islands and the Babuyanes. However, with the winds from the 
N.E., and at the commencement of the monsoon, it is necessary to pass to 
the North of the Bashee Islands, and either North or South of the Cambrian 
and Gadd Recks. The South point of Formosa is thus approached, and it 
is best with daylight and the weather fine to pass between this point and 
the Vele Rete Rock. During the night, or in bad weather, if prevented 
from taking this route, a vessel should pass to the North of the Bashee 
Islands, keeping close to them. Whichever may be the channel by which 
she enters the China sea, a course should be adopted to sight, if possible, 
Ty-Sing- Cham, or Pedro Blanco, and enter the Canton River by the Lema 

The Strait of Gilolo, the third which connects Pitt Passage with the 
Pacific Ocean, is divided into two parts by the island of Geby, and the part 
between this island and that of Gilolo takes the name of Gilolo Strait. That 
part between Geby and Waigiou has been called the Bougainville Strait, as 
that ofiicer passed through it in 1772. All the channels leading from Pitt 
Channel to the Strait of Gilolo are free from danger ; but during the N.W. 
monsoon that between Pulo Gass and Kakik Island is preferable, as being 
the widest ; for the other broad channel between Pulo Pisang and the Bou 
Islands is too much to leeward at this season. To enter the Gilolo Strait, 
passing, as we have already said, between Pulo Gass and Kakik, sail closely 
roimd the southern point of the first of these islands, so as not to get to the 
eastward of the channel by the current which often prevails there. After 
having passed Pulo Gass to eastward or westward, according to the channel 
taken, continue on between Cape Tabo and Geby Island ; and if at night, 
give a good berth to the Fairway Bank and Widda Island ; however, it is 
prudent, if the wind is light, to keep as close as possible to the islands on 
the West coast of the strait, on account of the N.E. and easterly currents. 
Should the winds be contrary, no time should be lost in trying to pass North 
of Geby ; afterwards, passing South between this island and Gagy, and 
entering the Pacific by one of the channels near Syang. However, when it 
can be done, the West channel between the coast of Gilolo and the Shampi 
Isles, or one of those comprised between these islands and Syang is prefer- 
able, as with a northerly wind a ship would be able to pass to windward of 
the Aiou and Asia Islands. Should there be any difficulty in passing to the 
West of Asia Isles, the channel, which is formed by them and Aiou, can be 

I. A. I. 


adopted, or even between this latter and the North coast of Waigiou. 
Having gained the Pacific Ocean, a vessel should endeavour, as soon as 
possible, to make her easting in the zone comprised between the parallels of 
1° 30' and 3° N., as southerly and S.E. currents are found there, and she 
must not pass North of the parallel 3° N., and she will thus attain the latter 
part of the route which we have previously indicated from Dampier Strait to 
the Ciiina Sea. 


The foregoiug remarks refer chiefly to those routes through the Archi- 
pelago which lead to the different por';s for vessels bound from Europe or 
India. The reverse, or homeward voyage, is generally subject to the same 
influences, and requires the same consideration, in reference to the seasons, 
that is called for in the outward voyage. 

As a first principle it may be stated that a vessel bound to an Atlantic 
port should endeavour to gain the S.E. trade wind as soon as possible, by 
■which she may gain the coast of Africa, Mauritius, or Madagascar, and 
thence proceed roiind the Cape of Good Hope. This portion of the subject 
and that relating to the passage from the Strait of Sunda to Aden is detailed 
in our Indian Ocean Directory, pages 162 — 166 and 201 — 202. 

A vessel bound to the Bay of Bengal should take the readiest course for 
the straits of Singapore and Malacca, and thence as directed in the Indian 
Ocean Directory, pages 179, 184, &c. 

These remarks refer to both monsoons. The best way of reaching the 
Strait of Malacca, or the Southern Indian Ocean, necessarily requires a 
difi'erent route in the opposite seasons. For the China Sea and the Strait of 
Sunda this reverse voyage has been considered in former pages ; but a few 
remarks from Capt. Kerhallet may be here appended. 

When a ship leaves China during the N.E. monsoon for Europe or India, 
she should make for the Straits of Banka and Gaspar, or for that of Singa- 
pore. In March and April the outer route is the quickest by the Macclesfield 
Bank. She ought, during these two months, to keep out to sea as far as the 
latitude of Pulo Sapata, or take the route proposed by Capt. Stephens down 
the West coast of Luzon, Palawan, and Borneo, as described in a foot-note 
on p. 62. Some useful remarks by Capt. Polaek will also be found on p. 86. 

On the contrary, during the other months than March and April, a vessel 
should take the inner channel, which is comprised between Hainan and the 
Paracel Islands, when she would without difficulty reach the Straits of Sin- 
gapore, Banka, and Gaspar. From these two latter a course should be 
steered for the strait of Sunda. On leaving this strait the parallel of 10° N. 
should be crossed in 100° E. longitude, and then shape a direct course for 
the South point of Madagascar, as is described in the Directions for the 
Indian Ocean. This route crosses the area of the course of hurricanes ; con- 
sequently they are often encountered by vessels from the eastern seas. 


The In'xer Route is the most direct for reaching the straits leading from 
the China Sea ; it has also this advantage, that vessels have the wind aft as 
soon as the Great Ladrone has been passed. A ship taking this route should 
steer from the Great Ladrone, so as to pass near the islands of Taya and 
Paracels at a convenient distance to the West. It is estimated that the 
current sets westward at the rate of 15 or 20 miles a day, for the currents 
are strong near the coast of China, although it may not be the case out at 
sea. If it should be observed that the ship is drifted much towards the 
West, she must shape her course to allow for it, until she has reached the 
parallel of 17° W., and entered the channel between the Paracels and Cochin 
China. Having reached the parallel indicated, and the meridian of 106°, a 
course should be steered so as to sight Cape Yarela, or the Pagoda. With 
clear weather and an E.N.E. or N.E. wind, a ship may sight Pulo Canton 
(also called Callao Kay) or the coast situated South of this island, and then 
keep a moderate distance from the shore ; if the weather be cloudy, and the 
wind has a tendency to become easterly, it would be more prudent not to 
approach the coast till she is in the latitude of Cape Varela, nor enter the 
Bay of Phouyin to the North of this cape. 

In case the conical mountain be visible on the North shore of this bay, it 
will indicate the position of the cape, for as night approaches, the pagoda on 
the height, which commands it, is obscured by clouds. Having passed to 
the South of the parallel of 15° N., it will be found that the current sets 
southward near the land; for between 14° 30' and 11° 30' it often sets at the 
rate of 40, 50, and even 60 miles a day ; but it is very variable. It is indis- 
pensable to make for Cape Varela when land has not been seen to the North 
of this point, from whence the coast may be kept at a distance of 12 or 15 
miles. When a ship is East of Cape Varela, distant about 4 or 5 miles, she 
can steer along the shore by day ; but at night must be careful to avoid 
Pyramid Isle, and those near to it. If the night be fine, she can sight these 
islands, as they may be made out at a few miles distant. Water Islands 
should then be steered for, which are 21 miles to the southward, and can 
also be seen. When these islands are reached, if the land is more than 12 
miles off, it will be necessary to approach it, to sight the mountain of False 
Cape Varela, which can be distinguished among the high lands of the coast 
by its elevation and gentle slope towards the sea. 

In order to keep inshore and pass to the West of the Dutchman Bank, a 
vessel should cross Padaran Bay as soon as she is abreast of the high lands 
of Cape Varela. This is necessary, because the currents in this part take a 
S.S.E. direction, and it is very difficult for ships out at sea to approach this 
coast. When a vessel is in a good position for crossing the bay, the sound- 
ings will be found to be 40 and 50 fathoms. Then, during the night, Cape 
Padaran should be made on the starboard bow. On recognizing this cape, 
great care should be taken, as it is difficult to distinguish it from the high 


lands in the bay. On having sighted Cape Padaran, it may be passed at 
about 3 or 6 miles ; and Pulo Ceicir may be doubled at the same distance on 
keeping this island to the West. In case ships are only 1 or 2 miles from the 
cape, a course should be steered to pass at a convenient distance from Pulo 
Ceicir. When this island is doubled in the day, at 4, 6, or 6 miles to sea- 
ward, it should be brought to bear N.N.E. ^ N. before being lost sight of 
from the deck, and then steering 18 or 21 miles between W.S.W. and S.W. 
by W., as most convenient, will pass West of Dutchman Bank, when a 
South course may be steered for Pulo Aor. 

This route is not dangerous when the night is clear enough to admit of 
distinguishing the cavern of Padaran. In this case, when a ship is 3, 4, or 
5 miles from the cape, she must take the most convenient route till she sights 
the Cavern ; and when it bears N. by E.,,she will be off Pulo Ceicir. If 
in this case soundings are found at 11 or 20 fathoms, she should stand off 
from it a little, because the island is too low to be seen at night, and in thia 
part of the channel the soundings are too irregular to serve as a guide. 
The Cavern bearing N. 16° E., Pulo Ceii ir is in the same direction ; and by 
running 18 or 20 miles nearer between W.S.W. and S.W. by W., Dutch- 
man Bank may be passed on the West, and then steer for Pulo Aor. If 
the night should be dark when near Padaran, and the Cavern not to be 
distinguished, the vessel must be kept between South and West till she is 
about 12 or 13 leagues from the cape, and in this case it is best not to ap- 
proach the coast or Pulo Ceicir with less than 6 fathoms of water, and 
Dutchman Bank should not be approached in less than 18 or 20 fathoms. 
Between the western edge of this bank and the eastern edge of Britto Shoal, 
which is nearest to it, there is a distance of 14 or 15 leagues, between which 
there is a large channel, which may be taken in the night. A ship should 
keep in soundings of 15 or 16 fathoms, until she is 5 or 6 leagues more to 
the South of Pulo Ceicir ; and when she is 13 leagues to the S.W. of Cape 
Padaran it will be best to run again between the South and West to the dis- 
tance of 2 or 3 leagues, so as to give a wide berth to the Holland Bank. A 
vessel should not take more than 20 fathoms depth, till she has passed thia 
bank, nor less than 16 fathoms when she is near Britto Bank, if she is a 
little to the West. 

In taking the route between these two banks the soundings will be found 
to vary between 10 and 11 fathoms; and when the western part of the 
Holland Bank is passed a vessel should keep in 10 or 11 fathoms, and steer 
towards Pulo Aor. The route between Pulo Ceicer and Holland Bank cannot 
be taken in the night, except by captains who are well acquainted with these 
parts, consequently, often while waiting for days, a vessel is obliged to 
lay off Cape Varela. Besides the loss of time which is thus occasioned, a 
ship has to contend with a heavy sea, when the breeze is strong ; and for 
this reason mariners generally preter passing through the passage outside 


Pulo Ceicir and Pulo Sapata. When a vessel finds herself near Ealse Cape 
Varela at nightfall, with a wind too strong to haul up to, or bad weather, 
and not wishing on account of the darkness to pass between Holland Bank 
and Pulo Cecir de Mer, she should steer a course to the East of Pulo Cecir 
de Mer, and then outside Pulo Sapata the next morning. She may run far 
enough out to sea if the weather is gloomy, after passing a good distance 
from these isles. When the wind is strong the currents run to the S. W. and 
W.S.W. with great rapidity, and sometimes towards Pulo Sapata. A ship 
would then be obliged to pass the night in the narrow channel between this 
island and the Little Catwik. 

In the day, in fine weather, a ship may keep as near as she likes to Pulo 
Cecir de Mer, and pass between Pulo Sapata and the Large Catwik ; she 
can also pass between the two Catwicks, only it must be remembered that 
the Paix Rock is in the channel formed by these two islands ; from there 
she may steer direct for Pulo Aor. On arriving at Pulo Timoan during a 
fog, you must keep in soundings of 28 or 30 fathoms, afterwards passing 
East of this island for Pulo Aor. As these islands are often concealed in the 
fog, great care must be taken to avoid them, and attend to the reckoning, 
especially during the night. Near the Anambas, and to the North of them, 
a vessel generally has 36 to 44 fathoms. When she is between 5° 30' and 
6° N., these depths decrease in the western part of the channel, and 26 to 
28 fathoms on the meridian of Pulo Timoan. Having passed East of Pulo 
Aor at a distance of 2, 3, or 4 leagues, bound to the Strait of Banca, 
steer to the eastward of South, according to the wind and prevailing 
currents, and pass outside the Geldria Bank, which she may avoid by keep- 
ing in a depth of not less than 10 or 11 fathoms when between the parallels 
of 0° 56' and 0° 40' N. When this bank has been passed, a course should 
be steered so as to cross the equator, and pass 4 or 5 leagues from the 
East point of Lingin, if the current will admit. In all cases a vessel should 
guard against westerly currents, which are sometimes encountered in these 

Outer Eoute. — When the outer channel is adopted in coming from China 
towards Pulo Aor, a vessel ought to pass at a short distance West of the La- 
drones and neighbouring islands. In general, strong winds and a heavy sea 
with strong currents are found on leaving Great Ladrone, and a vessel should 
steer to eastward of South for the Macclesfield Bank ; and when the winds 
are moderate she should endeavour to reach the East part of it, When 20 
leagues East of the meridian of the Great Ladrone, and a vessel has difiiculty 
in obtaining soundings, she may consider herself East of the Macclesfield 
Bank. When a vessel has adopted the outer route in November and De- 
cember, with strong winds and no observations for several days, she should 
endeavour to strike soundings on the Macclesfield Bank ; but if she is certain 
of her position, these may be neglected, because from East to West on the 


bank being very wide, and the soundings being very irregular, the depth 
can only be an uncertain guide as to her real position. On leaving the 
Macclesfield Bank, she should steer for Pulo Sapata, and should have sound- 
ings on that bank, and it being on the same parallel it would be well for her 
to shape her course for that of Pulo Sapata. If she should not sight this 
island, she should steer West, so as to obtain soundings in 32 or 37 fathoms. 
With thick weather, when ships are uncertain of their position, it would be 
dangerous to run straight for Pulo Sapata and round the island in the night, 
as it is difiieult to distinguish. As a general rule, they should keep well to 
the East of Pulo Sapata until on the parallel of 10° N., and by standing 
West by South to obtain soundings. Some captains, on leaving the Mac- 
clesfield Bank, run as far as the parallel of Pulo Sapata, keeping well off to 
the eastward of the island ; this can be done in March, April, or May. How- 
ever, in adopting this route care must be taken to allow for the S.E. currents 
which might set a ship on the banks to the E.N.E. and East of Pulo Sapata. 
When a vessel has reached the parallel of 10° N., she would steer between 
West and South until soundings are found in 30 fathoms ; then steer a course 
for Pulo Aor or Pulo Timoan. If she is bound for the Strait of Singapore, 
to avoid the Charlotte Bank, the soundings should not be more than 26 or 28 
fathoms when in latitude 7° 6' N. In March and April vessels returning to 
Europe should keep well to the eastward, so as to pass between the Natunas 
and Anambas Islands, and take the Strait of G-aspar. 

Further remarks on these passages have been given on pp. 62 and 85, 
as has been alluded to. 


A more full description of the passages between Australia and China will 
be found in our Directory for the South Pacific Ocean. As described by 
Captain Allen, harbour-master at Newcastle, N.S.W., there were four prin- 
cipal routes in use by vessels between the years 1869 — 1873: — 1. The 
Eastern Poute, passing eastward of New Caledonia, the New Hebrides, and 
Santa Cruz Groups, and crossing the equator in 166° E. 2. The Middle 
Route, westward of New Caledonia, and between the Santa Cruz and Solo- 
mon Islands, crossing the equator in 159° E. 3. The Western Route, 
N.E. from Newcastle to the 157° meridian, thence North on that meridian 
to the Pocklington Reef in 11° S., crossing the equator in 153° E. 4. The 
Torres Strait Route, also from Newcastle, N.E. to the 157th meridian, then 
North on that meridian to the latitude of the Mellish Reef, and N. W. for 
Bligh's entrance to Torres Strait. When through Torres Strait the route is 
between the Tenimber and Arrou Islands, and by the passage between 
Ceram and Bouro into the Molucca Channel, then round the N.E. end of 


Celebes Island into the Celebes Sea, through the Basilan Channel into the 
Sulu Sea, and through Mindoro Strait into the China Sea. The distance 
from Nevvcastle to Hong Kong by this route is 5,300 miles, and it has been 
taken by one ship, between the years 1869 and 1873, the England, which 
made the passage in 41 days, in the month of July. Some further remarks 
as to the best route through the Archipelago will be found below. 

Much depends on the sailing qualities of the vessel, but as a general rule, 
ships leaving Australia in the months of January, February, or March, for 
China or Japan, should adopt the Middle Route, and may expect to make 
the passage in about 40 days ; leaving in April, May, or June, they should 
adopt the Western Route, and may expect to make the passage in about 36 
days ; leaving in July, August, or September, they should, if they can reach 
Torres Strait before the end of August, take that route ; and if not, either 
the Western or Middle Route, and may expect to make the passage via 
Torres Strait in 40 days, and by the other routes in 55 days ; and, finally, 
ships leaving in October, November, and December, should adopt the Middle 
Route, and may expect to make the passage in about 44 days. 

Eeom Sydney to Yedo. — Vessels bound from Sydney to Japan during 
the S.W. monsoon should pursue, as far as lat. 8° N.. and long. 160° E., the 
same course as those bound for Hong Kong ; from that position a course 
should be shaped to pass to the northward of the Mariana Islands and to 
the south-westward of the Volcano Islands, after passing which, steer to 
make Sima lights, remembering that the ship must pass the strength of 
the Kuro Siwo, and wiU, when in its stream, be set to the north-eastward 
from 2 to 3 knots an hour. 

North Coast of Australia to China. — The following remarks are by 
Mr. Greorge Windsor Earl : — 

A ship proceeding from the North coast of Australia to China, from April 
to September, when the S.E. monsoon prevails to the southward, and the 
S.W. monsoon to the northward of the equator, should pass to the southward 
of Timor and Sandalwood Island, and through the straits of Alias or Lom- 
bok into the Java Sea ; and from thence through the Carimata Passage, and 
up the China Sea to Canton, by which course she will have a stronger mon- 
soon and a clearer sea than by passing to the northward of Timor, and 
through the Flores Sea ; or than by running at once to the northward, 
through the Molucca Passages. By this latter route, instead of a fair and 
steady wind all the voyage, difficulty would be experienced in passing be- 
tween Borneo and Palawan into the China Sea, from the variable winds, and 
from the numerous shoals which lie to the westward of the Balabak Passage. 
The passage by the North of Palawan to China is also often attended with 
difficulty during the S.W. monsoon ; and an additional inconvenience of 
these routes is, that the navigation of the Molucca Sea will be performed 
during the bad monsoon. 


Ships returning from China to the North coast of Australia during this 
season should pursue the track frequently adopted by ships bound to Europe, 
namely, by standing to the eastward, round the North end of the Philippines 
into the Pacific, and so to the southward towards New Guinea. When past 
the parallel of 5° N., S.E. and S.S.E. winds, with a strong current to the 
westward, will probably be felt, by which she may easily pass through Dam- 
pier Strait, or the Gilolo Passage, into the Molucca Sea. She may then pass 
between Coram and Bouro, and across the Banda Sea to Wetta, when no 
difficulty will be found in getting to the eastward along the North side of the 
Serwatty Islands, as the current there sets to the eastward during the S.E. 
monsoon. When off Baba, she may stand to the southward for the coast of 
Australia, and if she should fall to leeward of her port, she may easily gain 
her easting by taking advantage of the land and sea breezes. 

Again, if a vessel is bound from the North coast of Australia to China 
from October to March, when the western monsoon prevails to the southward 
of the equator, and the N.E. monsoon in the China Sea, she should, on leav- 
ing the coast, keep close to the wind, and as the monsoon often blows 8.W. 
and even S.S.W. between Australia and Timor, she may be enabled to pass 
between Timor and the Serwatty Islands and through Pitt Passage into the 
Pacific, and thus pursue the eastern route to China adopted by ships at this 
season. If unable to get far enough to windward to pass between Ceram and 
Bouro, she may run at once to the northward, between Ceram and Ceram 
Laut, and from thence into the Pacific by Pitt or Damj)ier Straits. The only 
difficulty that an indifferent ship would be likely to encounter in this route 
would be on the passage between Ceram Laut and the N.W. end of New 
Guinea, where the winds would probably be from the N.W. ; but even then 
she would have the advantage of fine weather. The route from the North 
coast of Australia, through the Flores and Java Seas, and up the China Sea 
to Canton, would be impracticable at this season, even for a fast sailing 
vessel, as she would have a dead beat and a lee current the whole way. 

A ship returning from China during this season may steer a direct course 
through the Mindoro Sea, and thence by the Molucca Passage, and past the 
N.E. end of Timor to the North coast of Australia. 



A vessel bound to Singapore from April to September may pursue the 
route recommended above for ships bound to China at this season, namely to 
the southward of Timor, through the Straits of Alias and Cariraata, and 
thence through Rhio Strait to Singapore. The return voyage at that season, 
through the Java Sea, against the S.E. monsoon, would be tedious and diffi- 


cult, even for a smart ship ; it would, tlierefore, be most advisable to run 
across the China Sea, and round the North end of Borneo, where she would 
probably have the advantage of S.AV. and S.S.W. winds, to traverse the 
Sooloo Archipelago. When near the Molucca Passage, though the winds 
will be mostly from the southward, yet but little difficulty will be experienced 
in passing through it ; and when through, the route to the North coast of 
Australia, already recommended for vessels returning from China at this 
season, should be adopted. 

From October to March, the passage to Singapore through the Java Sea, 
against the N.W. monsoon, will be tedious and difficult ; a ship bound there 
during that season should therefore proceed to the northward by the Molucca 
or Gilolo Passage, where she would have the advantage of tine weather, and 
when to the northward of Grilolo the wind would probably come from the 
northward and eastward, with a westerly current, which would enable her to 
proceed round the North end of Borneo, and so with the N.E. monsoon, 
down the China Sea to Singapore. A ship returning at this season should 
pass through the Carimata Passage, through the Java and Floras Seas, and 
then to the southward of Wetta, and between Timor and the Serwatty 
Islands, to the North coast of Australia. It would be advisable to proceed 
through the Strait of Alias, and to the southward of Timor, as light airs and 
calms, with squalls from the South and S.S.W., are often encountered to the 
southward of the islands East of Java, while in the Flores Sea the N.W. 
monsoon blows steadily. 

In the S.W. Monsoon. 

The adverse voyage against the S.W. monsoon is best followed by adopt- 
ing one of the ensuing routes, according to the time when the southern part 
of China is left. 

First Eastern Eoute. — Quitting Macao, or Hong Kong, in the end of 
April or beginning of May for the first Eastern Eoute, that is, the Mindoro 
Strait, a ship should run to the South as far as the Macclesfield Bank, if the 
wind allows, so as to reach the N.W. extreme of Mindoro without tacking 
in case of the wind shifting to S.W. From near the Macclesfield she should 
stand S.E., holding her wind if it is at all to the S.W., and should it not 
admit of her weathering the point of Calavite she should work along the 
coast of Lu^on with the variable winds, with which she will come up to the 
N.W. extremity of Mindoro. 

The channel to the East of the Apo Bank should be chosen for crossing 
the Mindoro Strait, giving the Mindoro coast a berth of some miles, if the 
wind is variable ; a distance of 9 or 10 miles is necessary if the S.W. wind is 

I. A. M 


steady ; she will then pass the islands of Ambolon and Ilin at a distance of 
about 15 miles. 

Should the wind allow, she may cross the Strait of Mindoro, passing West 
of the Apo Lank, in the Northumberland Channel, formed by this bank and 
the Calamianes. Then keep along the coast of Panay, working, if necessary, 
at some distance from this island, according to circumstances, and approach 
the island of Quiniluban, so as to pass the dry sandbank between this island 
and the coast of Panay. 

Having reached Cape Naso, stand for the strait of Basilan, making it well 
to the southward and westward, when the wind is from these quarters : but 
steering direct for it if the wind is easterly. The S.W. extreme of Min- 
danao being gained, it will be better to take the strait of Basilan than those 
formed by the islands to the S.W., the former route being the shortest ; the 
Celebes Sea will thus be entered, and the ship will make fur the strait of 

Instead of persevering in working at the entrance of the strait of Basilan 
against S.E. winds, it may be better to steer West, in order to pass West of 
the Sooloo Archipelago, between the point of Unsang and the island of 
Tawee-Tawee. There are two small islands close off the S.W. point of this 
island, bearing S.W., near Sibutu Island, and forming a good channel lead- 
ing direct to the Celebes Sea. This channel is safe, and easy of navigation 
both by night and day, four hours sufl&cing for passing from one sea to 
the other by it, while under similar circumstances it has sometimes occupied 
four days in going from one sea to the other by the strait of Basilan. 

To leave the Celebes Sea, a vessel may either take the Macassar Strait or 
the Molucca Channel. Some navigators prefer the latter when the S.E. 
monsoon prevails North of the equator. In fact, it is difficult, without a 
tedious passage to windward, to reach Allass Strait from the strait of Ma- 
cassar ; while by taking the Molucca Channel the S.E. monsoon is found in 
a latitude sufficiently to the eastward to enable you to take whichever eastern 
channel is preferred. But vessels bound to Batavia, or the strait of Sunda, 
will find the strait of Macassar the best. 

On leaving the strait of Basilan, if the easterly wind is well established, a 
vessel should steer so as to make Cape Donda to the S.S.E. or South ; but 
most generally, from the winds veering westward near the northern entrance 
of the strait, and the current setting eastward, it is prudent to keep as much 
as possible to the westward, in order to sight Point Kanneeungan. A ship 
off Cape Rivers is sometimes set to the eastward by the current along the 
coast of Celebes, and after fruitless contest with it, is sometimes obliged to 
take the Molucca Channel. 

A ship having entered the strait of Macassar, should keep along the West 
coast of Celebes, passing East of the Little Paternosters, being very cautious, 
on account of the dangers North of the islands of Nusa Seras, in passing be- 


tween them and the Grreat Pulo Laut. From thence she should steer for the 
strait of Alias, or one of the straits leading into the Indian Ocean. If 
bound to Batavia or the strait of Sun da from the strait of Macassar, she 
should steer South, if the wind will permit, and pass North of the Little 
Paternosters for the coast of Borneo, keeping along this coast and guarding 
against the dangers off it, as well inshore as to seaward. She would then 
enter the Java Sea, and reach Batavia or the strait of Sunda without diffi- 
culty ; and thence the Indian Ocean, and make for the Cape, or the western 
coast of India, by the routes before alluded to. 

A ship taking this route, and meeting with contrary winds from the strait 
of Basilan, so as to be unable to reach the strait of Macassar, may take the 
Molucca Passage, and should then steer for the islands near the N.E. end of 
Celebes ; and passing between the islands of Banka and Bejaren, will clear 
the N.E. point of that island, and tlien steer to the southward, through the 
channel formed by Lissa Matula and Oby Major, which is the most fre- 
quented ; or, if the wind should not permit her reaching it, should take the 
Grreyhound Channel, between the islands Albion and Hammond (West of 
Xulla Tally abo). 

When it is difficult to get to the southward in the Molucca Channel, dull 
sailing vessels might try to do so by keeping near the West coast of Gilolo ; 
thence they might enter the strait of Patientia, between GiLdo and Batchian, 
or the strait of Batchian, formed by the island of this name and Tawally and 

However, a ship having reached the northern extremity of Gilolo or 
Morty in the height of the S. W. monsoon, should rather pass through the 
Grilolo Channel than that of the Moluccas, because it leads more directly to 
Pitt Channel, by which she can gain the eastern straits. 

On leaving the Molucca Channel the Timor Strait or the strait of Ombay 
may be adopted if desirable. A ship should then pass close to Oby Mnjor, 
in order easily to round the East coast of Bourou, and so pass between this 
island and that of Manipa. She would then run to the southward into the 
Banda Sea, whei'e the winds are generally from E.S.E. ; on leaving Manipa 
she would endeavour to pass to the East of Ombay, and having crossed the 
channel formed by this island and Wetta, would follow the West coast of 
Timor, and enter the Indian Ocean between Semao and Savu. This is the 
shortest route during this season from Pitt Passage to the Indian Ocean. 

Segokd Easterk' Route. — The second eastern route for the Cape or West 
coast of India from China, with the S.W. monsoon, is adopted from the 
middle of May to the end of July. This route is by taking the Pacific Ocean 
East of the Philippines, and passing through Pitt Passage. In August it is 
too late to adopt this route, and a ship obliged to leave the S.W. of China 
thou, should follow the coasts of Cochin China and Cambodia, as before di- 


rected, unless from being a bad sailer it may be better to defer her departure 
until September. 

With southerly or S.W. winds, a ship to pass East of the Philippinea 
should steer South in order to enter the Pacific Ocean with tacking. If the 
wind admits, the channel between the Bashees and Babuyanes should be 
adopted. Having reached the Pacific Ocean, S.W. winds at this season will 
generally be found, with easterly or N.E. currents ; she should then steer 
8.E. in order to avoid Cape Engano and Lugon, tacking if necessary so aa 
to pass neither too far out nor too close, and taking care not to round the 
Pelew Islands farther to the eastward than is necessary. 

The best route for making southing is then East of the isles of St, Andrew, 
Current, Mariere, Lord North, and the dangerous Helen Shoal. If the 
easterly drifts of the equatorial counter current are met they will not be 
strong as far as the Pelew Islands ; but between lat. 5° and 2° N. they set 
at the rate of 30 or 60 miles per day. This part must therefore be crossed 
as quickly as possible if the wind is West, as it frequently is ; and if the 
wind is light, a ship may be set far to the eastward by this current. But 
from the lat. of 2° N. to the equator a westerly current will be found, while 
near Dampier Strait it is again running to the eastward. 

Having rounded to the eastward the island of St. Andrew, a ship should 
endeavour to keep between the meridians of 132° and 133° E., and when 
in 1° N. lat., if Dampier Strait is to be taken, she should make for Point 

The strait of Gilolo being broader than that of Dampier, is often preferred 
for that reason, and it has few difficulties to overcome in reaching Pitt 

When Gilolo Strait is to be adopted, on leaving the parallel of 2° N, a 
ship should steer for the Asia Isles, and round them on the North, if the 
wind permits, unless she passes between these islands and Ayou. 

Having passed the islands of Eye and Syang, she would then go North 
or South of the island of Greby, and if the weather be not favourable, instead 
of the strait of Bougainville she might take that of Grilolo, which is North of 
it ; and in crossing this strait she should keep near the eastern coast, and 
enter Pitt Channel between Pulo Pisang and the Boo Isles, or else, accord- 
ing to circumstances, between Kekek and Pulo Gass. 

A vessel entering Dampier Strait should round Point Pigot at a distance 
of 6 or 12 miles, and then steer for King William Island, keeping it West 
of her ; when about 9 miles from it she should steer for Pigeon Island, and 
pass 2 or 3 miles South of it ; she may then cross the strait, taking care to 
avoid any dangers in her way. 

On leaving Dampier Strait she would go close round Cape Mabo, so as if 
posssible to pass South of Pulo Popa ; or she may pass North of this island 


and enter Pitt Channel bet'veen the Boo Islands and Pulo Popa. In Pitt 
Channel she should keep mid-channel, borrowing rather on the southern 
than on the northern side. Having reached West of Pulo Popa, and cleared 
Pitt Passage, passing between Ceram and Bourou, the Indian Ocean may be 
entered by the strait of Ombay or one of those westward of it. 

The strait of Ombay is the most direct route to the Indian Ocean in the 
S.E. monsoon. If intending to take the strait of Salayer, or those of Alias 
or Sapie, the N.W. part of Bourou should be gained, and thence the most 
northerly of the Toukan Bessy group should be rounded at 2 or 3 miles 
distance ; and from thence enter the strait of Salayer. 


In pages 28 to 30, are given some remarks on the currents experienced in 
the China Sea ; and in pages 55 to 63 are directions for the various routes, 
according to the season, between Singapore and Hong Kong. 

The following important notes are the result of the experience and obser- 
vation of Captain A. Polack, master of the Hamburgh barque Madeira, 
gained during thirty-five voyages up and down the China Sea, previous to 
November, 1867. They appeared in the Nautical Magazine for June, 1861, 
and are here given for the benefit of the mariner. 

Although there is a fast and still increasing trade from China to Saigon, 
it is astonishing how very little this voyage up and down the China Sea 
against the monsoon is yet known and understood in general, for the greatest 
difference of arriving in China (as to time) exists in this little Saigon voyage 
of only about 1,100 miles distance. Ships which are acquainted with the 
voyage here make it in nineteen to twenty-three days, while the greater part 
not being well acquainted with it, require between thirty and forty-five days. 
A barque in 1865 took one hundred and ten days, and worse than all, another 
actually returned this year to Hong Kong, after having been out about 
sixtj' days, declaring it impossible to reach Saigon in the S. W. monsoon. As 
I have made now fifteen voyages from Hong Kong to Saigon and back, and 
traversed the South China seas up and down, and in all seasons of the year, 
thirty-five times, I hope you will hold me competent enough, and will 
allow me to give my brother sailors, who do not know the voyage, a little of 
my experience. 

Leaving Hong Kong in the S.W. Monsoon, our first object ought to be 
to make southing, and try to reach the North Danger of the Palawan Shoals 
as soon as possible. But as the wind is most generally between S.S.E. and 
S.S.W. at starting, I nearly always stood W.S.W. and S.S.W. between Isle 


Hainan and the Paracels even to the East coast of Cochin China, and worked 
along this coast as far as Cape Varela {not False Varela), always trying 
to be a good distance, say 40 miles oflE shore at noon, to stand in with 
the S.S.E. winds generally blowing in the aftf-rnoon, until 7 or 10 p.m. 
Then stand off with the wind, then veering a little off land, or about South 
and S.S.W. {solar winds). From Cape Varela I invariably stood to the 
south-eastward over to the Palawan Shoals, never thinking of going about, 
for here my greatest endeavour was to cross the Padaran stream of 40 to 70 
miles a day to the N.E. as quickly as possible. I then worked along the 
shoals down to 7° N., and 111° or 110° E. long., and between 7° and 8° 
N. lat. 

I worked from two to four days to the westward, until St. James bore 
N.W. by N., which I then generally reached in one or two days in one tack. 
In this track my longest voyage was twenty-three and my shortest nineteen 
days, at same time when other vessels took fifty and eighty-five days. In 
this route I generally had the current from Hong Kong (Taytang Channel) 
and Macao, to the South coast of Hainan from ten to twenty-four miles a 
day to the N.W. ; from there to the East coast of Cochin China the current 
varies between North, N.W., and West, from 15 to 25 miles a day, but on 
the West side of the Paracels an East current of 12 to 30 miles will be found. 
On the East coast of Cochin China it runs from 10 to 20 miles a day to the 
N.N.W. and N.N.E., but there is often no current at all. From Cape 
Varela to the shoals I generally had the first day when right in the Padaraa 
stream from 30 to 50 (one voyage 70') miles to the N.E. by E., but from 
12° N. and about 112° E., its set is from 12 to 40 miles a day to the south- 

On the shoals there is about 20' to the S.E., and sometimes to the South, 
but often no current at all. Between 7° and 8° N. lat, and 110° to 108° E. 
long., there is little or no current, sometimes even a slight drain to the 
westward. But standing over to Cape St. James a strung N.N.E. and 
N.E. by N. current of 36 miles a day will be found, while South of St. 
James it runs E.N.E. along the coast from Pulo Obi to Cape Padaran. 

Should the wind at starting from Hong Kong be from the S.W., stand 
down S.S.E. ; never think of going about till in 15° N., unless the wind 
should break off too much. In this track in the open sea, there is generally 
not over 20 miles a day of a N.E. current, especially after the strong E.N.E. 
China coast current, extending 60 to 75 miles South of Hong Kong, is 

South of 15° N. lat., and in 115° E. long., or to the East of it, is very 
little current. I always give the preference to the inside track, for here 
the winds are more variable, the sea smoother, and getting the chance of a 
West or N.W. squall from land. Besides this, a vessel reaches the Palawan 
Shoals 60 or 80 miles farther West, and westing is very difficult to make 


there, especially after July, when the S.W. monsoon blows from W.S.W. 
or West. 

This voyage, as explained here, is quite plain and simple, but if asked, 
" Where were the other vessels who took from fifty to eighty-five days in 
their passage ?" There is but one general answer. They tried to round 
Cape Padaran. Here they were lying for forty consecutive days, sometimes 
with a dozen and more ships together. This year a barque took thirty-five 
days from Japan to Padaran, but sixty days from there to Cape St. James, 
running short of everything, and had to be provisioned by other vessels. 
They sometimes go as far as Sapata, but never thinking that, bound to St. 
James in 10° 10' N., they ought to go due South as far as 7° N. lat., and 
even ships on the shoals in 9° or 10° N. and about 111° E., get tempted to 
stand W.N.W., intending to pass between Pulo Sapata amd Pulo Ceicer. 
But when making the land, they find themselves between Padaran and 

I know several instances of this. Or that a ship made a N.N.E. course 
sailing W.N.W. Although some vessels did make Padaran, and made a 
good passage (assisted perhaps by a N.W. squall), they form an exception, 
and may not do the same again in ten more voyages. AVhereas the track 
along the shoals, and although about 300 miles longer, is pretty certain. 

My short advice, therefore, is, go either East or West of the Paracels, and 
make the shoals of Palawan as soon as possible. A ship taking the inside 
route should work between the Cochin China coast and 40' off it, but should 
not remain there in the night, as there is seldom a land breeze, but much 
calm. Having reached the shoals as aforesaid, work along them, standing 
to 60 miles off. Never think of Padaran or Sapata, and do not leave the 
shoals unless in 8° or 7° N. lat., as stated before, or you will surely be dis- 

Bound from Saigon to China in the N.E. Monsoon. — Stand out to the 
S.E. and tack, even if the wind should be from East 40' off the land. The 
wind will haul up to E.N.E. and N.E., then try to pass the S.W. current 
(which runs the first day at the rate of 30 to 40 miles) as fast as you can ; 
for about 150 miles S.E. by E. from St. James, in about 8° 30' N. and 109° 
E., the current runs already to the East and E.N.E. AVorking along the 
shoals, between them and 60 miles off from lat. 9° N., as far as North 
Danger, about 75 miles off, will be right in the fair N.E. and northerly 
current (right against the wind), but I am inclined to believe that a ship 
should not go nearer the shoals than about 20 miles from them, because the 
northerly current extends not so far East, for I have often found there no 
current at all. From North Danger to about 119° E., an easterly current 
from about 10 to 40 miles will be found. But in the early part of October 
the current off the North Danger runs from 10 to 15 miles to the S.E. 


Along the West coast of Lugonia the wind is from N.N.W. to N.E, and 
East, with fine weather and 15 to 24 miles current to the North, but from 
Bolina it blows generally heavy, with a high, short northerly sea. If the 
first puff off Bolina is passed, and 100 or 150 miles are made to the N.W., 
the wind and sea are getting more handy and regular, and change one or two 
points farther to the East. But the ship wants canvas here, and must be in 
good and sound condition, for the sea rises here in short and high pyramids, 
on account of the hitherto uninterrupted northerly current, assuming here a 
velocity of 52 miles a day to the N.W. by N. and N.W., and running oblique 
to the N.E. sea. My longest voyage in this track was twenty-two days, and 
my shortest nineteen days from Saigon to Hong Kong. In February and 
October, a ship should not go East of the Scarborough Shoal, for in Febru- 
ary it is not necessary, and in October there will be nothing but calms and a 
high northerly sea running. 

This voyage against the N.E. monsoon is sometimes very easy, and done 
in less than nineteen days. But it is in general a difficult task, especially in 
November, December, and January, and requires a good ship and plenty of 
canvas on her, especially on the West side of the Palawan shoals, where the 
sea, running right against a North and N.E. current, is as high and short 
here as from Bolina to the Pratas. But many ships in this voyage commit a 
great error in working along the South coast of Cochin China and try to get 
out of Padaran, which is nearly impossible on account of the strong W.S.W. 
current and always very short sea. 

After reaching Cape Bolina, and finding the above mentioned stiff gale and 
tremendous high cross sea, and thinking it blows a heavy gale all over to 
China, ships make a second mistake by creeping under the land again and 
waiting there sometimes for a fortnight, expecting better weather. And this 
is the same case with many ships South of Formosa when bound North along 
its East coast. 

My advice, therefore, is stand boldly out, and remember that the current 
will assist you first with 50, and afterwards with 20 miles a day to the 
N.W. by N., as far as the Pratas. And at 60 miles from the China coast 
the wind will be about E.N.E., and sea moderating as you close the South 
China coast. But keep the first day from Cape Bolina good rap full, even if 
you head the first day to leeward of Hong Kong, and should a ship really 
fall to leeward of Taytang Channel, let her proceed in at the Ladrones, from 
which Hong Kong will be reached in one day. If bound to Swatow, Amoy, 
and the northern ports of China, work as far as Cape Bayadere, and then 
stand out N.W. or N.N.W., making long legs to the North, and short ones 
to the East, especially for the first 150 miles, where the strong N.N.W. 
current will be under your lee. South Formosa will generally be reached 
in three to four days, from whence to South Pescadores, and over to Swatow 
and Amoy, is plain sailing, and will be reached in one tack. 


Bound to l^'ou-Chou-Foo and further North, ships have to pass round the 
South Cape of Formosa, and work to the northward East of the island, where 
the Kuro Si wo current will assist them 40 miles a day, decreasing to 20 
miles as they advance to the northern boundary of the current in about 28° N. 
and 125° E. long., from where Shanghae is reached without diificulty. But 
always remember that the cold water current runs strong to the South on the 
East coast of China. Bound to Fou-Chou-Foo they may cross over from 
26° N. lat., and about 122J° E. long, in one tack. 

A voyage up and down the China Sea with the monsoon presents no diffi- 
culty, but I would advise captains of ships to pass East of the Paracels, for 
in the S.W. monsoon the winds there are more steady and fresh than inside, 
or West of them, and a vessel has more sea room in case of a cyclone. After 
having passed to the West of Macclesfield Bank, steer a N. by W. or N. by 
W. ^ W. course, on account of a N.E. current, and the winds blowing often 
from W.S.W. and West. December and January, and in some years the 
latter half of November, are the only months in the N.E. monsoon that I 
would advise to pass inside the Paracels when bound South, but which ou^ht 
never to be done from February to the end of May on account of calms, and 
always lighter winds than in the open sea. I never went inside in these 
months, but gained on ships which did so, from eight days to a fortnight in 
the months of March, April, and May, bound South, as well as in the S.W. 
monsoon from June to September when bound North. 

Every one who has perused the foregoing attentively will perceive that it 
is not the wind only that causes the long and troublesome passage, but that 
we have to consider the current as our greatest enemy. And as it has been 
my principal object from the beginning to make myself thoroughly acquainted 
with the subject, I beg leave to trouble you a little longer, and give you a 
slight illustration of my views about it, founded on the experience of my 

Currents. — In the first place, I am positive when I assert that the whole 
current of the South China Sea is nothing but a large circular stream, in 
which the waters running from South have to pass North, in order to return 
down South again. Coming from the North through the Formosa Channel, 
and from the East by the Bashees, the first getting propelled by difi'erence 
of specific gravity, and accelerated by the N.E. monsoon, it rushes down to 
the S.W., without finding material obstruction, until met by Capes Varela 
and Padaran. Here its waters are turned oS" to the South, part of them or 
the northern branch runs W.S.W. along the Saigon coast to Pulo Obi, and 
crossing the Gulf of Siam to Malacca ; the main body, after having passed 
Padaran, resumes its course to the S.S.W., but the south-eastern part 
branches off to the South as far as 8° N. and 109° 20' E., from where it runs 
to the E. and E.N.E. as far as 9° N. and 110° E. There it turns N.N.E. 

I. A. N 


and from 10° 30' N. 111° 20' E. to the N.N.W. into its own whirl again, to 
give place to new waters of the great counter stream or whirpool. This ex- 
planation may be new, but it is, I fully believe, quite true, for I found it 
every voyage, bound North in the N.E. monsoon, only differing a little in 
force and direction according, perhaps, to the prevailing strange or light 
original main current. The E.N.E. and N.E. cui-rent or the first bend in 
this whirl runs strongest, and from 20 to 51 miles a day, decreasing as it 
advances North to about 25 and 15 miles when its direction is N.N.W. I 
Consider this branch 50 miles broad, and the diameter of the whole whirl, 
from Padaran to its southern extremity, about 180 miles, and from Padaran 
to the S.E. about 140 miles. 

If this whirl did not exist, how should we account for the strong N.E. 
current against a strong N.E. monsoon (and for the always sharp set about 
Sapata which we experience, and which Horsburg and the China Pilot men- 
tion), sometimes when the China Sea current to the North and S.W. of this 
whirl runs at the rate of 40 to 80 miles a day to the south-westward. This 
latter current I had in October, 1866, coming down from Hong Kong with 
the commencement of the N.E. monsoon, or why is there not a N.E. current 
in the N.E. monsoon, for instance, on the Macclesfield Bank, or at Pulo 
Condore as well ? After this current of the aforesaid main branch has run 
down to the Natunas, &c., it gets obstructed again on the coast of Borneo, 
by which a slight drain to the East is caused, running along the North 
coast of Borneo, through the Palawan Passage (assisted perhaps by a part 
of the aforesaid eastern counter current of the Palawan whirl), and along 
the West coast of Lugonia, to run from Capes Bolina and Bayadere N.N.W. 
in the great China circular current, and commence its round via Padaran 

This circular whirl-current about Padaran is the same in the S.W. mon- 
soon, but in a contrary direction, but not so constant and regular as in the 
N.E. monsoon. H.B.M's. surveying vessel the Rifleman found the same 
amongst the Palawan shoals, where the commarder says, "The stronger 
the monsoon, the stronger the current to windward,^'' and this is according to 
the whirl theory quite conclusive, for the greater and stronger the counter 
current and the larger the whirl (and the stiffer the monsoon, the stronger is 
the China Sea current). I have often seen and noticed in the Saigon River, 
where the ebb tide runs at the rate of A knots an hoar, in the middle of 
the river, after turning a sharp corner it causes a great counter current or 
whirl, in which the waters run 2 or 3 knots up the river close alongside 
the 5-knot ebb tide, so that a boat, and often my own vessel, when in it, 
drifted up the river at the above rate. And when a small river can pro- 
duce such a strong whirl, what may not the mighty mass of the China Sea 
current be able to do ? At all events I never found it necessary with the 
above N.E. current in the N.E. monsoon to take the Palawan Route, and 


my results have shown that I never was behind, but generally ahead of those 
vessels which did take that dangerous Palawan Route. 

This whirl current to the West of the Palawan shoals may also account 
for the different currents found by vessels which are working there at the 
same time, where one ship beats right in the counter stream, whilst the other 
is too far West or inside the whirl, or too far East and out of its influence 
altogether. And these little whirls are to be found around all the shoals in 
the China Sea, and although Horsburg recommends passing to leeward of 
all shoals, I have great reason from my own experience for cautioning cap- 
tains even there. To leeward of the Pratas I found on two voyages the 
current setting East, or right on the shoals, against a stiff N.E. monsoon in 
the months of December and January. Although this is the general current 
it is nevertheless liable to irregularities and changes, in force and direction, 
and perhaps more than anywhere else, which is not at all surprising in a 
small sea like this, full of islands and shoals, and entirely enclosed by land, 
causing different winds on either side of it, and on which the current so 
much depends. For sometimes it blows a stiff N.E. gale to the North, while 
it is calm South of the Paracels, and commanders expecting perhaps a slight 
current are surprised to find one sometimes of 50 miles by observation, but 
in eight cases out of ten the above explained current will be found pretty 

And lastly, I take the opportunity to caution captains against trusting too 
much to red or green lights when in the vicinity of the Pratas and Paracels, 
for they are often exhibited by wreckers and pirates, especially at the Pratas. 
I once observed a green light to windward of me on the West side of the 
Pratas. I kept four points off, and being a clear night, I went aloft with my 
glass, and saw two junks, one of which carried the light. 


The following remarks on the passages along the Coast of China and be- 
tween China and Japan are taken chiefly from the China Sea Directory, 
and are supplementary to those previously given which describe the best 
routes for approaching the southern ports of China. 


Passage East of Formosa. — When bound from Hong Kong to Ning-po, 
or Shanghai, or even to Fu-chau fu, during the N.E. monsoon, a vessel 
should be in good condition for contending with rough weather and for 
carrying sail. The best plan appears to be, to work along the coast as far 


as Breaker Point,* and then stretch across to the South end of Formosa, and 
work up eastward of that island. By remaining in with the coast of China, 
she will have the advantage of the land wind at night, of smoother water, 
and the ebb tide out of the deep bays, which will generally be under her le© 
on the starboard tack, and in the event of its blowing too hard to make way, 
there are numerous convenient anchorages. It will be prudent to keep within 
10 miles of the coast, to avoid being swept to the southward whilst standing 
off the land; but as this cannot be done at night without risk, a vessel 
should, if possible, anchor in the evening, and weigh in the middle watch, 
when the wind, generally coming more off the land, will enable her to make 
a good board on the off shore tack. By passing eastward of Formosa, also, 
a heavy short sea in the Formosa Channel will be avoided, as well as the 
constant set to the southward during the season. 

After rounding the South end of Formosa, off which there is generally & 
troublesome sea, a vessel should make short tacks, if requisite, to keep with- 
in the influence of the Kuro siwo or Japan stream, which has sometimes 
been found running northward at the rate of 30 or 40 miles per day. 

There are no harbours on the East coast of Formosa, except Su-au Bay, 
tow^ards the North end of the island, and deep water will be found close to 
the land. The mountains rise almost immediately from the sea ; their sides 
in some places are cultivated, and a good many houses will be seen. H.M. 
brig Plover anchored on an uneven bottom in Black Rock Bay, the vessel 
swinging from 13 to 22 fathoms, and rode out a gale from the S.W. ; but it 
is by no means to be recommended. 

Having weathered the North end of Formosa, it will be still advisable to 
keep to the eastward, and not approach the continent until the parallel of 
lat. 30^° N. is gained. Should, however, a vessel be driven to the westward, 
she may always calculate on smooth water, and be able to tide it through 
the southern part of the Chusan Archipelago ; and if disabled and in want of 

* Towards the close of the N.E. monsoon, and still later, it would seem preferable to 
cross over towards Luzon rather beat up to Breaker Point against tresh N.E. breezes, 
as the following remarks of Captain David W. Stephens, of the British ship Sarkaway, 
tend to show;—" Ships from Hong Kong, bound through the Bashee or any of the other 
channels between Formosa and Luzon, from March to June inclusive, but more particularly 
in March and April, during brisk N.E. winds and a strong westerly current, frequently 
take a week beating along shore to reach Breaker Point before standing off; whereas, if 
after clearing the Lema Channel the vessels had stood off on a wind, clean full to the S.E., 
they would soon have got out of the westerly current, and on nearing Luzon would expe- 
rience the wind more from the eastward and sometimes from S.E., enabling them to tack to 
the N.N.E. with a strong current in their favour, and thus would probably get to the east- 
ward of Formosa in less time than it would have taken to reach Breaker Point by keeping 
along the Coast of China." 


spars, she can remain at the southern side of Duffield Pass, and supply her- 
self from the Fu-chau wood junks. 

Upon this part of the voyage the following remarks, which appeared in 
the "Mercantile Marine Magazine" for 1865, will be interesting. They 
are by Capt. James Turnbull, of the Glen Clune, of Glasgow, and relate to 
an outward voyage made in September, 1864. 

The object of nearing Formosa, is to get into an easterly set in-shore, 
working round and joining the permanent great stream from the Pacific on 
the East side near Botel Tobago. This set is found as soon as the N.E. 
monsoon has set down the Formosa Channel, impelling the water, and thus 
making it perform the entire circuit of the island, down the West and up 
the East coast. While working off the South coast, wind northing, stood 
right for the Bashees, there tacked and fetched Botel Tobago, when we 
were fairly in the Japan current, temperature of water 83°, average daily 
set 30 to 36 miles N.N.E.. and made 70 to 80 miles per diem. From the 
East cape, too many vessels still commit the mistake of working to the 
northward, direct for Shanghai, whereas the current sets north-easterly 
right over the Hoa-pin-su Group. Follow it, drawing for its western edge 
a curve line from the E&st cape to 30 miles West of Hoa-pin-su, and on to 
the East side of the Linschoten or Cecille Group. Its eastern edge cannot 
be so well defined, but draw a line from Kumi to East of Raleigh Rock, and 
then past Sulphur Island and West of Lu-chu Group. The reason the 
western edge is better defined is, that it follows a sudden rise of the bottom, 
from ocean depth to about 50 fathoms. If you have an atlas on board, you 
will find the Japan stream placed 2° and 3° further south-easterly, that is 
just where a vessel woiild get the back eddies southwards, — any representa- 
tion that I have seen nf it being merely from the guesswork of generalisa- 
tion, not from actual observation. When the winter has set in the tempera- 
ture is a good guide on its N. W. side ; but in summer and fall, the heat of 
the water right up to the in-shore set of the China coast is nearly the same, 
81° to 82°. From Botel Tobago to off Sulphur Island I beat up in six days, 
then tacked, heading N.W. by W., and in two days fetched the Jight-ship, 
The Anglo Saxon and Sir W. F. Williams did the same with somewhat similar 
success, while of those who fought away North of Formosa, one went down, 
others sought refuge at Amoy to refit, and some came dropping in towards 
the middle of October, assisted by the southerly winds that often succeed 
the first six weeks of the N.E. monsoon. The sea is much the same as in the 
American Gulf Stream, and vessels that cannot stand it ought not to be sent 
to China. 

On making the Barren Islands, as nearly the whole flood tide sets S.W., 
keep to windward, and do not be tempted to seek shelter under the Saddle 
Islands. Either work in the open sea under a press of sail ; or, if possible, 
stand on until near the Amherst Rocks, when, if dark, anchor. You will 


have rough riding, but the pilot boats and coasters do so at all times in pre- 
ference to seeking shelter to leeward, as, in spite of the sailing directions, it 
is difficult to get back. Pilots are now in abundance, and in the N.E. .mon- 
Boon ships run up to Wusung, and there take steam. 

Amoy to Rivbr Min. — If bound from Hong Kong to Amoy, or the ports 
between that place and the River Min, a vessel will generally find a diffi- 
culty in getting round Breaker Point ; for the tide here is of no use, and all 
there is to assist is the likelihood that the wind will draw off the land after 
midnight, when, by being in-shore, a good board can be made, and possibly 
the Cape of Good Hope reached. Haimun Bay cannot be recommended, but 
still it would be better to anchor there than to be carried round the point. 
In this case, should West Hill be obscured, run in under the point, lower a 
boat, and let her find the sunken rock, and then come in with good 
way to windward of Parkyns Eock — if drawing less than 13 ft. — and shoot 
up round the boat into Fort Bay. 

Having reached the Cape of Good Hope, the flood will assist a vessel to 
round it, and the ebb out of the Han River will be a weather tide ; in the 
latter case, and not intending to go inside Namoa Island, endeavour to get 
along the South side of the island, where there is an eddy tide, and anchor 
in South Bay, should the weather prove too bad to proceed on the flood ; 
both tides will be found strong off Three Chimney Point, and the same may 
be said of Jakako Point, round which vessels should take the first of the 
flood on the port tack. 

Further northward about Rees Island, the flood tide in strong winds 
causes an uneasy sea, which will distress a vessel much. Red and Ting-tae 
Bays will be found good stopping-places ; and the latter should be preferred, 
though at the loss of 2 or 3 miles, to anchoring in an exposed position in the 
entrance to Amoy Harbour; as when the N.E. winds freshen off here on the 
flood, they generally bring a mist in with them, which makes it difficult to 
find the entrance, and at the same time a vessel will have trouble to get out 
of the harbour against the tide. 

To the northward of Amoy or Leeo-lu and Hu-i-tau Bays, both of which 
afford good shelter. Chimmo Bay is not so good ; but with plenty of good 
ground tackle vessels may ride in it. The current in the monsoon over- 
comes the tide here ; and advantage must be taken of every slant of wind, 
bearing in mind that it is likely to draw off the land in the middle watch, 
pnd in the event of anchoring for shelter, this is the time to start, should the 
wind moderate ; by waiting for daylight vessels lose their offing, and will 
have to make an off-shore board at a loss. The fogs are at times thick, but 
the lead is not a bad guide, as the soundings generally change from sand 
to mud as the shore is approached. There is also fair anchorage under 
Pyramid Point, but not so good as that under the South Yit ; and if the 


vessel is looking up North, or anything East of it, the ebb out of Meichen 
Sound will be of assistance. 

From the Lam-yit Islands or the South end of Hai-tan Strait to the Whit© 
Dogs is beyond doubt the most difficult part of the passage. With steamers 
the strait will afford the best route ; but sailing vessels should decidedly 
keep outside, and stretch over to the N.W. coast of Formosa, where they 
are likely to get a slant of wind, and the advantage of a weather tide j 
and as this portion of the coast has been surveyed, by attention to the sound- 
ings no vessel can come to any harm. 

EivER Mm TO Chusajj- Archipelago. — North of the Eiver Min the ebb 
is generally a weather tide (unless the wind is far to the North), and out 
of the river, and off Ting-hai and Sam-sah Bays, vessels will get a good 
lift ; and with the flood, the indraught into the latter will be sensibly felt 
as far out as Larne Islet, and increases to 2 and 3 knots as the main ia 
closed. As a general rule, tack for the in-shore tide, when the moon is on 
the meridian, 

Tung-ying Island will be found a strong anchorage, and here the coast 
should be forsaken (unless the vessel is under 12 ft. draught), and the deep 
water to the eastward kept in. The tide will afford but little assistance un- 
til the vessel arrives at the Chusan Archipelago ; the flood causes an un- 
easy sea in the shallow water, while the ebb has too much southing in it;, 
unless the wind is eastward of E.N. E. ; but Nam-ki and Pih-ki-shan Islands 
will afford good shelter. 

On reaching the Chusan Archipelago, take the Beak Head Channel, unless 
the tide is nearly done, in which case there is Harbour Eouse and the South 
side of Luhwang Island as anchorages under the lee ; and as the first of th© 
ebb runs to the northward through the Foto Channels, the tide through 
may be saved, and anchorage gained on the Ketau shore. From hence,, 
if bound to Ting-hai Harbour, contrive to arrive at the West end of Tower 
Hill Island about slack water ; otherwise, in light winds, the vessel is 
liable to be carried on to Just-in-the-Way, and even through the Blackwall 

In working through the North part of the Chusan Archipelago, as the set 
of the ebb and flood trends nearly East and West, advantage can always be 
taken of the tide, and vessels may count on feeling the influence of the ebb 
within an hour of the moon's meridian passage. When in the vicinity of 
Gutzlaff Island the first of the flood takes a direction to the southward of 
West, running into Hang-chu Bay. 

The eddy tide, generally speaking, will carry vessels clear of the large 
islands ; but when they are approaching detached rocks, great attention is 
required to prevent being set in amongst them. 


In-shoke Passage from Hong Kong to the Yang-tse Kiang.— These 
directions for making the in-shore passage from Hong Kong to the Yang-tse 
Kiang by vessels of moderate steam power, during the N.E. monsoon, are 
drawn up from a report by Commander C. E. Buckle, H.M.S. Frolic, 1876, 
aided by Mr. T. E. Cocker, commanding the Chinese Eevenue Cruiser Ling- 


A vessel should leave Hong Kong in time to anchor under Tam-tu Island 
for the night, if necessary, or by leaving earlier, to reach the well sheltered 
anchorage in Samun Road, between Tuni-ang and Samun Islands ; or in 
Harlem Bay. Leaving Tam-tu at daylight, pass out through Tathong 
Channel ; after rounding Tam-tu Island, steer to the westward of Nine-pin 
Group for Basalt Island, thence North of Tuni-ang Island for Harlem Bay. 
If in fine weather, and keeping to the southward, pass near to Single Island. 
Prom Harlem Bay, pass on either side of Middle Rock, round Eokai Point, 
and North of Pauk-Piah ; thence steer for Goat Island, where good anchor- 
age may be obtained on the N. W. side of the island. 

A vessel may either proceed to the southward of Goat Island and North of 
Reef Islands for Chelang Point, or pass to the southward of Reef Islands, 
and thence for Tong-mi Point (good anchorage wiU be found in Chino Bay). 
Pass to the northward of Si-ki Island, and South of Tung-ki, thence for 
Hutung Point and Turtle Rock, from which steer in-shore for, and through, 
Tungao Roads, tolerably near White Rock and to the southward of Corea 


Having rounded Breaker Point, not nearer than 2 miles, steer to pass near 
Tong-lae Point into Haimun Bay, South of Parkyns Rock into Hope Bay, 
where there is good anchorage during the N.E. monsoon. From abreast 
Swatow, steer to pass about half a mile to the eastward of Fort Island 
(giving Dove Rock, off Swatow, a good berth), being careful not to mistake 
either of the cones or hummocks of Fort Island, which appear detached, for 
the more distant Brig Island. If it be desirable to pass South of Namoa, 
the best anchorage for small vessels will be found in South Bay. When 
rounding the S.E. point of Namoa Island, care is necessary to avoid Glen- 
gyle Rock. 

Passing North of Namoa, keep a good look-out for the heavy fishing 
stakes extending from Clipper Point, and proceed for Breaker Island. From 
Fort Head, steer towards Chauan Head for Owick Bay, where good anchor- 
age will be obtained, with the rock off Owick Point bearing S.S.E. ^ E., and 
Jokako Peak N.E. f E. In this bay it will be almost calm when there is a 
good breeze outside. 

From Owick Bay steer for Bell Island ; or, if keeping in-shore, haul out 
when closing this island, and pass to the southward of it. Between Bell and 
Square Islands a very disturbed sea and tide rip will be experienced ; keep 
towards Jokako Point and into Jokako Bay, gradually hauling out to paes 


about half a mile from the rocks off Cone Point, from which steer for Pagoda 
Island, gradually hauling out to pass close under Thunder Head, thence 
steer to the southward of Rees Rock. From Rees Pass, steer for the Hu- 
tau-shan River bar, and gradually haul out to pass about half a mile off 
Black Head and Tagau Point ; passing tolerably close to and eastward of 
Hut Islet, thence westward of Spire Islet, and mid-channel between Crab 
Point and Cleft Islet, which is a desirable channel. Between Spire Islet 
and Cork Point there is usually a rough sea, and the coast should be fol- 
lowed as closely as Shun Rock will admit. Anchorage may be obtained in 
Red Bay. 

The distance from Cork Point to the outer anchorage of Amoy may easily 
be run during a fine night, the islands and headlands showing out plainly : — ■ 
Leaving Red Bay, give Cork Point a good berth, and steer to the westward 
of House Hill Point, edging out when closing the latter point ; thence for 
Notch Island and along the coast for Table Head (off which some rocks are 
said to exist), and Chin-ha Point. 

Proceeding to the northward, outside Amoy, steer for Leeo-lu Bay, in 
which, by passing close to Leeo-lu Head, good anchorage will, if required, 
be found. Prom Leeo-lu, steer to clear Dodd Ledge thence along the coast, 
keeping inshore. Safe anchorage may be found under Tongbu in addition 
to the many good anchorages shown on the chart. Sorrel Rock may be 
passed either on the East or West sides, and with a strong breeze a vessel 
may pass North of Loutz Shoal, through Lamyit Channel, and make for 
Hai-tan Strait. If the weather be fine, pass to the southward of Sorrel 
Rock, skirt Lamyit Islands, thence for Turnabout Island"* and Hai Head. 
Good anchorage will be obtained under Hai Head, with Turnabout Island 
shut in. 

Prom Hai Head, steer towards the White Dog Islands, passing westward 
of that group thence to Matson Diplo, and Spider Islands, between Spider 
and Cony Islands, or to the westward of Spider Island, and through Seaon 
Channel, thence to Fuh-yan or through the Chuh-pi Pass, to anchorage in 
Lishan Bay. From Fuh-yan, keep along the coast, and pass between Tung- 
pwan and Shroud Islands, thence into Bullock Harbour, if necessary. 
Leaving Bullock Harbour, pass out between Pwan-peen and the northern 
Tseigh Islands, eastward of Coin Island, and southward of Hea-chu, off the 
Tai-chou Islands: — With a strong breeze a vessel may steer from Coin 
Island to pass between Taluk and Chin-ki, thence between San-shi Islands 
and Stragglers, to good anchorage under Shetung. Proceed between Chik- 
hok and Low Chikhok, West of Squall Islands, and between Fir Coin and 

* A sunken rock, on which the S.S. Sunda struck, in 1875, is said to be situated from 1 
to 1^ mile northward of Turnabout Island, 

I. A. O 


Chuh-sen, to good anchorage westward of Gau-tau Island. Proceeding to 
the northward from this anchorage, pass between Kinmen and Gau-tau 
Islands. In fine weather pass to the eastward of Heroine Rock (the ac- 
cepted position of this rock, as given by the U.S.S. Ashuelot, being S.E. by 
E. f E., 4 miles from the S.W. end of Lea-ming Island) and Twins, or in a 
strong wind steer for Cape Conway and through Sheipoo Roads. 

Fair anchorage in a N.W. wind will be obtained under the northern 
Kweshan Island, but there is a better anchorage to the N.W. of Castle Rock. 
It is, however, advisable to get as close to Gough Pass for the night as pos- 
sible, ready to go through at daylight, or if in time, go through the pass and 
anchor for the night near Sing-lo Island. After passing Sing-lo Island pro- 
ceed through Tower Hill and Blackwall Channels ; anchorage may be found 
under Dunsterville or Volcano Islands, both of which should be left to the 
eastward on passing, thence steer for Rug:ged Islands. 

Care is necessary when navigating this part of the coast, as the tides run 

It should be borne in mind, that at all times during the N.E. monsoon 
the weather is uncertain, and strong breezes set in without any warning, 
sometimes lasting for two or three days, or even more. Fogs are experienced 
in the early part of the year in the same manner. 

No vessels of small steam power should attempt to proceed northward 
during the N.E. monsoon, except by the inshore passage, and the same 
might be said of the typhoon season. 

Passages in S.W. Monsoon. — There will not be the same difB.culty in 
getting to the southward against the southerly monsoon, as there is in going 
to the northward against the other, as it is not so permanent in its direction, 
and land and sea breezes prevail ; the current has generally been found 
running strong to the northward in the Formosa Channel, but vessels are 
not liable to the same detention which they often experience in the northerly 
monsoon. Care, however, must be taken not to overshoot the port. 

Fogs prevail in the early part of the season, and render the navigation at 
times as harassing as it is in the N.E. monsoon ; they, however, generally 
lift in the vicinity of the land, and a ship's length from where the bowsprit 
can hardly be seen will carry her into sunshine. 

The chief difficulty to overcome in making the passage between the Gulf 
of Pe-chili and Hong Kong during the southerly monsoon is the strong 
easterly or north easterly current. After passing the parallel of the Yang- 
tse kiang, it will be advisable to keep near the China coast ; for although a 
vessel may lie up South or S. by E. on the starboard tack, it should be re- 
membered that she is making little better than a S.E. (ourse in consequence 
of the easterly set. A stretch to the north-westward, though apparently a 
loss of ground, will ultimately prove useful. 


H.M.S. Pique, Capt. Sir Frederick Nicolson, C.B., in making this passage 
in July and August, was not favoured when close in shore by any land and 
sea breezes, nor had the least slant, but generally lost the wind. A weather 
tide was occasionally felt when near the shore in the Formosa Channel. 

Although the constant adverse current makes this a tedious passage 
against the monsoon, there is nothing to prevent a vessel of moderate sailing 
qualities making the passage at this season. The Pique had seldom more 
than single-reefed topsails, and the sea was generally smooth ; she made the 
passage from the Gulf of Pe-chili to Hong Kong in 31 days. 

It would appear that North of the tropic to the parallel of 30° N., North 
and N.E. winds prevail during the greater part of the year, but alternating 
with calms, variables, and S.W. winds during the summer months. 


A vessel bound from Hong Kong to Yedo at this season, should work up 
the Coast of China as far as Breaker Point (or see note, page 92), taking care 
to be always under the land at nightfall, the wind during the night always 
hauling to the northward (off the land), when she may make a long tack off, 
standing in again in the morning when the wind shifts to the N.E., and fre- 
quently more easterly still. From Breaker Point the vessel may then stand 
across with the wind free tor the South end of Formosa, experiencing a 
southerly set whilst in the Formosa Channel ; but on nearing the island she 
will lose it, and on passing South Cape fall in with the Kuro Siwo setting to 
the N.E. 

Having passed South Cape Formosa, the vessel may work up the coast of 
that island, passing between it and the Meiaco Sima Group, and to the west- 
ward of the Liu-Kiu Islands, having the current with her as far as the 
parallel of 26° N., beyond which parallel she will experience no current 
until 30° N., where a strong current will be found setting to the eastward, 
the wind also being more from the North and West. She may then pass 
through any of the channels between the islands lying off the South point of 
Japan, after which, keeping at about from 50 to 10 miles from the land, in 
the strength of the Kuro Siwo, she may make the lights at Oo Sima (entrance 
of the Kii Channel), and passing them at a distance of from 5 to 10 miles, 
may steer to pass just outside Mikomoto (Eock Island). 

From Yedo to Hong Kong. — On leaving the Gulf of Yeao, stand to the 
south-westward as far as 28° S. and 135° E., whence a course may be shaped 
to pass northward of Kakirouma, one of the Liu-Kiu Group, thus avoiding 
the influence of the Kuro Siwo. After passing Iwo Sima, a straight course 
may be steered for Tung Ying, on making which island stand down the 
China coast for Hong Kong- 


Fbom Shanghae to Nagasaki. — At this season, if the wind is to the east- 
ward of North, it would be well on leaving the Yang-tse to stand to the 
north-westward on the starboai'd tack, and when the wind hauls round to the 
north-westward, which it will as the ship advances northward, tack, and 
steer a straight course for Nagasaki, making allowance for the south-easterly 
and easterly set from the Yellow Sea and Korea Strait, otherwise the ship 
may be swept to the eastward through Van Diemen Strait. During the 
periodic easterly winds (variable between E.N.E. and S.E.) which prevail on 
the China coast in the vicinity of the Yang-tse, from March to June inclusive, 
with a sailing vessel, every opportunity must betaken to make easting, even 
with a fair wind, which it may be almost surely inferred will be but of short 
duration. In May and June, however, the set of the current will be changed, 
and will be found running to the north-eastward ; under these circumstances 
there is a probability that a vessel kept on the starboard tack would be set 
over to the Korean Archipelago. With these considerations the navigator 
must act on his own judgment, there being only difficulty in making the 
passage, when baffling winds, and thick, rainy, and squally weather are met 
with in the vicinity of the Meac Sima, the Pallas, or the Goto Islands, or 
they are passed on dark nights. If not, therefore, sure of the vessel's posi- 
tion, it would be well to make them in the daytime, unless the nights are 
moderatel}' fine. 

Hakodate through Korea Strait. — If bound on to Hakodate at the 
same season, or even as late as the end of June, it will be found difficult 
with a sailing vessel to make easting at all along the West coast of Nipon. 
It will be advantageous in April, May, and June, to pass well East of Tsu 
Sima in the strength of the Japan stream, which sets N.E. by N. through 
the Korea Strait, attaining at times, although not constant, a velocity of 2 
knots an hour. Should a S.W. wind occur at this season, it may be ex- 
pected to last only 24 hours, unless it follow an easterlj' gale with depressed 
barometer. During the winter, gales from North and N.W. are very fre- 
quent in the Korea Strait, lasting three or four days, and are sometimes 
violent. A rapidly falling barometer indicates their approach, the wind in- 
creasing in force after the mercury commences to rise, and not attaining its 
height until 24 hours after. In such weather, if making for Nagasaki on the 
purt tack, beware of being blown to leeward into Van Diemen Strait, for if 
set through by the Japan stream it will take a long time to regain the lost 
ground against the current (one vessel having been nearly three weeks en- 
deavouring to beat round Cape ChichakofF) ; and if on the starboard tack, 
there is probability of being set up the Korea Strait to the northward of Ose 
Saki. As both cases have happened to vessels, it is recommended that they 
should endeavour to make the land in daylight, and find anchorage, or secure 
a knowledge of their position. 

In winter, when N.W. and West winds prevail, a direct course should be 


Bteered from the Korea Strait when bound to Hakodate ; but if bound from 
Hakodate southward, it is necessary to endeavour to make westing when 
possible, and keep a long offing, for the coast of Nipon is a lee shore. After 
passing Korea Strait as well to windward as possible, the winds will be 
found more liable to change when arrived at lat. 32° N., long. 125"^ E., but 
sometimes they continue so steadily between N.W. and "SV.S.W. as to set a 
vessel to leeward of the Tang-tse. 

Shaxgitae to Yedo. — On leaving the Yang-tse, the wind will be rarely 
found as far to the eastward as N.E. ; it is best, therefore, to keep the ship 
on the starboard tack, remembering that she will be set to the eastward 
towards Yan Diemen Strait, after passing which, pursue the same route as 
directed in the passage from Hong Kong. 

A vessel bound from Hong Kong to Yedo should run up the China coast aa 
far as Tung Ying, then shape a course for Akusi Sima, one of the Linschoten 
group. On passing the meridian of 125'' E. the set will be strong to the 
north-eastward. Pass through any of the channels between the islands 
South of Japan in preference to Yan Diemen Strait, as the dense fogs which 
hang over the coast at this season render the navigation of this strait diffir 
cult, whilst farther seaward, when in the warm stream of the Kuro Siwo, 
the atmosphere is bright and clear. After passing the channel steer to make 
the lights at Oo Sima, remembering the current sets along the coast of Japan 
to the north-eastward at this season from 2 to 4^ knots an hour. After 
passing Oo Sima at a distance of from 5 to 10 miles, steer for Mikimoto (Eock 
Island) light. If bound from Hong Kong to Nagasaki, after leaving Tung 
Ying steer for Meac Sima, passing between which group and the Pallas 
Rocks, a course E.N.E. 80 miles will place the ship off the lighthouse on 
Signal Head (the North point of Iwo Simaj at the entrance to Nagasaki 
Harbour, on nearing which it should not be brought to bear northward of 

From Yedo to Hong Kong. — This passage is so seldom made by sailing 
vessels that very little is known of the best route to be pursued ; the follow- 
ing, however, is recommended : — 

On leaving the Gulf of Yedo shape a course to the south-eastward, to 
cross the parallel of 30° N in about 145° E., and, passing East of St. Mar- 
garet's Island, cross the meridian of 140° E. in lat. 21° N., thence steer 
(with a favourable current) for the N.E. point of Luzon, on passing which 
enter the China Sea, when a direct course may be shaped for Hong Kong, 
taking care to allow for the drift-current setting to the N.E. at this season. 
It may here be remarked, that this route lies directly across the paths of the 
typhoons, which are prevalent in the tropics at this period. 

This voyage is rarely made, as sailing vessels so take advantage of the 
monsoons that they leave Hong Kong for the northern ports and Japan at 


the commencement of the S.W. monsoon, and, remaining at the ports of the 
latter islands until the monsoon takes oflF, leave for the South at the com- 
mencement of the N.E. monsoon. 

Steamers, however, run at all times between the two places, and at this 
season usually on leaving Yedo Gulf, and, passing Mikomoto, keep well in 
shore to Oo Sima, passing which they keep up the Kii Channel through 
Isumi Strait and the Inland Sea. On passing Simonoseki Strait, if not 
bound to Nagasaki, they keep to westward of the Goto Islands, and making 
the Saddle Islands off the Yang-tse, keep close to the shore, and from thence 
pursue the same course to the southward as vessels bound from Shaghae to 
Hong Kong. 

From Shanghae to Nagasaki. — On leaving the Yang-tse, steer to pass 
between the Pallas Eocks and Meac Sima (Asses' Ears), which last is visible 
in clear weather at a distance of 30 miles. The current will bo found setting 
to the north-eastward through Korea Straits ; cai-e must be taken, therefore, 
to avoid being set to the northward of Ose Saki, the South point of the Goto 
Islands, as the current during the S.W". monsoon is often strong in this 
locality. Passing the Amherst Eocks, a course E. f N. 390 miles will lead 
midway between the Pallas Eocks and Ose Saki (Cape Goto). 

The foregoing is a general account of the tracks most usually followed in 
traversing the Indian Archipelago or the China Sea. The more particular 
instructions for each locality will be found in their respective places here- 

In such a variety of routes there is necessarily some diversity of opinion 
as to which is best, and this has not been lessened of late years by the 
increased variety in the build and trim of the vessels employed in oriental 
commerce. The route practicable and advantageous to the swift sailing 
clipper cannot be followed by the heavy-laden and slow-sailing ship of 
former years. In what is here given, these different routes are each given, 
some from older authorities, some from recent experience. Some of the 
best tracks have been avoided from our ignorance of their nature, and their 
supposed dangerous character. This is fast disappearing before increased 
kno^vledge, and it may be predicted that some settled system for the naviga- 
tion wiU be established in the course of a few years. 



In the succeeding pages will be found a detailed description of the shores 
and seas of the Indian Archipelago and China, commencing with the Strait 
of Malacca, and proceeding thence southward and eastward in regular suc- 
cession. This arrangement has been preferred to that of following a parti- 
cular voyage in one direction, as the present exigences of Oriental commerce 
require the subject to be considered in such varied aspects, that no other 
than a strictly geographic arrangement can be applicable to every case. The 
plan of the future pages will be thus readily understood. 

Physical Geography. — The Indian Archipelago presents many remarkable 
features, worthy of the consideration of the passing navigator, as some of ita 
peculiarities will thereby become better understood. This subject was well 
treated by Mr. Geo. W. Earl, and more recently, in its relation to animal 
and vegetable life, by Mr. Alfred Russell Wallace. 

The first great feature of its constitution is the line of active volcanoes 
which encircle the whole of the north-western and most extensive area. A 
line of spiracles and rugged mountains from which they issue may be fol- 
lowed from Cheduba, in the Bay of Bengal, to the Andaman Islands, pass- 
ing through the entire length of Sumatra, nearer to its S. W. coast ; is con- 
tinued along the southern part of Java, and passes through the chain of 
islands to the eastward, which are separated by narrow but very deep 
channels. Thence past the North part of Timor towards New Guinea, 
where it is met by another chain running from N.N.W., where it may be 
traced along Kamscharka through the Kurile Islands, Japan, Loo Choo, and 
the Philippines, after which it divides into two branches, the western passing 
down to the Moluccas, &c., past Celebes, and joining the first-named line at 
the West end of New Guinea, and hereabout its greatest efiects are evident, 
in the fantastic forms it has given to Celebes and Gillolo and other islands. 
These rise abruptly from immense depths,* and to this and other causes 
may be attributed that want of fertility which characterises them : the rich soil 
caused by the decomposition of the rocks and vegetation being washed away 
from their arid surfaces into the deep ocean. The two lines of volcanic action 

* H.M.S. 6Vja//e«/7er found a depth of 2,150 fathoms between Celebes and Gilolo, 2,550 
fathoms off the S.W. end of Mindanao, and similar depths in most parts of her track from 
Torres Straits through the Molucca Passage, Celebes and Sulu Seas, to Manila. 


thus united may be followed to the eastward along the North coast of New 
Guinea, along the Louisiade Archipelago, to New Ireland along the Solomau 
Group towards the New Hebrides, and may be seen in detached spots as far 
as New Zealand, and the islands South of it. 

This volcanic band is of a totally distinct character in its productions to 
the other parts of the Archipelago. As in all other parts of the world, the 
volcanic rocks, which are easily and rapidly decomposed by atmospheric in- 
fluences, form a soil of unparalleled fertility when cultivated, although there 
are few useful natural productions, unless the nutmeg be so considered. This 
feature has attracted the numerous European settlements which are scattered 
along the bases of these chains, where the sugar and coffee plantaions of 
Java, and the spice groves of the more eastern islands, afford such materials 
for commercial enterprise, which would seem to be almost illimitable. Mineral 
treasures are not to be hoped for in these ranges ; the action of the volcanic 
heat has so altered the character of the superimposed rocks, that they afford 
nothing to the metallurgist. 

The second great feature which may be noticed are those parallel lines of 
primary rocks which trend in a N.N.W. and S.S.E. direction across the 
archipelago, as well as in the countries of Asia to the northward, and across 
the continent of Australia to the southward. The chain which forms the 
backbone of the Malayan Peninsula is perhaps the most conspicuous of 
these ; it may be traced southwards through Banka, &c. It is in this forma- 
tion where the great deposits of metal are most abundant, or at least most 
easily worked, as in the famous gold and tin mines of Malaya, and the 
Banka tin mines. Sumatra, apart from its volcanic ridge, affords another 
example of these primary ridges. A third traverses Cambodia, &c., showing 
itself at Pulo Condore and the Natunas, and then reappears at the N.W. 
end of Borneo, and is lost on the North coast of Borneo. Another passes 
along the coast of Cochin China, traverses a portion of Borneo and the 
southern part of Celebes. One feature of these ridges is the existence of the 
teak tree, which only flourishes on them. When this important tree is 
transplanted on to the rich volcanic soil, it languishes. 

A third feature is the great banks which extend from Asia and Australia, 
but do not join. This was first pointed out in their relation to their pro- 
ductions by Mr. Windsor Earl. He says : These banks of soundings, which 
extend from the continents of Asia and Australia, form very remarkable 
features in the geography of this part of the world, and, as such, are de- 
serving of more attention than has hitherto been bestowed upon them, since 
it will be found that all the countries lying upon these banks partake of the 
character of the continents to which they are attached; while those which 
are situated on the deep sea which separates them are all of comparatively 
recent volcanic formation, with the exception of a few small coral islands, 
which are in all probability constructed upon the summits of submerged 


volcanoGS. The depths on these banks average about 30 fathoms, deepening 
rapidly as the ed^e is approached, and shoals gradually toward the land. 
The great Asiatic Bank extends into the archipelago to a distance of nearly 
1,000 miles; in fact, to within 50 miles of Celebes, and perhaps farther. 

The great bank which fronts the North and N.W. coasts of Australia 
commences near the N.W. cape, and extends in a N.E. direction to New 
Guinea, where it terminates at the base of the high but narrow mountain 
range that unites the western with the eastern part of that great island, and 
separates the Banda Sea from the Pacific. It is at this point that the edge 
of the bank is most remote from Australia, its edge being 400 miles distant 
from it. It appears ap:ain on the South coast of New Guinea, near Torres 
Strait, and extends along the N.E. coast of Australia. 

The Arru Islands and New Guinea are thus united to Australia, and 
possess in common some features hitherto supposed to belong exclusively to 
Australia, such as the kangaroo, «S:c. 

The volcanic islands between these great shoals appear to have a world of 
their own, different from the countries on either side. This remarkable 
feature cannot be dilated on, but may be followed in the excellent papers 
given by Mr. A. R. Wallace. It would seem as if the animal life especially 
belonged to a different order generally from that found on the neighbouring 
continents, and is even different between adjacent islands, so that these 
anomalies have given rise to some interesting speculations. 

Respecting our knowledge of the coasts and seas, it is of varied character. 
Although much more perfect than it was a few years since, there are some 
serious defects in the hydrography of the archipelago, especially in the 
eastern portion of the area. The surveyors of the East India Company in 
former years, and our Admiralty hydrographers in later times, have examined 
the principal passages leading into the China Sea, as the StrHits of Malacca 
and Singapore, Banka, &c. The Dutch Government have given charts and 
directions for the ct;untries adjacent to these possessions, such as Sunda 
Strait and the coasts of Java, and the nautical world owes much to the 
Dutch commission for the improvement of charts and navigation. Under 
the auspices of this body a fine series of charts, of various and extensive por- 
tions of the archipelago, were published. These have since been mostly copied 
by our Admiralty. For the Spanish possessions in the Philippine Islands, 
&c., we have the older and modern surveys of that nation. The coast of 
China has been excellently surveyed by our Admiralty. All these authorities 
will be generally enumerated in the course of the ensuing pages. 

Before proceeding with the descriptions, we must make our general ac- 
knowledgement of indeotedness to the China Sea Directory, published by the 
Admiralty. This work, derived from many sources, gives a correct picture 
of our present knowledge, and is therefore deserving of all confidence. 

I. A. P 



This great highway into the China Sea may be considered to be limited on 
the N.W. by a line joining Acheen Head and the South point of Junksey- 
lon, which would be about 225 miles in length ; and from this limit to the 
Carimon Isles, at its S.E. end, is 500 miles, so that it has more the character 
of an inland sea than a channel between Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. 
In a more contracted sense it may be said to commence at Diamond Point on 
Sumatra, and Pulo Penang on the Malayan side, and these are 164 miles 
apart East and West. 

The monsoons, interrupted by the high land of Sumatra on the one hand, 
and that of the Malay Peninsula on the other, each crossing the line of their 
normal direction, are only felt for a short distance within the respective en- 
trances, and from its position so near to the equator, the strait is subject to 
baffling and light winds and calms. In a former page the peculiarities of 
the winds and seasons have been referred to. 

Its coasts have not been completely surveyed, but partial examinations 
have been made by Lieuts. Woore, W. Eose, and Capts. Moresby and C. Y. 
Ward. The charts, it is believed, are sufficiently complete for the safety of 
its navigation, which, under proper precaution, is free from danger. 

The British Possessions, called the Straits Settlements, are the Province 
Wellesley, a strip of coast on the Malay Peninsula, about 10 miles broad 
and 35 miles long, at the back of Pulo Penang^ also a British possession, 
a patch of country, 22 miles in length from North to South, with the island 
of Pancore lying off its southern portion, as hereafter described. The terri- 
tory of Malacca, about 40 miles in length, and 25 miles in mean breadth, 
•with its capital of the same name, and the great commercial emporium 
Singapore. These form a governorship, which, till the year 1S51, was sub- 
ject to the jurisdiction of Bengal. In that year it was placed under the 
Indian Board ; and on January 1st, 1867, it was transferred from that of 
India to the Colonial Office, and some changes were made in their constitu- 
tion. Each of these settlements is largely peopled with Chinese immigrants, 
who are the most industrious of the people. The Malay States from North 

PENANG. 107 

to South are named as follows — Quedah (Wellesley), Perak (Dinding), Sa- 
langore (Malacca), and Johore. The maritime population of these would be 
formidable pirates, were it not for the vigilance of the states cruizers, and gun- 
boats of light draught, which can follow the delinquents into the shelter of 
their rivers. Notwithstanding this, small vessels and boat parties should be 
on their guard, as among a population of this character, where morality is 
at so low an ebb, it is only a fear of being overpowered in the attempt, or 
found out and punished after the act is committed, which deters them from 
similar acts of violence to those committed in years gone by. 

In recent years British Residents have been placed as advisers to the rulers 
of the different native states, and it is hoped by these means to increase the 
trade and otherwise improve the government of the peninsula. 

The greatest mineral production of the country is tin, which seems to be 
met with in almost every part of the interior, and in very great abundance. 
The tin districts which have been most worked of late years are situated at 
Klang, in Salangore ; at Laroot, in Perak ; and at Linghie, near Malacca. 
"The mines in these districts," says Mr. Braddell, in 1874, "are so rich, 
and the profit of working them has been so great, that, notwithstanding the 
difficulties in dealing with the Malay chiefs as to the royalty to be paid, and 
notwithstanding the oppression of the chiefs, and the frequent massacres of 
the Chinese miners, they are still attracted to the place, and succeed yearly 
in sending large quantities of tin to Singapore and Penang." 


Province Wellesley extends from the state of Queda, or Keddah, on the 
North to the river Krean, or Karian, S.E. of the South point of Penang. 
In 1851 its population was 64,801, a number five times as great as in 1824 ; 
and in 1873 it had reached to 160,000, of whom about 450 were Europeans. 
It resembles Penang in its geologilal structure, granite, over which is found 
the cellular clay iron-stone, so abundant in these regions, and known by the 
name of laterite. 

The settlement produces sugar, rice, and cccoanuts in abundance, and 
among many other products a great variety of delicious fruits. Its chief im- 
portance, however, arises from the fact, that the capital of the island is 
a great emporium for the manufactures of Britain, and for the products of 
the countries of the Malay Peninsula on the one hand, and of Sumatra on 
the other. 

PULO PENANG, or Prince of Wales Island, is about 14 miles long and 
9 miles broad, and separated from the Malay coast by a channel from 2 to 5 
miles broad. It is intersected by a range of granitic hills, the highest peaks 


of which are Government Hill, to the West of the fort, 2,550 ft. ; West Hill, 
2,713 ft. ; and Mount Elvira, near the centre, 2,384 ft. It was ceded by the 
KingofQuedah to the East India Company, July— August, 1786, for a 
naval station. It has answered every expectation of its founder, Captaia 
Li"-ht, and is, like the other straits settlements, entirely free from any impost 
on shipping.* 

Pulo Penang, or Prince of Wales Island, is justly termed the Eden of the 
East, and the northern part especially is an immense spice garden. Fruit 
and vegetables are in great abundance, and in fact all Eastern delicacies, 
not forgetting the water, which may be considered the best in or out of the 


The N.W. part of the island is lofty and irregular, but been from a distance, 
as far as 20 leagues off, it has a regular oblong appearance. The West coast 
forms a slender bay, with low wooded land reaching to the foot of the inte- 
rior hills. The southern part of the island is lower. The town is on the 
East side. The climate is hot, but considered healthy. 

The exceeding magnificence of its mountain views, the richness and variety 
of their component parts, and the coolness and transparency of the atmos- 
phere which this country enjoys, give a freshness and elasticity to the mind 
never e:5perienced in the sultry plains of India. It is almost inconceivable 
how nature, in so small a compass, has contrived to crowd such a wonderful 
diversity of pleasing objects. — Logan. 

Tanjong Puchat Muka.— The N.W. point is in lat. 5° 28' 40" N., long. 

* Port Rules, 1872. — The limits of the Port of Penang are as follows : —From an obe- 
lisk built at Klarwey in a straight line to Bagan Jermal, along the western shores of 
Province Wellesley, to an obelisk at Bagan Luar. and in a straight line to Penang Bridge, 
thence along the eastern shores of Prince of Wales Island, to the obelisk at Klarwey, in- 
cluding the mouth of Prangin Eiver, as far as the second Teetee Papan Bridge. 

The limits of the South Channel are as follows* — From the North bank of the Penang 
Eiver to Nos. 8 and 5 red buoys, from thence along the eastern bank of Pulo Terajah to the 
south-easternmost point of Pulo Rimo, thence in a straight line to No. 9 white buoj'^, then 
passing close to Nos. 8, 7, 6, 4, and 2 white buoys, and in a straight line ending at the 
obelisk built at Bagan Luar. 

Signals in case of fire. — In the daytime, the Commercial Code signal of distress indicated 
by " NC :" at the same time, when possible, two guns should be fired, at an interval of one 
minute ; at night time, two rockets fired, and two blue lights burned alternately at an in- 
terval one one m.nute, and two guns fired as in the daytime. 

Requiring the assistance of the Police. — In the daytime, the national ensign to be hoisted 
at the main-masthead ; at night, one gun to be fired, and one blue light burnt. 

Masters of vessels are prohibited from anchoring abreast of the jetty, or in any place 
within 250 yards on either side thereof. 

Vessels remaining upwards of 24 hours are to moor and keep a clear hawse. No sailing 
vessel is to be unmoored or shifted about without permission from the harbour-master, and 
on no account after dark, except in case of emergency. 

PENANG. 109 

100° 13' E. It is bokl-to on the westward, and has 4 fathoms close-to. From 
it, on the eastern side, a shoal bank skirts all the North end of the island for 
11 miles to the point on which Geora:e Town stands, the 3 -fathoms edge 
being from 1 to 2|- miles off shore. At 3J miles East of Muka Point is the 
Feringi Bock, close in-shore, and at 3J miles farther is Fulo Tikus (or Tee- 
coos), a rocky islet with some rocks around. Between this islet (on which, 
is a white obelisk) and the Malay shore is the shoalest part of the channel 
"which insulates Penang, not having more than 4 fathoms. 

George Town, or Penang. — The chief place of the island stands on its eastern 
point, the extremity of which is occupied by Fort Cornwallis. It contained 
probably nearly 60,000 inhabitants in 1873, of whom a very large propor- 
tion are Chinese — many of them merchants and shopkeepers. It is situated 
on a low plain stretching out in a point into the sea, on the side of the island 
next to the mainland, and its harbour, which is simply the almost landlocked 
strait between the island and the mainland, is of great extent and unrivalled 
calmness. It has always a large fleet of vessels of every rig, from the finest 
British steamer to the Chinese junk. 

The distance from the fort to the mainland opposite is about 2 miles, and 
this forms the harbour. The Fort Point is steej)-to, having 9 and 10 fathoms 
near to it. In the middle of the strait are from 12 to 15 fathoms, and 6 to 7 
fathoms on the Malay side. The best berth for anchoring is about a quarter 
of a mile South of the fort, in 9 or 10 fathoms, or less for small vessels. The 
tides are more regular here than close to the point, where they cause eddies. 
It is high water off the fort at 12'*, at full and change, but the flood runs 
southward till 3 o'clock in the main stream. Springs rise 9 ft., and neaps 
about "il ft. 

Channels. — Mr. J. G. Maddock remarks: — "Both the northern and 
southern channels are safe, the northern shallows being well marked by 
fishing stakes, numbers of which are in 4 to 5 fathoms water. I have often 
passed between them, but a stranger having any regard for his copper ought 
to give them a good offing, as there are many old stakes broken off 2 or 3 ft. 
under water. The southern entrance is well buoyed, and also marked by 
beacons ; but unless you have a good commanding breeze from the southward 
or S.W., which is not often the case except in the first of the rainy season 
(August and September), and if coming from the southward, I should always 
prefer the northern channel. I recollect once coming up with the A. J. Kerr, 
from Singapore. I had a good stiff breeze from the southward and westward, 
which I made available for the southern entrance. I had got to within 
half a mile of my anchorage when I was met by a northerly wind. I gave 
orders to clew up and anchor, and left the two winds to battle the match 
how they liked ; in the morning I found the northerly wind had gained the 
day : this is not an uncommon occurrence in the southern channel." 

The best route to reach the anchorage, as above stated, is by the North 


channel. The southern one is intricate and also dangerous without an inti- 
mate knowledge, and with a large ship. With westerly winds, steer for the 
North end of the island, or with the wind from N.E. or northward, make for 
the mainland to the northward, and approach Pulo Bunting from N.W. by W. 
or W.N.W. The Bunting (or Boonting) Isles are four in number, with an 
islet between them, lying about 12 to 15 miles North from Penang. The 
largest is the northernmost, and is opposite to the peak of Quedah ; and the 
southernmost is Bidan, or Biddan, which is nearest to the shore, and has only 
2 or 2|^ fathoms inside of it. By night these islands may be neared to 
within depths of 14 or 15 fathoms; by day there is no danger but what may 
be seen. When past them, steer about S.S.E., with Pulo Bidan bearing 
about N. by W., keeping about midway between the North part of Penang 
and the paain to avoid a flat extending off the Malay shore, and also that 
which encircles the North end of Penang, as before mentioned. The bar, or 
shoalest part of the channel, will be found when abreast of Pulo Tikus, and 
is only 24 ft., barely sufficient if there be any swell, which seldom occurs, if 
the draught be more than 20 ft. 

The Port Point is 3^ miles to the S.E. of Pulo Tikus, which, as before 
stated, has some rocks around it ; but having passed it, the water deepens 
towards the harbour. The N.E. shore of the island forms a slender bay, filled 
with a muddy shoal, which suddenly drops from 2 to 5 fathoms. The lead 
is not a sufiioient guide in thick weather, or at night, in passing over the 
flat between the N.E. point and the Malayan shore, as the depths are 
nearly the same all across until within 1^ mile of either shore. The shore of 
the main land is low, and covered with trees, so that it is not so conspicuous 
as the high land of Penang, which will thus appear the nearest when in 
mid-channel. From within Pulo Tikus to the fort, stand off again when 5^ 
or 6 fathoms is reached. By daylight there is no difficulty in thus reaching 
the harbour, as the rocks of Pulo Tikus are bold-to. In the N.W. monsoon 
which sets in in August, there may be some difficulty in beating out by this 
North channel, but at all other times it is preferable for large ships. A good 
leading mark is to keep the West end of Pulo Jerajah, which lies off the 
East coast of Penang, clear of, or just open of the point on which Fort Corn- 
wa)lis is built. This will carry you clear of all danger, the least water being 
4J fathoms, mud and sand. Should you not see Pulo Jerajah, owing to hazy 
weather, the long leading mark is as before mentioned, Pulo Bidan, the 
southernmost of the Bunting, bearing N. by W. until you get sight of Pulo 

The South Channel, though intricate, is very serviceable during adverse 
winds, as it affords a ready outlet in fine weather to the southward for ships 
drawing under 17 ft. water. Pilots are stationed at Pulo Jerajah. It is 
bounded on the West side by the Middle or Long Sand, marked by three 
buoys along its eastern side, which begins about three-quarters of a mile 


South of the Fort Point, and stretches nearly to the North point of Pulo 
Jerajah. On the East side it is bounded by the northern spit of the Great 
Kra Flat, or as it was termed the Praya (or Pry) Sand. It is a bank of 
soft mud, which stretches from the Malay shore for 10 miles, when to the 
South of Penang. 

Pulo Jerajah, or Jeraga, is 5 miles S. by W. from Fort Point, and is 734 ft. 
high. It has a narrow channel of 3 to 5 fathoms between it and Penang. 
Off the S.E. point of Penang is Pulo Peine, or Ramio, close to the South of 
which the channel passes. 

Buoys. — The South Channel is marked by ten buoys, numbered from 
North to South, each placed red on the western, and white on the eastern 
edge of the channel, in about 2 fathoms of water. Of these, three painted 
red mark the eastern edge of the Middle Bank ; and six, painted white, the 
western edge of the Great Kra Flat; a fourth red buoy lies S.W. of Eomo 
Island. No. 1, a red buoy, is moored on the North end of the Middle Bank, 
a mile southward of Fort Cornwallis. No. 2, white, S.S.E. ^ E. 1 J mile 
from No. 1, marks the eastern side of the channel, which is here quite clear, 
and nearly three-quarters of a mile in width. At 1 J mile below No. 2 buoy 
the channel is marked on either side by red buoy No. 3 and white buoy No. 
4, which are two-thirds of a mile apart; hereabouts the soundings suddenly 
decrease from 6 to 2f , 3 and 4 fathoms, the deepest channel being nearer to 
the white buoy. At about three-quarters of a mile below Nos. 3 and 4, Nos. 
5 red and 6 white, three-quarters of a mile apart, mark the opposite sides of 
the channel. The deepest part of the channel here is towards No. 6, as a 
spit projects out from the red buoy. No. 7 white buoy, 1 J mile S. by W. ^ W. 
from No. 6, marks the eastern side of the channel opposite the highest part 
of Pulo Jerajah. Hence to the southward the channel is broad and deep. 
No. 8 buoy, white, marks its eastern side, and lies 8. by E. \\ mile from the 
South end of Pulo Jerajah. No. 9, red, marks the western side of the 
channel, 2 miles S.W. of Pulo Eemo ; and No. 10, white, marks the eastern 
side at its South extremity, and lies IJ mile southward of No. 9 red buoy. 

In leaving Penang Harbour by the South channel, get under weigh about 
half flood, and steer S. by E. and South to enter the channel between the 
Middle Sand and the Pry or Praya Sand. When the bar is neared, keep 
near the eastern edge of the Middle (or Long) Sand, the depth in crossing 
it is nearly 5 fathoms, between the North end of Pulo Jerajah and Kra 
Flat. When the North point of Pulo Jerajah bears to the northward, the 
soundings will decrease to 6 and 7 fathoms, then haul near to that island, 
and these depths will continue through the channel in steering out to S.W. 
seaward, past the S.E. point of Penang and Pulo Eemo. The greatest 
depths are near the East sides of these islands, which are steep-to, but on the 
East side of the channel the water shoalens suddenly upon the edge of the 
Kra Flat. After passing Pulo Eemo close on the East side, the course is 


about S.S.W., or S. by W., according to the set of the tide, to proceed throngh 
the channel fairway between the Kra Flat on the port hand, and the mud 
bank off the South end of Penang to starboard. The leading mark is to 
keep the body of Pulo Jerajah on with the East end of Pulo Eemo, if Pulo 
Jerajah is shutting in with Pulo Eemo, a ship will be on the West side ; and 
if entirely open with it, she will be on the East side of the channel. 

The mouth of the River Krian is in about lat. 5° 16' N. This river serves 
as one of the roads down which the tin is brought from the mines in the 

The State of Perak,* extends along the coast from Wellesley Province 
to the State of Salangore, or from 1 to 2 miles southward of the mouth of the 
Kutong Eiver to the mouth of the Bernam Eiver, a distance of about 100 
miles. A portion of this coast line, however, belongs to Great Britain, 
having been ceded in the year 1826, and the cession again ratified in the 
year 1874. This includes the Island of Pancore, or Binding, and coast of 
the mainland at the back of the island, and thence for about 20 miles to the 
northward. The Bruas and Binding Eivers enter the sea within its bound- 

The district of Laroot is situated to the northward of this British territory, 
and is bounded on the North by the Krean Eiver. The physical aspect of 
the district is thus described by Mr. Birch : — " From the sea-shore to some 
20 miles inland, Laroot is a great level ; here it begins to rise in uplands 
until it reaches a mountain-range rising to an altitude of some 3,000 ft. 
above the level of the sea. This level or plain is well watered and well 
suited for the cultivation of sugar, tapioca, tobacco, &c. Eice is the only 
cereal now cultivated. The whole of the land, comprising a strip of about 
50 miles long by 6 miles broad, along the Laroot Eange, is more or less 
stanniferous, and the supply of tin is inexhaustible. At present (1872) 
about 4 square miles are occupied for mining purposes, and there are 120 
mines open. It is unskilfully worked, and only about 600 tons were exported 
in 1874. Of the Laroot Eange, Gunong Buboo, or the 'Wild Man,' is said 
to be the loftiest. It is said to be the most conspicuous landmark to mariners 
beating up the Straits for the mouth of the Perak Eiver, which is several 
miles South of this mountain." 

The population of the State of Perak, which extends eastward as far as 
the Malayan chain of mountains, was estimated to number 25,000 in 1874, 
mostly established near the shores of the Perak Eiver, which passes through 
the country in a direction from North to South at a distance of about 30 
miles from the coast. It is from this Eiver Perak or Pera (silver) that the 
country takes its name. The country is plentiful in fruit-bearing and timber- 

* Pronounced like " Pera," the terminal k in Malay -words being scarcelj' sounded 
at all. 


producing trees, among the latter class being the teak. India-rubber and 
gutta-percha trees are also found. In minerals, iron, saltpetre, and gold, 
ai*e found, besides the tin before mentioned. 

Pry River enters the sea on the southern side of the point, lying E.S.E. of 
Peuang, Here it is high water, full and change, at 12\ Springs rise 9 ft., 
neaps 1^ ft. 

The Kutong River, in lat. 5° 6' N., is merely a southern outlet to the Eiver 
Krean, and flows along the South side of the North Mound. 

The River Laroot, rising in the neighbourhood of Gunong Hijau in the 
Laroot Eange, falls into the Sea in 4° 44' N., 28 miles to the S. of the Krean 
River. Mr. Irving says : — *' Compared with other rivers on the coast, it is 
an inconsiderable stream, as the range of mountains which forms the 
watershed of the peninsula, at' this place, approaches the coast. The 
colonial steamer Pluto, drawing only 6 ft. of water, was not able to do more 
than enter the river ; but the small steamers belonging to the Tunku Man- 
trie, or headman, are able to get up to the town, a distance of 2 miles from 
the coast." The town, in 1872, was surrounded with stockaded positions, 
and Mr. Irving observed that there was an excellent road all the way to the 
mines in the Laroot Eange, about 10 miles from the town. The coast of 
Laroot between the Kurow, 20 miles northward of the Laroot Eiver, and 
the Jurom Mas (or Gold Needle), 12 miles to the southward, is a perfect 
network of rivers and rivulets, and indented by endless creeks and bays, 
which afford countless sheltering places for pirates. Most of these creeks 
and inlets have been explored by the boats of the Thalia and the Midge, 
when in search for pirates in 1872, under Captain Woolcombe. 

The Kurow Eiver enters the sea in 5° N., and 10 miles south-eastward of 
it is the mouth of the Silensing. This latter river is connected with the six 
outlets to the sea between it and the Jurom Mas Eiver, in lat. 4° 33' N. 
These outlets are named in order, Besar, Kechil, Larut, Trong, and Jurom 
Mas. About 1 mile South of the Jurom Mas is the mouth of the small river 
Hut. Between this and the mouth of the Bruas Eiver, which is situated 4 
miles to the south-westward, is the northern boundary of the British 

At 16i^ miles S.E. by E. from the S.E. end of Penang is a hill, called the 
North Mound, which is 5 or 6 miles South of the Krean Eiver, and at 13^ 
miles further to S.E. by E. is another called the South Mound. Further in- 
land high mountains are seen, which extend to the southward. 

The Coast is fronted by an extensive shoal, which commences in the strait 
insulating Penang, and which. South of that island, is called the Great Kra 
Plat, the 5-fathoms line being as much as 12 miles from the beach. This 
extensive mud-bank, the produce of the many rivers, before mentioned, 
which enter the sea from the adjacent coast, gradually bhoalens to the shore, 

1. A. Q 


leaving a wide space, which covers and uncovers with the tide, and continues 
with varying break for 54 miles, till its outer edge comes close to the land at 
Pulo Tallong, near the hills known as False Binding, or False Suggur. The 
outer edge of the bank is steep-to, decreasing suddenly from 13 to 12 fathoms 
to 2 or 3 fathoms, so that it would be imprudent to stand nearer than that 
depth, even with the lead kept briskly going, especially in the night. There 
is some advantage in keeping in with the coast, for by doing so the westerly 
current usually prevailing in the ofRag will be partly avoided. The winds 
will also be more favourable, and anchoring easier than in deeper water. 

BINDING ISLAND, or PULO PANCORE, before mentioned as forming 
a portion of British Territory, was examined together with the channel on 
its eastern side by Commander Napier, in H.M.S. Nassau, in 1876. The 
island is of irregular shape, 5 miles long N.W. by N. and S.E. by S., and 2 
miles broad. Off its S.W. end is Little Binding Island, sheltering a bay ; 
off its N.W. end runs a narrow promontory, 1^ mile long ; and midway be- 
tween the promontory and Little Dinding Island a narrow island 1^ mile long 
juts out on its western side. The highest part of the island is 1,318 ft. high, 
and situated about 2 miles S.E. of the N.W. point. On the North and 
South extremes are two hills, respectively 748 and 992 ft. high. Two other 
mountains rise near the centre of the island, and attain a height of more 
than 1,000 ft. 

Great Dinding Island is densely covered with jungle. The woods consist 
of ebony, sandal wood, several varieties of gum, india-rubber, and palm- 
trees, bamboo, and several native woods, some of which are similar to ma- 
hogany ; coffee and cotton are also grown here. The whole of the woods 
are farmed out by the colonial government at an annual rental. The popu- 
lation in 1876 consisted of about 250 Bataks or Malayan native hill 
tribes, and 100 Chinese. A Dutch fort formerly existed on the East side of 
the island. Poultry, eggs, and occasionally pigs, may be procured at most 
of the native villages at reasonable prices. Fish and fruit are plentiful ; 
turtle in the season. Fresh water of good quality is plentiful at almost all 
the villages, but owing to want of proper conduits can only be obtained in 
small quantities. 

North Entrance. — The passage between the North side of Pulo Pancore 
and the main is divided into two channels by the North Bank, which shows 
breakers in places. This bank is 4 miles long in a N.W. and S.E. direction, 
and from half a mile wide at its southern end, opposite the mouth of Din- 
ding River, on the mainland, to 1^ mile wide at its North end, near which 
lies Wedge Rock, 3 ft. above water, N. by E. i E., If mile from North West 
Islet, which lies 5 cables N. by W. h W. from the North point of Pulo Pan- 
core, is wooded, 100 ft. high, and difficult to discern until close. A 3-feet 
rock lies nearly a cable off its West side, otherwise it is steep-to all round. 


A smnll islet, 7 ff. liigli, lies iu the channel nearly midway between North 
West Islet and Pulo Pancore. 

Between the North Bank and the bank skirting the shore there is a chan- 
nel, suitable for vessels of not more than 10 ft. draught of water; but the 
passage is difficult, and should not be attempted without local knowledge. 
Pass Tanjong Hantu, a projecting point, 11 cables N.E. by N. of Wedge 
Island, at about 2 cables distant on a S. ^^ E. course, after which steer 
S.S.E. ^ E. ; this course will lead direct to the centre of Dinding Eiver 
passage, and in not less than 4 fathoms water. H.M.S. Nassau, drawing 13 
feet, passed through the channel at three-quarters flood. 

The channel westward of North Bank is not recommended for vessels of 
large draught, for although with care and attention not less than 4 fathoms 
water will be obtained, the passage is narrow, being only 2 cables wide in 
the narrowest parts, and the leading marks are not of the best description. 
The eye, however, is the surest guide. 

Give a wide berth to North bank, the western limit of which bears North 
from the N.W. point of Pulo Pancore. To clear this and the outlying 3- 
fathoms patch 7 cables W.S.W. of Wedge Eock, the North peak of Pulo 
Pancore should not be brought to bear southward of S.E. ^ S. North West 
Islet will be sighted ahead on this bearing, and passing it on the starboard 
hand at half a cable distant, steer E. by S. f S. for Offlying Rock, 2 ft. high, 
near North Point. Between North-west Point and North Point, which are 
3 cables apart, a rocky bank projects 1^ cable to the northward, at the ex- 
tremity of which is Grasshopper Islet, 120 ft. high and wooded. Pass Off- 
lying Rock also on the starboard hand, at half a cable distant ; then alter 
course quickly to starboard, and bring the summit of North West Islet to 
bear W. by N. f N., and midway between Offlying Rock and North Point. 
This mark will lead a cable North of Bower Patch, and 1 cable South of a 
projecting part of North Bank. When Scorpion Point (which forms the 
eastern entrance point of the large bay indenting the North side of Dinding 
Island) bears S. W., alter course to starboard, and bring Table Rock, lying 
near a point, and 22 ft. high, to bear S. by E. i E. ; then steer 6 or 8 cables 
to pass the latter one, or 1^ cable distant ; and thence, preserving the same 
distance from the island, to the anchorage off Port Pancore. 

Charyhdis Rock, a pinnacle having a depth of 2 ft., lies North IJ cable 
from Scorpion Point. The 2-fathom bank surrounding it extends a quarter 
of a cable farther North. The ground is foul between Charybdis Rock* and 
Scorpion Point. 

Shoal water of 1 to 17 ft. extends a distance of 2^ cables to the N.E. and 
East of Scorpion Point, and also fills the bay formed to the N.E. of Table 

Boiver Patch, having a depth of 15 ft., is nearly circular, about half a mile 
in diameter, and lies N. by W. J W., 3 cables from Scorpion Point. The 


summit of North-west Islet, in line with North Point, leads on to Bower 
Patch. The summit open of North Point, and bearing W. by N. | N., leads 
North of Bower Patch in 4 fathoms least water. 

If bound to Binding Rivei*, keep North West Islet bearing "W. by N. f N., 
and when Scorpion Point bears S.W., sheer out a little to the southward, to 
give the S.E. extreme of North Bank a wider berth, and bring the leading 
mark on again before the tongue of South Bank is approached. 

The South Channel lies between the eastern side of the island, which is al- 
most steep-to, and the bank which extends about a mile off the main. 

Fairway Rock, 27 ft. high, lies S. by W. J W. Sf miles from the S.E. 
point of Pulo Pancore ; a sunken rock, having less than 6 ft. water, lies half 
a cable from its North side, and a depth of 4 fathoms near the West side of 
the rock. There are 9 to 1 6 fathoms water between the rock and the main- 
land, and 10 to 23 fathoms between the rock and Pulo Pancore. 

Pulo Katta, N.E. by E. 3^ miles from Eairway Rock, is a small wooded 
islet, 114 ft. high, standing on the edge of the bank near Tanjong Katta, 
and is separated from the mainland by a shoal and rocky passage 3 or 4 
cables wide. 

To reach Port Pancore from the southward, having passed Fairway Roi k 
and Pulo Katta, steer to bring Table Rock in line with Tanjong Hantu 
bearing N. by W. \ W. : keep these marks in line, which will lead nearly 
mid-channel to the anchorage off Port Pancore. 

If wishing to enter Binding River, steer from the anchorage to pass Table 
Rock 2 cables distant, and thence midway between East Bank and the island, 
until the North summit of Pulo Pancore bears S.W. h S. ; then bring the 
summit of North-west Islet bearing W. by N. | N. open of North Point, 
and proceed on that course to the entrance of the river. 

Abreast of Port Pancore there will be found secure anchorage for vessels 
of large draught, and sufficient space for several vessels to moor. The best 
berth is with the shore end of the pier bearing W.N.W., distant 3 cables, 
in 8 fathoms, mud. In this berth the vessel will be distant 3 cables from the 
edge of East Bank, the shoal which skirts the mainland adjacent. Bathing 
is unsafe on account of the numerous alligators which swim across the 

It is high water full and change in Binding Channel at S*" 15" ; springs 
rise 9 ft., neaps 5 ft. The flood stream in the North entrance sets fairly 
through the channel. In Binding Channel and South entrance the ebb seta 
N.N.E., and flood S.S.W., at the rate of 2 to 3 knots at springs. 

To the S.W. of Pulo Pancore the flood sets S.E., and ebb N.W., and sets 
through the narrow passage between Pulo Pancore Laut and Pulo Pancore 
at the rate of 2 to 3J knots at springs. 

There is anchorage in the bays on the western side of Binding Island, 

Binding River, perhaps the only river without a bar in Malacca Strait, 


has a deep and clear entrance, which between Mehegan and Motts Points is 
8 cables wide. A channel 3 cables wide, and having: 5 to 9 fathoms, extends 
3 miles up the river, the farthest point reached by the surveying parties. 
The water shoals more gradually towards the North shore than to\vards the 
South, which is rocky. Yellow Cliff, 14 ft. high, and Bed Cliff, 26 ft. high, 
both on the South side of the river, are conspicuous. On the North shore of 
Binding Eiver, at the West side of the entrance of Sungie Sumpit (small 
river) is situated a police station, a conspicuous bungalow standing on a spit, 
and easily recognised by the palm trees westward of it. On the South shore 
of Binding Eiver, opposite the police station, is a native village. The flood 
and ebb tides set at the rate of 3^ knots at springs, and 2 knots at neaps. 
Birections for approaching it from the Binding Channel are given previously. 

The southern boundary of the British territory is in the bay 2 miles East 
of Pulo Katta. 

The Sambilang Islands are 8 miles South of Binding. They are so called 
from the Malay word for nine, their number. They are generally high and 
bluff, covered with trees, and visible 20 miles off. 

The White Roch, 15 ft. high, is the south-westernmost of the Sambilangs, 
and is in lat. 4° 0' 10" N., long. 100° 32' 15" E. The Blacli Roch, not very 
high above the water, is 1 mile North from it. The Sambilangs are quite 
bold-to, with very deep water, 15 to 46 fathoms, and very irregular bottom, 
BO that the lead is no guide in approaching them. There is a safe channel 
inside them. 

The RIVER PERAH, or Perak,* is an extensive stream, and is much fre- 
quented by the country vessels trading for tin. Mr. Birch, in one of his 
last speeches made at Singapore, speaks about this river in these terms: — 
" The river is a very magnificent one. At least 150 miles from the mouth, 
it is over 400 ft. wide, and, as the tidal influence extends a very short dis- 
tance from its mouth, it may be well imagined what rich and fertile lands 
are to be found along its valley. The greatest resources of this fine district 
lie in its soil, which is remarkably rich and suitable for the cultivation of 
tobacco, sugar, or indigo." 

A vessel entering Perah Eiver should close the North coast, and having 
passed Pulo Katta, bring the South point of Pulo Pancore, or Great Bin- 
ding, to bear N.W. by W. \ W., and nearly touching the North point of 
Little Binding Island. This mark will lead over the bar in 11 ft. at half- 
tide neaps, and 17 ft. at high water springs, and past the outer clump of 

* It was at Passir Salah, a town on this river, about 70 miles from its mouth, that Mr, 
Birch, the British Resident, met his death at the hands of the natives. The murder took 
place in November, 1875, at a time of great excitement, caused by the struggles of two 
rival claimants for the throne of Purah, after the death of Sultan Ali. 


fishing-stakes at about three-quarters of a mile on the starboard hand ; the 
bar is (January, 1876,) situated N.E. by E. from these stakes* 

Keeping the same marks in line, a second clump of fishing stakes is passed 
on the starboard hand about a quarter of a mile distant ; then alter course 
gradually to starboard, and pass between this clump and another large clump 
bearing E. by S. Passing the latter at a quarter of a mile distant, the vessel 
should steer along the bank for the point on the North side of the entrance, 
keeping about a half or three-quarters of a mile off shore, and passing out- 
side some small fishing-stakes moored close to the bank, until the mouth of 
the river is reached. Avoid the first point on the port hand, as there is a 
long spit extending ofi" it, and steer over to the South or left bank of the 
river, keeping it at a distance of 50 to 70 yards, as there is a slioal in the 
centre of the river. 

Between the entrance of the river and Kota Striah, distant 25 miles from 
the bar, on the route recommended, soundings of 2^ to 5 fathoms will have 
been obtained. There is anchorage off Kota Striah, in 3 J to 4 fathoms, stiff 
mud, at 2^ cables from the shore. 

Durian Sahatang, a town of eighty or ninety houses, the highest point 
which may be reached by gun-vessels drawing 11 ft., is 43 miles from the 
entrance. The trade, which is chiefly in tin, is in the hands of the Chinese, 
and is carried on entirely by junks. 

Bandar Bahru, the site of the British Residency, is estimated to be 19 miles 
above Durian Sabatang. Kota-Lumut is the highest point steam launches 
can reach. 

Bernam River, 12 miles southward of Perah River, is the boundary be- 
tween the States of Perah and Salangore. It has been for years the resting 
place of pirates, but in 1870, after some severe fighting, they were dislodged, 
and it is hoped that by an occasional visit of one of H.M. gunboats, the 
practice may be checked for the future. The river extends about 150 miles 

PULO JARRA lies in the middle of the Strait of Malacca, bearing S. ^ W. 
78 miles from Penang, and 26^ miles W. by S. from the Sambilang Islands. 
It is about 300 ft. high, very small, covered with trees, and may be seen in 
all directions for 20 or 25 miles. It is very steep-to, the lead affording no 

• In June, 1876, the Ringdove crossed the bar at high water neaps with the same marks, 
and had 22 ft. least water. Also H.M.S. Maypie, crossing on the 26th of December, 1876, 
had 25 ft. least water at one hour before high water ; the outer fishing-stakes bore S. by E. 
The channel of deepest water is probably very narrow, and it may shift. Navigating- 
Lieutenant Pownal Aplin, H.M.S. Modeste, 1876, remarks, that vessels of 9 ft. draught may 
always enter at high water. Ships of greater draught should not attempt it except at 
springs, unless in cases of urgency. The best channel in 1861 was 1 mile South of Pulo 


indication of its proximity. The depths around it are from 14 to 48 fathoms, 
with 25 to 30 fathoms in the channel between it and the Sambilangs ; and 
from 30 to 40 in the channel between it and the Brothers, 39 miles to the 
S.S.W. It is best to pass to eastward of it, because the current often sets 
strong to theN.W. in the middle of the strait, and calms are more prevalent 
there than nearer the coast. It is in lat. 3"" 58' 20" N., long. lOO'' 8' E. 

SALANGORE,'^-' the capital of the Malayan State extending from Bernam 
River tu Langat Eiver, lies within the entrance of a small river at 60 miles 
fc>.E. trom Pulo Sambilang. The town was founded at the commencement 
of the last century by a colony of Bugis from Celebes, and was at one time 
frequented for tin, for which the Dutch had here an establishment and 
monopoly. The fort on the South side of the entrance to the river is in lat. 
3° 19' 50" N. ; there are also some forts on the northern shore. The river is 
navigable at high water for vessels of some burden, and H.M.S. Rinaldo, 
draught 15 ft. 4 in., entered here in July, 1871, to punish the natives for a 
piratical attack which had been made in a junk from Penang, when thirty- 
four persons were murdered. They found the bar 2 miles in width at high 
water, and grounded at low water when anchored in front of the town. 
Captain Bloomfield, who examined the river in 1871 up to where it ceases to 
be tidal, at 22 miles from its mouth, reports that vessels drawing more than 
1 ft. water should not attempt to enter the river until more accurate surveys 
are made. H.M.S. Pluto ascended the river 13 miles, or to 1 or 2 miles 
above Quedah. The spring tide was running very strong, with a rise and 
fall of 15 ft. There is anchorage abreast of the river at 3| to 5 miles off 
shore, in from 4 to 7 fathoms, with Cape Caran bearing N.W., and Pulo 
Anza bearing S. by E., or S. by E. J E., about 9 miles distant. It is high 
water, at full and change, about 5 hours. 

The False Parcelar Hill, or BuTcit Jerom, is close to the shore, and 7 
miles from Salangore. It is sometimes called the Hill of Salangore. In pass- 
ing it, it scarcely seems higher than a clump of trees. Its sides are covered 
with cocoa-nut trees, and its summit by a grove of senna trees. Off it lies a 
line of islets and rocks, running to S.W. by 8. for 3i- miles. They were for- 
merly called the Botel (or Bottle) Islands. The innermost is Fulo Besar, and 
the outer one is Pulo Tekolo. At a mile, or further from it, is a rock, on 
which the Calcutta brig was lost. It bears S.W. ^ S. from it, and should not 
be approached too nearly ; there are 5 fathoms water close to it. 

From the outer reef (sometimes also called the Sail Shoal), Pulo Anzas, on 

* It is prohable that within a few years more trade may be done on the coast of Salan- 
gore. Under the advice of the British Resident, the Sultan issued a proclamation in 
March, 1876, declarint'- it illegal for any, save those properly authorized, to levy taxes on 
merchandize. Hitherto vessels passing np and down the river have paid heavily to different 
chiefs, who converted the mouty to their own use. 


the opposite side of the channel, bears W. by S. 3 miles. There are two of 
them standing upon the eastern edge of the shoal which limits the strait to 
the westward. (They are the Mudancoos, or Mud and Goose, of the old 
charts.) The bank and the islets are steep-to. The bank extends for 13 
miles to N.W. by N. from them, and gradually shoalens from 2 and 3 fa- 
thoms up to Pulo Colong (or Callam), the North point of which is 10 miles 
S.E. by E. from the Pulo Anzas. 

At 80 miles from the Sambilangs, and 30 miles from Salangore, is a pro- 
jecting point, formed by the islands of Colong or Callam and Lamaut, for- 
merly called Cape Coran, or Tanjong Aivat, or Mud Point. A shoal bank 
fronts it for 2^ miles from it, and therefore caution is necessary. This bank 
of sand and broken shells stretches for 15 miles to N.N.W., and is 6J miles 
from shore. On its edge and between it and the shore, the depths are 5 and 
4 fathoms, and as they decrease the bottom becomes hard. After the Sam- 
bilangs disappear, the False Parcelar, or Hill of Salangore, will come in 
sight to the S.E. by E., or rather more eastward. The ship will then be in 
10 fathoms, green mud, and should steer along the coast to S.E. in not less 
than 8 or 9 fathoms. When Cape Caran bears East, the beach may be neared 
with safety, but should have a berth of 2 miles, after which the lead will be 
a sufficient guide. 

Pulo Colong, with Pulo Liimaut to the South of it, forms a channel called 
the Strait of Callam, or Colong, which was formerly used by ships of mode- 
rate draught in order to avoid the dangers of the North and South Sands. 
It is still used by the local steamers. To the eastward of Pulo Lumaut two 
rivers enter the Lumaut Strait. The Callang or Klang is said to be navigable 
for vessels of light draught, 15 or 20 miles, as far as Damar, and for boats 
by poling as far as the neighbourhood of the tin mines. Langat River enters 
the strait at about 6 miles to the southward. To the northward of Par- 
celar Hill, "in 2° 50' N., the river bifurcates, near Langat, the residence of 
the Sultan and of the British Resident ; and a second mouth is formed on the 
coast S.W. of Parcelar Hill, and named the Jugru River. Mr. Braddell 
was on this river in 1874, and says that following the river from bight to 
bif^ht they found 3 and 4 fathoms wherever they went. Mr. Irving, speak- 
ing of the district says : — " It is a magnificent country, with a fine soil and 
great mineralogical resources. It is watered and opened up by fine naviga- 
ble rivers, which run up within easy distance of the richest tin districts, 
situated in the watersheds of the Salangore, Klang, and Langat Rivers. It 
only wants security for life and property, and a few easily constructed roads, 
to make it burst out into exuberant life."* 

* For further particulars, see a Paper in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 
yol. xlvi, 1876, by W. Barrington D' Almeida, on " The Geography of Perah and Salan- 


The Strait of Colong, or Callam, is about 15 miles in length between the 
islands, and has sufficient depth for moderate ships. It is not much used 
now, the less so, as it is said that pirates have been found lurking in its 

Mr. Logan says : — The strait is like a large river or canal. The islands 
between which it lies are merely flats, and formed of black mud, covered 
with mangrove thickets. In steaming through it you see nothing but a wall 
of thick mangroves on either side. Towards the northern extremity of the 
thickets one place of considerable extent was quite naked, and covered with 
flying foxes, which have settled here for many years. The strait is (or was) 
used by the local steamers in passing between Singapore, Malacca, and 

The following are the old directions for those who would wish to follow 

To run in for Salangore and the Straits of Colong, after you have rounded 
the Sambilangs, steer away to the eastward E.S.E. or E. by S., and rise the 
low land, coming no nearer than 8 or 9 fathoms, but do not rise the beach 
from the deck. As you lose sight of the Sambilangs, you may see the hill of 
Salangore, or False Parcelar ; steer in for it, keeping the above depth, you 
"will soon after make the true hill, which appears like a grove of trees ; when 
you come nearer you cannot mistake it, as it is the only hill near the water 
side. In observing these directions, you will not meet with the shoal of 
broken shells that lies to the N.W. of Salangore, and those which follow will 
enable you better to avoid it. 

When you can just discern Salangore Hill from the deck, bearing S.E. by E. 
or S.E. by E. ^ E., you will have 10 or 11 fathoms, green oaze, with small 
broken oyster-shells, at 5 or 6 miles from the nearest shore. The course 
along shore is about S.S.E. 14 or 15 miles. The soundings on the shoal are 
from 6 to 3 J, 5, 4, and 6|^ fathoms, with overfalls of 1, 2, and 3 fathoms at 
a cast : as you deepen you will have soft ground, and the contrary as you 
are shoaling. "When you have sailed the above mentioned distance, allow- 
ing for the tides, Parcelar true Hill will be seen from the deck bearing 
S.S.E. ^ E., distance from the nearest shore 7 or 8 miles, in 14 or 15 fathoms, 
soft ground. 

When you see the False HiU bearing S.E. by E. or S.E. by E. \ E. from 
the deck, steer ofi" shore to the southward, until you lose sight of the white 
sandy beach from the tafi'arel ; then steer to the S.E. along shore, taking 
care not to raise the white beach, and that will carry you clear without the 
shoal, in soundings not less than 8 or 9 fathoms. When you have run the 
above mentioned distance to the S.S.E., you may then with safety raise the 
beach, or borrow on the shore ; but come not under 8 or 7 fathoms, soft 
ground, as it shoals very fast from that depth until you are past Tanjong 

I. A. R 


But to resume our instructions for sailing into Salangore. After you have 
seen the low land beyond Tanjong Awat, you may be guided by the lead, 
giving that point a berth of a mile, or 1^ mile, to avoid the shoal which 
stretches from it. To run into Salangore Eoad, you keep the hill a little 
open to the southward, and anchor a little to the northward of it, in 4 or 
3^ fathoms, soft mud, as there is a shoal to the southward projecting 1^ 

Going to the Straits of Colong, steer for Pulo Anzas, and to the eastward 
of them you will then see the entrance, or North mouth of the straits. The 
Pulo Anzas are bold-to, but the islands, which are on the eastern side of 
the channel, are the reverse. Off the southern or outermost island, Pulo 
Tekolo, lies a dangerous rock, bearing from it S.W. ^ S. a mile distant, and 
with 5 fathoms close to it. On the S.W. of the channel there is a sand-bank, 
but on the other side it is mud. "When you are past the above islands, ap- 
proach nearer the sand-bank than when you leave hard soundings ; on the 
opposite part stand on at pleasure. 

A little to the northward of the North entrance of the straits lies a shoal, 
to avoid which, as well as to keep in the best channel, you are to keep the 
Middle Botel Island in one with Salangore Hill, observing not to open the 
hill to the eastward ; another leading mark is to keep Parcelar Hill on the 
West point about its own breadth. After passing this shoal you may be 
guided by the lead on this side, keeping in from 5 to 9 fathoms. There is 
also another shoal in a line of direction from Mud and Goose Islands to the 
West point, but of no great extent. 

In working up the first reach there is no danger, having good water from 
side to side, which at the upper end of the reach is very deep, with irregular 
soundings from 12 to 22 fathoms. The opening that is on the port hand at 
the bottom of this reach is the Eiver Colong or Klang ; opposite to which 
is Deep-water Point, the South point on the starboard hand, of the first 

The second is Bar Peach, which is clear while abreast of a creek on the 
port side, opposite to which is the shoalest part of the bar ; before you come 
up to this creek, you meet with another, which it is necessary to avoid, as 
there is an indraught. It will be best to anchor about a cable's length, in 6 
fathoms, before you cross the bar, as it shifts very much, and of course it is 
requisite to sound. On our sounding we found 3 fathoms at low water the 
greatest depth, which is a little more than a third over from the S.E. side : 
you will carry 3 fathoms about twice the ship's length after being over. A 
good leading mark is some low land just open with the first point ; you may 
stand till it is two sails' breadths open, and close it on the other shore ; but 
the best and safest mark for crossing the bar is to bring Deep-water Point to 
bear N.E. J E. ; you may also be guided by the lead, which cannot be done 
on the opposite side, being a bank steep to that extends along and across 


about one-third over to the western point of the Third Eeach, and from thence 
up to the northern extremity of a creek, in that reach, your soundings are 
from 3 to 9 or 10 fathoms. 

The bar is narrow, and begins at the entrance of the first creek, on the 
S.E. shore, having the least water about half a cable's length to the S.W. ; 
you then deepen it from 3 to 5 fathoms gradually, and will be abreast of the 
second creek.* From this you carry not less than 5^ fathoms, about a large 
cable's length from the port shore. Keep nearly that distance till you pass 
Point Anna Grabs (so called from a small ship wrecked here), as it is shoal 
on the starboard side, hard ground, with overfaUs. Indeed, you must avoid 
for the same reason, the starboard shore, until you are beyond the second 
opening to the sea. 

The tide flows about 9 ft. in the springs. 

PARCELAR HILL, or Bukit Jugru, a great leading mark, stands in lat. 
2° 50' N., long. lOr 26' 10' E., 26i miles E. 7° S. from the lighthouse on the 
One-fathom Bank, and 10 miles eastward from the southern entrance of the 
Colong Strait. It is 890 ft. high, of oblong form, sloping at each end when 
viewed from the westward, with the summit a little to the westward of its 
centre ; but of a regular pyramidal form when seen from the southward or 
S.S.E., with very gentle declivities in each direction. It is darker in appear- 
ance than the neighbouring hills. In front of it, to the S.W., is the Jugru 
mouth of the Langat River, before mentioned. 

The NORTH SANDS, which lie ofi" the Malay coast between Salangore 
and Parcelar Hill, are extensive and dangerous. Their north-western edge 
is steep, and drops from 5 fathoms to 15 or 30 fathoms in 3 or 4 miles. They 
have been surveyed by Captain Ross, and his chart shows them as several 
parallel ridges of sand, trending fromN.W. and N.N.W. to S.E. and S.S.E., 
with deeper water, from 8 to 14 fathoms, between them. The north-western 
edge of their most dangerous part lies 21J miles W.S.W. from Salangore. 
These patches have from 4 to 18 ft. water, with 7 to 10 fathoms on either 
side. They extend south-eastward for 18 miles, leaving a channel, 3 miles 
in width, between their extremity and the shoal which extends from Pulo 
Colong, and which has from 5 to 14 fathoms of water. The chart is the best 
guide for their position and character, and the various patches need not be 
enumerated, as it is difiicult or impossible to give clearing marks for them. 

* After you pass the bar. Captain Elmore advises to " steer direct for the South point of 
the Sea Reach, until the North point of that reach bears West by North, to avoid the wreck 
of a large Portuguese ship, which bears West from that point, and lies on the eastern shore, 
between Anna Grab Point and the bar ; when these bearings are on, and you are 2 cables' 
lengths off shore, it is best to keep the eastern shore on board, to prevent the flood tide from 
horsing you through the opening to seaward (which I call Sea Keach), where there is no 
passage, being entirely choked with sand banks, dry at half ebb." 


The Blenheim Shoal is one of the most dangerous of these shoals, and lies 
on their western edge. It nearly occasioned the wreck of H.M.S. Blenheim, 
when it was first discovered. It bears from One-fathom Bank light N. 15° W. 
11 miles, and from Parcelar Hill W. 23° N. 31|^ miles ; Salangore Hill bears 
from it N. 56° E. ; and another hill to the S.E. of it N. 66° E., lat. 3° 3' N., 
long. 100° 56' 15" E. It has only 6 ft. least water, and there are several 
dangerous patches to the and N.E. from it. It is cleared so long as 
Parcelar Hill does not bear northward of E.S.E. 

It is high water at the N.W. head of the North Sands, on full and change, 
at 6*" 30". Springs rise 12 ft., neaps 12i ft. 

When the Round Arroa (presently described) is seen from the mast-head 
(being 31 miles off), bearing S.S.W. to S.S.W. J W., you are on the N.W. 
edge of these sands, and will pass over spits of 8 and 10 fathoms. As these 
spits, which form the N.W. part of the North Sands, have 9 to 12 fathoms 
on their outer edges, it is advisable, when bound to the southward in con- 
trary winds, to keep near the western edges of the sands in working, making 
short tacks to the westward, and standing in to 10 or 11 fathoms, in a large 
ship, or to 8 and 9 fathoms in a small one. By this means moderate depths 
will be found for anchoring during the ebb, with the tides more regular and 
more favourable than further out in deep water. Eor here, during S.E. 
winds, a current is often found to set W.N.W. and westward when tides are 
prevailing along the edge of the sands. The strength of the ebb generally 
sets between N.W. and N.W. by N. 2^ miles an hour, the flood in the oppo- 
site direction, about S.E. ^ S., standing a little on the western edges of the 
sands, or running nearly parallel with them, but it is not so strong as the 

The ONE-FATHOM BANK, which forms the S.W. part of the North 
Sands, and is also on the North side of the channel between the North and 
South Sands, was considered as the most dangerous shoal of the vicinity. 
According to Lieut. Ward's survey, it is about IJ mile N.N.E. to S.S.W., 
and 1 mile broad E.N.E. and W.S.W. It has 6 ft. least water. By keeping 
Parcelar Hill E. % S., the North end will be cleared, andE. \ S. the southern 
edge will be passed safely. 

The Lighthouse, on screw iron piles, is painted in stripes of red and slate- 
colour. It is placed on the centre of the bank, in 15 ft. water, half a mile 
S. by E. of the position occupied by the lightvessel previous to May, 1874, 
when a revolving bright light, attaining its greatest brilliancy every minute, 
was first exhibited from the lighthouse. It is shown at 61 ft. above the sea 
level, and visible 13 miles off. Its position is in lat. 2° 52' 8" N., long. 
100° 59' 2" E. 

A red huoy marks the North end of the bank. It lies in 14 ft. water, at 1^ 
mile N.W. from the lighthouse. 


There is a safe channel between the One-Fathom Bank and the Blenheim 
Shoal, but there is a small 21 -feet bank midway between them, with 7 to 16 
fathoms around it. It lies 6^ miles N. by W. I W. from One-Fathom Bank 
lighthouse ; and a second bank of similar depths lies 2 miles S.E. of it, and 
4 miles N. ^ E. of the lighthouse. Parcelar Hill bearing E. by S. i S., 
nearly, is the best course to pass between these banks and the One Fathom 
Bank. This channel has not been used by large ships, as the tides run in 
strong eddies over the sands during spring tides. A better course is to 
steer so as to pass southward of the lighthouse. 

The ARROA ISLANDS form the western side of the main channel of the 
Strait of Malacca past the North Sands. They are a group of small islets 
and rocks on an extensive shoal which lies in the middle of the strait. The 
northernmost of the cluster is the JV^orth Hock, in lat. 2° 55' 20" N., long. 
100° 36' 5" E. It is of considerable height above the water, with regular 
soundings very near the rocks that front it of 8 and 9 fathoms mud. 

East Rock, or Batu Ifandi, is a flat black rock, very little above the surface 
of the sea. It has deep water close on its eastern side. It lies somewhat oflf 
the mud bank, as it has a deep channel of 17 fathoms three-quarters of a 
mile wide to the West of it, between it and a line of sunken rocks, covered at 
half flood, on which the sea breaks at times. 

The Htffh Rock, or JBafu Balia, lies 2 miles West from the sunken reef just 
mentioned. It is surrounded by other rocks, and there are 9 fathoms in the 
space between, with 7 to ] fathoms in the channel West of it. 

Pulo Jummur, the Great or Long Arroa, is the largest of the group. It 
consists of two islands nearly joined, is covered with trees, flat, and is nearly 
3 miles S.W. by S. from the North rock. It is nearly a mile long, and the 
shores appear to be lined with rocks, and a re*/ extends to the N.E. from it 
for about three-quarters of a mile. The Malay fishermen come here for fish 
and turtle. Boats landing should therefore be on their guard. Water can 
be got in a cove with a good sandy beach, on the East side of the South isle. 
Several springs of good water fall into the deep valley. The Western Arroa 
is a group of islets and rocks lying about a mile to the westward of the Lono- 
Arroa, and on the same rocky bank. 

The Round Arroa, or Pulo Tukong Simbang, the chief mark for the channel 
to the eastward, is very small, high, round, and has a tuft of trees on each 
side of it. It may be seen 1 8 miles ofi". It has several rocky islets near it 
two of which are visible 12 miles oS' ; one of these lies to the northward the 
other to the southward, with straggling rocks around. The South Rock, or 
Pulo Tukong, the southernmost islet or rock, above water, is IJ mile S.S.W. 
from the Round Arroa. 

The Arroa Islands should not be approached by night, as there is now 
no necessity for it, since the light on the opposite side of the channel is 


established. The currents and ebb tides set very strongly here, and might 
horse you among them. Should a vessel be working near them against a 
heavy N. W. swell, there is shelter from N.W. or westerly winds by anchor- 
ing under the Long Arroa, guarding against the reef which projects a mile 
to E.N.E. from its North end. 

In sailing down the Malacca Strait from the northward, and having got 
in mid-channel between Pulo Jarra and the South Sambilang, keeping to 
the eastward to guard against the easterly tendency of the current, steer 
about S.S.E. or S. 20° E. to keep well to N.E. of the Arroas, but not too far 
on the North Sands. Excepting a shingly spot of 13 fathoms in lat. 3° 20' N., 
bearing South from the Sambilangs, the soundings are tolerably regular on 
this track generally between 31 and 40 fathoms in the direct line. Should 
the winds hang to the eastward or E.S.E., keep in with the Malay coast in. 
from 20 to 30 fathoms, until 8 or 10 leagues past the Sambilangs; then steer 
more southerly to get soundings of 16 to 18 fathoms on the N.W. face of the 
North Sands, which may be rounded close, provided you do not come into 
less than 14 or 16 fathoms, and then either the Arroa Islands or the light- 
vessel, or Parcelar Hill, will come in view, and will be a further guide. 

The SOUTH SANDS, like those forming the North Sands, are a series of 
parallel spits which run E.S.E. and W.N.W., or more southerly in the same 
direction as the Malay coast, and 13 or 14 miles distant from it. The main 
channel on the North side of them having that breadth, and a depth of from 
20 to 40 fathoms (with some exceptions), extends for 60 miles from the One- 
Fathom Bank Light to Cape Eachado. The South Sands vary in width 
from 2 to 6 miles. The northernmost dangerous patch, with 16 ft. water, is 
102 miles S. by E. ^ E. from the lightvessel, and the south-easternmost is a 
small patch of hard sand, named on the chart the Pyramid, with 6 ft. least 
water. From it Cape Eachado appears like an island, bearing E. ^ S., and 
from 5 to 9 miles further S.S.E. are several patches of 15 to 4 fathoms. 
These eastern patches are the most dangerous part of the shoal of Malacca, 
and require all caution. On the North side of the channel is the Bambek 
Shoal, awash, which is 21 miles from Parcelar Hill, and 14 miles from Cape 

The space between the Sumatran shore and the South Sands is full of 
shoals and dangers, and should never be attempted. 

It is high water at full and change at the One-Fathom Bank at 6 o'clock. 
Springs rise 15 ft., and neaps 12 ft. The tide runs strongly at springs, 
and then there are eddies on the spit which projects from the One-Fathom 
Bank. Between the sand heads the strength of the ebb runs nearly N.W., 
but the commencement and end of it run very irregularly. The flood is 
more regular in its direction, and runs with less velocity. The light 
is found to be most useful in these strong tide ways, when, if the land 


be not visible, the navigation would be as formerly, very embarrass- 

The CHANNEL between the North and South Sands, which has been 
known by the name of the East and West Channel, — a term probably derived 
from the fact that the leading marks through it lay East and West of each 
other. It is about 10 miles wide between the northernmost danger of the 
South Sands and the lighthouse; and there is a 21 -feet patch at 7^ miles 
S.W. by W. from the lighthouse, which requires caution. 

In passing through this East and West Channel, having passed the Eound 
Arroa and brought it to bear W.S.W., there is no danger from the North 
Sands, so long as it can be seeii from the deck. Then steer an easterly 
course away from it bearing W. J S. When the Eound Arroa sinks out 
of sight, the lighthouse will come in view, as will also Parcelar Hill, bearing 
about East. Bring the latter to bear about E. \ N., and you will pass 
safely to the South of the One-Fathom Bank. A course with Parcelar Hill 
bearing E. | S. will clear the bank. Having passed this, the channel within 
the South Sands is open to the south-eastward. Parcelar Hill may at times 
be obscured by clouds, when the low land at the entrance of the Strait of 
Colong may be seen. If this piece of low land be kept N.E. by E. J E., or 
its East end be brought to E.N.E., you will clear the banks in coming from 
the eastward. This low land comes in sight when abreast of the One-Fathom 
Bank, and from aloft the tops of the trees may be seen as far as Parcelar 

* Several wrecks having taken place on the South Sands, the following extracts from 
remarks by Mr. G. J. Maddock (pilot) will prove useful ; — "I will now endeavour to give 
an account of the chief cause of ships being lost on the South Sands. First, with respect 
to the loss of the John Curry, Captain Tucker, in January, 1854. From the wreck, Par- 
celar Hill bore N.E. by N. ; when conversing with Captain Tucker, and informing him 
that the current and tide out of Calam Strait had been the cause of the loss of his ship, he 
acknowledged that such must have been the case from the set which he noticed after the 
ship had struck. About two months afterwards, a large Dutch Indiaman, the Menado, got 
on shore under similar circumstances in the night, and, strange to say, within a cable's 
length of the spot where the John Curry was lost. I also met the captain of the Menado in 
Singapore, and he acknowledged that my version of his loss was correct, as he could not 
account for it in any other way. Some time afterwards, strange to relate, one of H.M. 
ships, the Andromeda, came to grief in the same locality. In passing up and down the 
straits some time before, I noticed this set of the tide, or perhaps rather an under current, 
and always kept correct bearings of the Parcelar, and on a dirty night or when dark, was 
invariably able to pick out an anchorage in 7 to 10 fathoms ; but these observations are 
nearly useless now, for there is a light on the One-Fathom Bank (North Sands), and if the 
Government place a second light on the South Sand Head, the principal dangers can be 
easily avoided. There are nights, however, when all these advantages will be found use- 
less — at short intervals during the north-westers and Sumatras." 


The Malay Coast about Parcelar Hill forms a slight bay, instead of a con- 
vexity, as was shown on the old charts, an error which led to some disaster. 
This bay, at the head of which the southern mouth of the Langat Eiver is 
situated, is filled with a shallow bank, and at about 9 miles southward from 
the hill is a slight projection named Parcelar Point, not easily distinguished 
on the low land of Parcelar of the old charts. It continues low and woody 
to the E.S.E. for 15 miles, to the N.W. limit of a bight, of which Tanjong 
Kamuning, 7 miles farther on, is the S.E. point. Above the head of this 
bay is the South Hummock, 973 ft. in height, and further inland are seen 
some other high lands towering above the trees on the coast. This bay is 
filled with shoals, and a line of detached shoals lies off its mouth. These 
shoals are formed by the debris brought down by the Eiver Lukut, which 
enters the head of the bay in lat. o° 35' N. A few miles up the river, on its 
left bank, is the town of Lukut. 

The Bambek Shoal lies midway between Parcelar Point and Cape Ea- 
chada, on the line joining their extremities, and 3 miles off the N.W. point 
of the bay just mentioned. This shoal was much dreaded by the early navi- 
gators, and several ships were lost on it. It is rocky, and nearly awash in 
the centre, and has several heads of 2^ to 3 fathoms over a space of 2^ miles 
E.S.E. and W.N. W., dropping to 7 and 8 fathoms at each end, and having 
10, 12, and 15 fathoms close outside it, so that the lead by night does not 
afford a very safe guide on approaching it. The dangerous Pyramid Shoal, 
the south-easternmost of the South Sands, is also difficult to avoid by the 
lead, as the soundings are deep close up to it, the depth of the strait being 
very irregular throughout its breadth. This danger is not lessened by the 
streno-th and irregularity of the tides, which set in various directions among 
the channels between the South Sands. The ground is all oaze, except about 
the middle of the channel. 

The shoal which runs north-westward from Tanjong Kamuning is 2° 32' N. 
above mentioned, has an opening through it abreast of that cape, upwards 
of a mile and a half in width, and the shoal continues in a direction parallel 
with the coast as far as Cape Eachada, 8 miles to the south-eastward, and at 
from a mile to H ^i^^ from it, leaving a channel inside it, having a depth 
of from 6 to 12 fathoms. A small island, Arrang-Arrang, lies to the S.E. of 
Tanjong Kamuning. 

CAPE RACHADA, or Tanjong Tuan, derived its Portuguese name from 
its ruo'ged, cleft character. It is 28 miles S.E. by E. from the point abreast 
the Parcelar Hill, and comes in sight just after passing that point. It is 
perpendicular toward the sea, and is something like Mount Dilly on the 
Malabar coast, but not so lofty. 

It projects to seaward in a long narrow point of land, which forms a deep 
bay on each side of it, with a small rock or islet near its extremity. When 
first seen coming from the northward it makes like an island, for the neck 


of land which joins it to the main is much lower than the cape itself. There 
are two wells of fresh water under the cape. 

The LIGHTHOUSE on Cape Eachada, completed in 1863, is a circular 
white stone tower, 78 ft. in height to the top of the lantern, in lat. 2° 24' 30" N., 
lon^. 101° 51' 10" E. It shows a brilliant fixed light over half the horizon, 
or when bearing from S.E. by E. round eastward and northward to N."W. by W. 
The light is elevated 446 ft., and may be seen 25 miles off. 

The tides are very strong off Cape Eachada, and pass it in noisy ripplings, 
especially at springs, the flood to southward, and ebb to northward. This 
is the narrowest part of the Malacca Strait, the opposite puint of Sumatra, 
Ujong Bantam being only 21 miles from it. 

In sailing down this portion of the strait, do not pass within a line joining 
Parcelar Point and Cape Eachada, nor bring Parcelar Point, the South ex- 
treme of the land to northward, to the southward of S. 60° E. to keep clear 
of the shore bank, giving Parcelar Point a berth of 3 or 4 miles in passing 
it. When Cape Eachada or the bight is seen, keep to the eastward of 
S.E. by E. I E. to keep clear of the Bambek Shoal. Cape Eachada brought 
to bear E.S.E. is a fair mid-channel bearing throughout, standing off to the 
southward to E. by S. ^ S. It would be dangerous to exceed these bear- 
ings when the cape appears as an island. When approached within 10 or 12 
miles the low neck comes in view, and the channel then becomes wider, and 
the boards may be continued further to the southward. Cape Eachada light 
kept in sight clears Bambek Shoal in the night time. 

Lingey Eiver. — The coast continues somewhat to the North of East from 
Cape Eachada for 5 miles, and then turns to E.S.E. for 3 miles more to the 
mouth of the Lingin or Lingey River, a large stream visited for tin, and tute- 
nague, the white metal alloy used by the Chinese to imitate silver. This 
river is the boundary between the native state Sunghy Ujong and the British 
state of Malacca. Off the point to the South of this river are some small 
detached rocks, and the whole of the coast to the N. W. is skirted by a shoal 
bank and straggling rocks. A buoy marks the eastern side of the Battoo 
Uandi, a small shoal, which lies IJ mile S.W. by S. from the southern en- 
trance point of the river. E.S.E. of the buoy lies the Batto Tinga Eocks, at 
half a mile from the shore. At 10 miles from the mouth of the Lingin is the 
Diana Hock, a large rock always above water, and H mile from the shore, 
with 15 to 19 fathoms irregular bottom close outside it. 

Tangong Kling is 22 miles S.E. by E. from Cape Eachada, and may be 
known by two or three trees on its extremity, more elevated than the others 
near the sea. The shore hereabout should not be made too free with in 
the night, as the soundings are deep and irregular, affording but little 

On the opposite side of the strait is the Quin Shoal, discovered by Admiral 


Quin, in H.M.S. Raleigh. It has 3^ to 4 fathoms on it, and is about 1| mile 
long from N.N.W. to S.S.E. It bears from Cape Eachada S. | E. 17J miles. 
Mount Ophir peak bore from it E.N.E., the North end of Pulo Eoupat, 
TJjong Bantam, on the Sumatra side, West, and the South end of Pulo Eoupat 
S.S.W. f W. 

MALACCA (or Malaka), the capital of the British Province to which it 
gives its name, stands on both sides of a small stream, at 27 miles from Cape 
Eachada, and 5 miles from Tanjong Kling. 

Malacca was occupied by the Portuguese in 1511, and in 1641 was taken 
from them by the Dutch, who surrendered it to the British in 1795. It was 
occupied by us till 1818, when it was restored to the Netherlands Govern- 
ment, by whom it was again surrendered to us in exchange for Bencoolen in 
1825. In 1826 it was incorporated with Singapore, 

The State of Malacca extends from the Eiver Lingey, on the N.W., to 
theCassang, on the S.E., having a coast line of about 40 miles in length, 
with a mean breadth of 25 miles, which includes the interior territory of 
Nanning or Naning, so that it has an area of about 1,000 square miles. In 
1865 the state had a total population of 71,600, chiefly Malays. At the 
census in 1871 the Malays numbered 57,474, the Chinese 30,456. The trade 
has been considerably reduced since Singapore has risen into pre-eminence, 
but tin and gold are still sent to that emporium in large quantities. In 1871, 
imports were valued at £503,326, and exports at £526,428. It has no direct 
trade with the United Kingdom. In 1875, 651 vessels, of 101,476 tons, en- 
tered the port. 

Malacca derives its name, according to Malay history, from the Malacca 
tree {Phyllanthus Emhlica), and was founded in the thirteenth century. 

The town of Malacca is divided by a small river into two parts, connected 
by bridges, one of which was given by a munificent native merchant. On 
the left or southern bank rises the verdant hill of St. Paul, surrounded by 
vestiges of the ancient Portuguese fort. Around its base lie the barracks, 
lines, and most of the houses of the military ; the stadthouse, courthouse, 
gaol, church, civil and military hospitals, the site of the old inquisition, con- 
vent, the police-office, school, post-ofiice, and the master-attendant's office. 
On its summit stand the ruins of the ancient church of Our Lady del Monte, 
erected by Albuquerque, the Portuguese conqueror of Malacca, and the scene 
of the labours and supposed miracles of that apostle of the East, St. Francis 
Xavier ; also the lighthouse and flagstafi". A little to the South rises the hill 
of St. John's, and in the rear that of St. Francis. On these eminences are 
still the remains of batteries erected by the Portuguese and Dutch, command- 
ing the eastern and southern entrances to the town. Smaller knolls inter- 
vene, covered with the extensive cemeteries of the Chinese. 

The view of Malacca from the roads is extremely picturesque. It has the 
appearance of being situated in the bend of a crescent or bay ; the southern 


horn of which is foraied by a chain of beautiful islets, called by the Portu- 
guese the Aguadas, or Water Isles, stretching out seawards from the coast. 
On the South side, the shore trends to the West, terminating in an elevated 
and well wooded point called Tanjong Kling. A few other islets stud the 
shore. The first objects that strike the eye are a cluster of trees crowning 
the summit of St. Francis, the Star fort on St. John's to the South, the 
lighthouse and ruinous church on St. Paul's, and the white edifices that 
skirt its base, stretching along the sea shore, and gradually lost in the thick 
groves of cocoa-nut trees that cover the dwellings of the Portuguese, Chinese, 
and Malays, in the suburbs of Bander Ilir, and Ujong Passir. In the back 
ground of this pleasing view rise the hills of Bukit Bertam, Bruang, Pan- 
chur, &c. To the ISlorth, in the distance frown the mountains of Rumbawe 
and Srimenanti, and far away to the East, the triple peak of Ophir, cele- 
brated for its gold, shoots into the sky with softened outline. — {Lieut. T. J. 
Newhold, vol. i., pp. 109—111.) 

The Lighthouse is a turret on St. Paul's Hill, as above stated, and is in 
lat. 2° ir 15" N., long, 102° 15' 30" E. It shows a bright fixed light, ele- 
vated 146 ft., seen 1 2 miles off. When seen to the northward of N. by W. f W. 
it will lead clear of the Water Islands. 

A red light is also shown on the pier-head at Malacca, visible 6 miles off in 
clear weather. 

The roadstead of Malacca is perfectly safe. It is neither visited by the 
hurricanes of higher latitudes, nor within the influence of the monsoons ; as 
was said in the sixteenth c6ntury, " it is the beginning of one monsoon and 
the end of another. 

The Road is limited to the North by Fisher Island, a small islet known 
formerly as Pea or Woody Island, surrounded by a shoal and foul ground, 
which joins with the shore. This is nearly 3 miles westward from the 
entrance of the river. It ought not to be approached within 9 or 10 fathoms, 
which is near to the edge of the shoal. With the extremes of the island 
bearing from N. by W. to N.N.W. and the body of it N. by W. ^ W. half 
a mile distant, there is a small circular shoal, having only 18 ft. on it at 
low water. Near to the city is Pulo Java, or Eed Island, on the edge of the 
shoal water. To the S.E. of this is Pulo Panjang, a rocky reef or flat, pro- 
jecting 1^ mile from the shore, and extending along it to Pulo Java. The 
church and flagstatf on the hill bear N. ^ E. from the West end of Panjang 
Eeef U mile distant, and from its East end N.N.W. i W. 3^ miles distant. 
There is a depth of 18 or 19 fathoms within 2 cables' lengths of its southern 
edge, similar to that in the ofiing, therefore the lead is no guide to clear it. 
From 20 fathoms in the offing the depths decrease regularly over a bottom of 
soft mud towards the road, where the best anchorage is under 10 fathoms, 
with the church on the hill N.E. by E., Fisher Island N.W. ^ W., and the 
tuft of trees East, the town I5 or 2 miles distant. When the depth exceeds 


10 fathoms, the bottom is generally a stiff tenaceous clay, which holds the 
anchors very firmly ; under that depth it is generally of soft mud. 

There is no danger going into Malacca Road ; if you are in the offing, in 
20 or 23 fathoms, you shoal en your water gradually to 7 fathoms, as you 
ran in for the road. A large ship should not go into less than 7^ fathoms ; 
for it shoalens suddenly from 7 to 5 and 4 fathoms. And they should be 
still more careful not to go too far to the southward, or to the S.E. part of 
the bay, for there the ground is foul and rocky, and shoalens suddenly from 
8 to 3 fathoms. Off Fisher's Island there is no danger; and it is found that 
a ship, upon occasion, might go within half a mile of it, in 16 fathoms water, 
or have 10 fathoms within a quarter of a mile, and 20 fathoms within 1 mile 
of it. You may anchor in Malacca Road from 13 to 7^ fathoms, oazy ground, 
Malacca church on the N.W. part of Mount Moar, E. 27° 30' N. ; the S.W. 
part of Fisher's Island "W. 36° 15' N. ; and the outermost of the Four 
Brothers, or Water Islands, E. 50° 20' S. ; distance from Malacca 1^ mile. 
The flagstaff bearing N.E. or N.E. by E. ; Fisher's Island N.W. by W. ; 
and the outermost Water Island S.E. J S. ; you have 8 fathoms. The flag- 
staff N.E. i N., and Fisher's Island N.W. by W., you are iu 10 fathoms. 
The flagstaff N.E., and Fisher's Island N.N.W. ^ W., you have 14 fathoms, 
all good anchoring ground. 

Ships should not anchor on the East side of the road, near Red Island, for 
the bottom is foul and rocky, the depth suddenly decreasing from 8 to 3 fa- 
thoms, on the North end of Panjang Reef. 

During the period of the S.W. monsoon, sudden hard squalls frequently 
blow into the road from the Sumatra side in the night, accompanied with 
much thunder, lightning, and rain. It is high water full and change at 7^ 
hours ; springs rise 11 ft., neaps 8J ft. The rate is about 2 knots. The ebb 
and flood tides continue to run for 2 hours after high and low water by the 
shore, and boats cannot enter the river after half ebb. The proceed into the 
river soon after quarter flood, steering for the church on the hill, keeping it 
rather on the starboard bow ; and when the bar is approached, the channel 
may be discovered by the stakes in the entrance. 

Malacca stands on low ground, but within, the country rises into undulat- 
ing hills, moderately elevated, among which is that called Bukit Barotig, 4 
miles inland, in a N.E. direction. 

Mount Ophir, or Gunong Ledang, may be better distinguished than the rest, 
as it is much higher, 3,840 ft., and lies 24 miles to E.N.E. 

The WATER ISLANDS, or Four Brothers, are a cluster of four smaU 
islands and one larger, lying 6 miles south-eastward from Malacca. The 
outer ones are small round islands covered with trees, and the innermost, 
Pulo Bessar, has excellent fresh water on its eastern side, and thus gives its 
name to the group. This can be procured at all times, but near low water, 
when the shore reefs are dry. 


The outermost island, Pulo Undan, is IJ mile South of the next, Pulo 
Nanka, and this half a mile South of the third, which has a channel above a 
mile wide between it and Pulo Bessar, but nearly in mid-channel there is a 
sunken rock. This channel may be used by ships if pressed, by carefully 
avoiding this rock. This may be passed in 10 to 12 fathoms water, by 
keeping close to the middle Brother, or to the South end of Bessar, for the 
rock is nearly a mile from the S.E. end of the latter, and one-third of a mile 
from the middle Brother. Coming from the eastward, keep the South end 
of Bessar N.W. until the southernmost Brother is shut in with the two 

The Rob Roy Bank, so named from a ship which grounded on it during 
the survey, a very dangerous 6-feet shoal, 3J miles in extent, lies on the 
Sumatran side of the channel, opposite the "Water Islands and Malacca, 
from which it is distant 20 miles in a S.W. direction. It is therefore much 
best to keep in with the Malay shore hereabout, and not to stand off more 
than 10 or 12 miles, guarding against the uncertain set of the tides. The 
depth rather increases towards the Eob Eoy Shoal, which is steep on its 
northern face. 

The coast south-eastward from the Water Islands is low and clean, covered 
with trees, and intersected by several rivers, the most noticeable of which is 
the Sung-ei Mnar, or Kassang, 20 miles from Malacca. It is the S.E. bound- 
ary of the state. Bahit Moar, or Mora, an isolated hill covered with trees, 
lies 9 miles to the S.E. of the river, and is just visible from Malacca Eoad. 
The coast, which slightly recedes, is skirted by an extensive shoal, and there- 
fore must be avoided. Tmyong Tor, a low level point, is about E.S.E. 33 
miles from Malacca, and here the shore bank appears to be much narrower, 
a moderate depth being found close to the point, ;vhile the edge of the bank 
N.W. and S.E. of it trends in a straight direction, the land recedes into 
slender bays on each side. 

Mount Formosa, or Gunong Batu Pahat, is more distinguishable than 
Mount Moar. It is the highest summit, 1,480 ft., of a long ridge of undu- 
lating hills near the shore, which are seen to extend inland to the N.E. Its 
S.W. slope forms a bluff point, Tanjong Segmting, on the western side of 
which is the entrance of the Sung-hei Batu Pahat, or Formosa River. A small 
island, Pulo Sheilo, lies off the pitch of the cape. 

The strait opposite this part becomes more embarrassed with shoals, long 
narrow spits trending in a N.W. and S.E. direction, some of which are 30 
or 40 miles long within the 10-fathoms line. On the Malay side of th& 
strait the more dangerous are not more than 4 or 5 miles off shore, but on 
the Sumatran side they reach to 18 and 25 miles off. The Hannah or Formosa 
Shoal is the most formidable on the northern side. It lies off the foot of 
Mount Formosa, extending thence 7 or 8 miles, and having only 12 ft. 
water on its shoalest spots. Its S.E. end is 2^ miles from the point of Mount 


Formosa, and its N.W. end is 5 miles from the adjacent shore. There is a 
channel between the shoal and the shore, but there are some dangerous spots 
of 18 ft. in it, one of which is about 2 miles due West of Pulo Sheilo, the 
islet off the Mount Formosa Cape. 

The main channel of the strait abreast of the Hannah Shoal is about 10 
miles in width ; beyond that distance there are the dangerous patches of the 
S.W. banks, which have nevertheless deep water channels between the spits. 
The southern edge of the Hannah Bank and the northern face of the Suma- 
tran Banks are steep-to, but if the lead is very carefully and briskly used, it 
will indicate their proximity. A long and narrow bank runs along this 
fairway channel with depths varying from 5 to 12 fathoms, having depths of 
from 15 to 25 fathoms on either side. All over the eastern and middle parts 
of it you have soft clay with 8 to 12 fathoms; towards the East end it be- 
comes harder and shoals to 5 and 7 fathoms. This bank was formerly known 
as the Fisang or Fair Channel Bank. 

The coast south-eastward of Mount Formosa, for an extent of 40 miles, is 
low and wooded, with nothing remarkable except a small mound near the 
sea, Batu Balu, about 15 miles from Formosa. It is all fronted by mud banks 
from 2^ to 6 miles in breadth, the edges of which are very steep. This fea- 
ture is also found in all other banks of this part of the strait, caused probably 
by the strong currents, and is on that account a dangerous feature in its 
navigation. It is especially so near Pulo Pisang. 

In sailing down the fairway channel from abreast of Mount Formosa at 7 
miles distance to Pulo Pisang, the direct course should be S.E. by E. ; the 
distance is between 9 and 10 leagues. Having doubled Formosa Bank, 
when the mount bears N E. between 3 and 4 leagues, you will raise this 
island bearing E.S.E. | S., or S.E. by E., you will then have soundings from 
20 to 22 or 23 fathoms, oazy ground. In turning to windward on this course, 
the Pisang Bank is of the greatest service both for anchoring on during the 
ebb, and for the purpose of keeping on, either in the night or day, during 
the squalls, which are generally accompanied with rain ; tor by steering 
along its verge, on either side, you may run the whole length of the bank 
without fear or danger, and upon deepening oflP the end of it may steer for 
mid-channel, between the Carimons and Pulo Cocob. By keeping in 11 or 
12 fathoms on either edge, if you deepen your water, you know which side 
to steer towards ; whereas, by running along the top of the bank, if you 
deepen, it is uncertain on which side. 

PULO PISANG or Pesang is a tolerably large and woody island, 200 ft. 
hifh, and a mile in diameter, which lies at 2 leagues distance from the main, 
and there is a channel between it and the main, in which there are not less 
than 4 fathoms water ; on the West side of it lie three small islands, the 
largest of which sometimes affords good water, and boats may land there 
commodiously at high water, in a bay on the N.W. part; this island may be 


seen in clear -vreather 9 or 1 leagues off ; then it makes in three small hum- 
mocks, like boats turned bottom upward. 

The Lighthouse constructing (1877) on Pulo Pisang is to show a light, 
visible between S.E. by E. ^ E. through South and West to N.W. i N. 

It is high water at full and change at Pulo Pisang at 9 o'clock. The flood 
tide generally sets fairly through the channel from the Water Island to the 
Carimons at the head of the strait, and the ebb also, in the contrary direc- 
tion ; the rate about 2 miles at spring tides. 

Pulo Pisang bears S.E. by E. 65 miles from the Water Islands, and when 
abreast of the outer island from 1 to 4 miles off, a S.E. by S. course will 
carry you about the same distance outside the Formosa Bank, if not drifted 
out of it by the tide. 

When Mount Formosa is brought to bear about N.E., keep within 3 or at 
most 4 leagues of the Malay coast, to keep well clear of the middle bank on 
the Sumatra side, so as not to get to the southward of its N.W. end. 

If the weather is clear, and Pulo Pisang be discerned, keep it between 
E. by S. J S. and S.E. by E. ^ E., until Mount Formosa is brought to bear 
North or N. by W. in working between the North side of the Middle Bank 
and the Malay coast. In passing the Formosa Bank in the night, if it is found 
that the ship has got too far to the southward so as to be southward of 
the Middle Bank keep along the southern side, or you may work against a 
contrary wind, in the channel between this and the next bank to the south- 
ward, the breadth of this channel being about 2J miles, with 16 to 19 fa- 
thoms water. But it should be remembered that these long narrow banks, 
as they get nearer to the Sumatra side, have less water on them, and there- 
fore the most prudent course would be to cross the Middle Bank by some of 
the numerous channels between its shoaler parts, rather than risk being 
drifted to the southward into less water. This may be done when Pulo 
Pisang is brought to bear about N.E. by E., when a depth of 5^ to 7 fathoms 
will be found on the ridge. Pulo Pisang may be brought to bear S.E. by E. 
■when standing towards the edge of the bank which skirts the coast be- 
tween it and Mount Formosa, excepting at about 5 miles to N.W. of that 
island, where it forms an elbow, and should not be approached too closely. 
When Mount Formosa is brought to bear N. by W., Pisang may occasionally 
be brought to bear E. ^ S. or East in standing towards the Middle Bank. 
The channel is about 10 miles broad ; during the night stand into 10 fathoms 
on the shore bank, and off to 18 or 20 fathoms. By day, when abreast of 
Mount Formosa, and Pulo Pisang is visible, bearing E.S.E. or S.E. by E. f E , 
steer for it ; either of these bearings will carry you in mid-channel. When 
near to the island, its western side and the two islets may be approached 
within half a mile, as they are bold close-to, with 13 to 15 fathoms within a 
cable's length of them. In standing off shore about 10 miles from the 
island you will be close to, or upon, the S.E. part of the middle bank, where 


there will be 4.^- to 6i fathoms. In working past Pulo Pisang, tack about IJ 
or 2 miles from it in 14 to 17 fathoms, and do not stand off from it more than 
3 leagues. 

Pulo Cocob (or Cocops) is 12 miles S.E. from Pisang Peak. It is a long 
flat island close to the Malay coast, between which and the shore is a narrow 
boat channel. It is covered with trees, those at the N.W. end being man- 
grove bushes, and more like grass ; and at the S.E. end they are tall, upright 
grown trees, like those on the adjoining coast. The island is 2 miles in length. 
At low water it is surrounded by a dry sand-bank, which extends off the 
N.W. extreme \h mile. Vessels may approach it within three-quarters of 
a mile. 

Tanjong Bolus, or Burn, or Peie, the southern extremity of the Malay 
Peninsula, may also be taken as the western limit of the Strait of Singapore. 
It is in lat. T 17' 15" N., long. 103° 27' 20" E., and is a low point of land, 
covered with tall trees, bearing from the South point of Pulo Cocob E.S.E. 
5i miles. At low water it is fronted by a dry sand-bank, and shoal water 
extends 1 mile from the point, which is very steep. Vessels, therefore, should 
be careful not to approach too close. 

The CARIMON ISLANDS form the southern side of the strait opposite 
Tanjong Bolus, and consist of a cluster of one large and several smaller 
islands and rocks. 

Little Carimon extends furthest to the North. It is a high island, 2^ 
miles in length N.N.W. and S.S.E., and 1 mile broad. It rises in two peaks, 
which are ill defined and difficult to distinguish, covered with thick wood. 
The North end bears from Tanjong Bolus S.W. ^ W. 9 miles, the breadth 
of the strait, which is free from dangers (except the flat off Tanjong Bolus, 
before mentioned). The N.E. side of the Little Carimon having deep water 

The Brothers are two small rocky islets 2| miles to the N.W. of the Little 
Carimon. They have deep water close to them ; but at 400 yards to the 
W.N.W. of the eastern islet there is a danqerous rock, just awash at low water. 
South by East of the East Brother, and West of the North point of the Little 
Carimon, is another islet of singular appearance, called the South Brother ; 
and S.W. I S. of this is a rock above water, named the White Rock. 

Great Carimon is a high island, separated from the Little Carimon by a 
narrow strait, and lying to the S.W. of it near its North end ; it rises to two 
high peaks, 1,376 and 1,474 ft. high respectively, which are well defined and 
conspicuous objects, and may be seen 36 miles off. The lowest, or North 
peak, bearing S.E., clears the danger on the Long Middle Bank, before 
mentioned. To the westward of the island are several islets and rocks, 
both above and below the water, but which are entirely out of the track of 

The description of the Strait of Singapore will be given in a future section. 


We now return to the northern entrance describing the Sumatran coast of the 

The COAST of SUMATRA, between Achin Head and Diamond Point, 
was surveyed by order of the East ludia Company, by Commander Fell, I.N., 
in 1x51-8, and later by the Netherlands Government in the years 1872-4, 
and the N.E. coast of the island thence southward by Lieut. Jackson, I.N., 
in 1860. These excellent surveys, combined with the previous observations 
of Captains Moresby, Rose, and Ward, have given us a very perfect repre- 
sentation of the shores of this otherwise little known island. 

This side of Sumatra may be described, generally, as a vast alluvial plain, 
but very little above the sea level, unbroken by any great bays or inlets ; but 
formed at the narrowest part of the strait, of low islands. This great level 
expanse is 600 miles in length, and from 60 to 120 miles in breadth; an area 
more than half of the extent of Great Britain. It is intersected by numerous 
rivers, some of considerable magnitude, which, rising in the great mountain 
chain, lyin^ nearer to its S.W. side, or the few lakes at their base, afford 
almost the only clear spaie for cultivation and the habitations of the people, 
which are all derived from one stock — the Malayan, but divided into several 
families or nations, some of which have made considerable progress in civili- 
zation, in the arts and agriculture, as well as writing, &c ; others are of a 
very rude and wild class, those living in the mountainous portion of this vast 
island. Altogether they are estimated by Mr. Logan, the best writer on the 
subject, to amount to 898,650 souls. 

The whole island, except the kingdom of Achin, is nominally under the 
Dutch Government ; but very little power is, or can, be exercised by the few 
European or native representatives of that nation. The Sumatra shores of 
the Strait of Malacca belong to the kingdom of Achin, or Acheen, at the 
JSorth end ; the Batak nation, next to the south-eastward; then the Siak 
State, traversed by the finest river of Sumatra, bordering the narrowest and 
upper part of the strait. 

Achin, or Acheen, ths northernmost state, is of some interest, as the spot 
which the earliest English navigators visited in 1602. Its chief feature is 
the Golden Mount, or Ya Muria, rising 7,546 ft. in height to the S.E. of the 
capital town, and to be seen 92 miles off. The town in early times rose ra- 
pidly to eminence and great commerce ; and when Dampier came here in 
1688, it had 45,000 or 50,000 inhabitants, a number equal to the whole 
present population of the state. Its full, subsequent to this, was equally 
rapid, and the sovereignty is now pa>.^iiig from the native rulers to the 
Dutch Government, who commenced the war on Achin in 1871. Previous 
to this, all the island, except Achin, was under Dutch. Government, this 

I. A. t 


state being protected by the treaty of 1824 between England and Holland, by 
which treaty English rights in Sumatra were exchanged for Dutch possessions, 
in Malacca and in the Peninsula of India, with the proviso that Achin should 
remain unmolested. In 1871, however, when the Dutch G-overnment gave 
up to us their possessions on the Gruinea Coast of Airica, this part of the 
treaty was cancelled, and the Achin war began ; the pretext fur the war 
being the many acts of piracy committed by the Atchinese. Up to October, 
1875, the Dutch had lost 5,144 men in this war. Achin is now very un- 
important, and rice is one of its chief products. A portion of it is known as 
the Coast of Pedir, tbe produce of which is the areca nut and a little pepper. 

Bafali, the next nation to the S.E., the country of the Bataks or Battas, 
has been partially conquered and explored by the Dutch. It is singularly 
unlike most other parts of the Malayan Archipelago. A considerable por- 
tion of it consists of a dreary, treeless, and sterile plain. The people are 
more strange than their country. They have a knowledge of letters, but 
undoubtedly are cannibals. The Dutch authorities say that those under 
their sway are readily dissuaded from this dreadful crime. There is very 
little commerce. 

Siah, the third division, is but little known. Its great river has been 
ascended for a considerable distance, and is navigable for vessels of consider- 
able burden for 90 miles to the town of Siak, and for those of 200 tons for 
100 miles, but it is almost closed by a sand bank. 

The portions of these states unoccupied by man, or lying on the borders of 
the rivers, is one vast primeval forest, to clear and cultivate which is far 
beyond the powers or wants of its small and puny population. Its cultivated 
portion is the chief source of the sago of commerce ; camphor and benzoin 
are also produced. CoflFee cultivation has largely extended ; besides these, 
there are other and minor objects of trade. 

ACHIN HEAD, the N.W. point of Sumatra, and the islands and pas- 
sages lying off it, have been described in our Indian Ocean Directory. 

Pulo Brasse Lighthouse, 120 ft. high, on the N.W. point of the island, 
completed in 1875, is a white tower, with its upper part painted red. From 
it is shown a revolving light, elevated 525 ft., and visible 32 miles off to the 
northward and eastward between W. | S. and S.E. ^ E. An auxiliary red 
light, to indicate the shoals which lie to the N.W. of the lighthouse, is shown 
between N. by W. ^ W. and W. by S. ^ S. from the same tower, at an ele- 
vation of 430 ft., visible 8 miles off. 

Eastward 1^ mile from Palo Brasse lighthouse is a projecting point, which 
shelters an anchorage in Lembalei Bay, to the southward of it. The best 
anchorage is in about 9 fathoms off the village of Ujong Poneng, S. by W. 
nearly half a mile from the extremity of the projecting point. There is also 


anchorage in Rots Bay, a small bay, about a mile wide on the eastern side of 
Pulo Nancy. It has an islet, forming its South entrance point, in lat. 
5° 38' 5" N., long. 95° 11' 25" E. At half a mile South of this islet is a 
stream of fresh water. 

Achin Head, the North part of which forms the eastern side of the Surat 
Passage, is in lat. 5° 34' 10" N., long. 95° 15' E., is steep-to, and has a high 
cliff land on its North side. At three-quarters of a mile E. by S. from the 
eastern extreme of the head is Pulo Tuan, a small circular islet, surrounded 
by dangerous rocks, which also lie between the islet and the head. A mile 
E.S.E.-ward of Pulo Tuan, is a shallow inlet, which receives the waters of the 
Maraha River. Achin or Atjeh River entrance, in 5° 35' 35" N., 95° 20' 45" E., 
bears from it E. by N. J N. 6 miles ; there is no flagstaff, or any conspicuous 
object, to point out the entrancee of the river. The anchorage is in 9 or 10 
fathoms, with the eastern extreme of Pulo Way bearing N. 20° E. ; Achin 
Head, S. 69° W. ; the shore between Achin Head and River may be ap- 
proached to 5 or 6 fathoms. 

Pulo Btirroo, or 3Ialora, N. 36° E., 6f miles from the entrance of Achin 
River, is a small rocky islet, with a tree on it. It is 2f miles off shore, with 
soundings of 13, 9, and 12 fathoms between it and the mainland, from which 
the eastern extreme of Pulo Way bears N. 5° AV., the bluff' entrance near 
Point Pedro S. 41° E. 

In working along this part of the coast, attention ought to be paid to the 
tides, and be sure not to go out of soundings should the wind be light and un- 
favourable, as the soundings extend but a short distance outside Pulo Burroo. 
Three miles to the East of it there is no ground at 275 fathoms. 

PULO WAY {i.e. Water Island), which forms the N. W. side of the Bengal 
Passage, is steep-to on all sides ; the nearest part of it is distant from Pulo 
Burroo 6^ miles. Off the South side there is a rock, situated a short distance 
from, the shore, on which the sea breaks, and is dry at low water. On its 
S.E. side there is a deep bay, with 70 fathoms water at its entrance, and 25 
fathoms close to the sandy beach at the head of it. 

Point Pedro, in lat. 5° 89' 10" N., long. 95° 27' E., bears E. 22° N. from 
Achin Roads, distant nearly 9 miles ; it is low, with a few trees on it, and 
may be approached to 9 or 10 fathoms. It is 1^ miles to the E.N.E. of the 
bluff formed by the high land, which terminates in a gentle slope. Off this 
point the bottom is rocky, and the soundings do not extend more than \h or 
2 miles from the shore. At a mile W.S.W. of it, and S.E. of Malora Island, 
is a small river named the ^'«??Ai<^, andS.W. 3 miles Irom this is another 
small stream entering the sea, and called on the charts Gigchen River. 

Krang Ryah Bay, in which there is anchorage sheltered from E. and S. 
winds, lies 6 miles S.E. from Pedro Point. On its eastern side a cliffy coast 
commences, and off' its eastern entrance point is a small islet, Batu Kapal. 
At 6 miles eastward of Batu Kapal is Tanjong Batu Putie, a cliffy point bear- 


ing N. by W. from the western slope of the Golden Mountain, Thence the 
coast takes a general E.S.E. direction to Pedir Point. There is, however, a 
slij^ht bay between Tanjong Batu Putie and Tanjong Segie, 8i miles 
E.S.E. -ward from it, on the shores of which are the few small Tillages, 
Lanteba, Bihu, Powad, Lawang, and Kalore. There are no dangers marked 
on the charts at more than half a mile off shore hereabout. 

PEDIR POINT, or BaUi Pedir, is a table land of moderate elevation. Off 
Pedir Point, with the exception of a few rocks close in, the shore is steep-to, 
there being 112 fathoms water 1 mile distant from the shore. From this 
point the coast is cliffy for Zh miles, and runs to the southward, thence it 
takes a general S.E. by E. direction for 1 6 miles to Endjung Creeh, a few 
miles up wLich is the village of Saivang. Six creeks, with sand banks off 
their mouths, are found on the coast between Pedir Point and Endjung 
Creek. Batu Creelc, the first, lies 4 miles southward of Pedir Point. Bun- 
gala Creeh, a mile N.E. of which is anchorage in 9 fathoms, lies If mile 
E.S.E. of Batu Creek. Pedir Creelc is 2^ mile E.S.E.-ward of Batu Creek. 
The village is not visible from the anchorage, which is abreast this creek in 
10 or 12 fathoms. Gichen Creeh is 2\ miles E.S.E. of Pedir Creek. Between 
this and Burong Creeh, the distance is 1^ mile. Burong may be known by a flag- 
staff in the centre of the village. The creek is very narrow, and the bar at 
its entrance very shallow, and only passable at high water. The anchorage 
is abreast of the village in 15 or 18 fathoms water. From Bui'ong Creek to 
Ije Labu Creek, which enters the sea at a slight projection of the coast, the 
distance is 3j miles. Endjung Creek is 3J miles beyond this. Sawang 
entrance, before mentioned, may be known by a high grove of trees near to it. 

At E. i S. 7| miles from the entrance of Sawang or Endjung Creek is 
Merdu Point, low and sandy, with a few small round trees on it. Beradjang 
Creeh lies 2 miles westward of the point, another creek enters the sea at the 
point, and TJlim Creeh 2 miles south-eastward of it. Between Merdui Point 
and Pajah, Point, lat. 5° 14' 30", long. 96° 28' 30", the distance is 131 miles, 
and midway between Samalangan Creeh enters the sea. Pajah Point may be 
known by a high grove of trees near its extreme. There is a depth of about 
15 fathoms, at a mile off shore, between Merdui and Rajah Points. To the 
eastward, Pedada Creek is in long. 96° 35' ; Bjimpa Creeh, 96° 39' 45" ; and 
Passangan Creeh in 96° 48'. 

Passangan Point is in lat. 5° 18' N., long. 96=51' E., and bears from 
Oujong Rajah E. J N., distant 23 miles, between which the shore mav be 
approached to 12 or 14 fathoms, excepting when near to Passangan Point, 
which is steep-to, having 30 fathoms within half a mile from the beach. 
Passangan Point is low and sandy, with a few cocoa-nut trees near to its ex- 
treme, and is in one with Elephant Mountain, bearing S. 42° W. 

East 4° South from Passangan Point, distant 9^ miles, is Agum-Agum, or 
Gonia Goma Point, the coast between is slightly concave, and hallway between 


there is a high square grove of trees, near which the Elumpang Dua Creek 
enters the sea. Ilaneh Creeh enters the sea a mile eastward of Passangan 
Point. The shore vsx?^ be approached between these points to 8 or 10 fa- 
thoms, but not when abreast of Agum-Agum, which is low, with a little 
jungle on it, as two sunken rocks lies off this point, one a mile W.N.W. of 
the point, and another, the Sumatra Rock, at a mile off shore and 2 miles 
eastward of the point. Do not shoal the water under 25 fathoms when in 
the neighbourhood of the Sumatra Eock, if you wish to pass outside of it. 
From Goma Goma Point the coast takes a general E. by S. ^ S. direction for 
12 miles to Telok Samoi, or Teles Amoi Point, S.S.W. from which is a t^ble 
land of moderate elevation, with a few conspicuous trees on it. The point 
may be rounded at any convenient distance, as there are soundino-s of 7 and 
10 fathoms within 100 yards of the beach. Krang Guku Creek is 4^ miles 
eastward of Goma Goma Point. At Telok Samoi Point the coast recedes 
and forms a bay, open to the North and East, with a river flowing into its 
S. W. corner ; and two villages on its shores, Telok Samoi on its western, and 
Maraksa on its South side. 

From Maraksa, just eastward of which a small creek enters the sea, 
the coast runs in an E.N.E. direction to Diamond Point, and may be ap- 
proached to 7 or 8 fathoms, except when approaching Diamond Point, there 
is a shoal of hard slatey clay, with 2 fathoms on it ; it is not more than 20 
yards in extent, with 7 and 8 fathoms close round it. From the shoal 
Diamond Point Dears E. 1° N., distant 5 J miles ; a small gap in the juno-le 
S. r E. ; and Curtoy Creek (which is situated 8J miles to the westward of 
Diamond Point, at the AYest extreme of the belt of thick jungle), S. 22° W. 

Fussier or Passey, now an unimportant place, about 25 miles south-westward 
of Diamond Point, is frequently mentioned in old Malay annals as beino- a 
place of some note, at one time rivalling Malacca. It attained its notoriety 
as an entrepdt for trade carried on between the countries East and West 
of it. Between Passey Creek and Legabatang Creek, 8J miles eastward of 
it, are the Rertv or Kertoy, Tyankoy, and Pidada Creeks. 

DIAMOND POINT, or Jambie Ayre, or Tanjong Goere, forms the eastern 
extremity of the coast of Pedir, the trees on it being of unequal height, and 
higher than those of the contiguous land, make the land appear like a low 
sloping island, when viewed at a considerable distance, although the ground 
is very little elevated above the sea at high water spring tides. A reef ex- 
tends from the point about \h mile in a northei-ly direction, having 3 fathoms 
sand on its outer edge, and shoaling gradually to the point. A ship should 
come no nearer the latter than 2i miles, nor under 12 fathoms in passing it 
and the shoal to the westward ; for the water shoals quickly under this depth 
to the westward of the point. This place is frequented in the fair season by 
fishermen from the coast of Pedir. Inland to the S.S.W. there is a high. 
Table Mountain, visible from the offing in clear weather. 


Tides. — Although the tides along the Pedir coast are weak, and only per- 
ceptible near the shore, there being a current usually setting to the westward 
in the offing during the S.W. monsoon, yet they begin to run strong at 
Diamond Point. The flood here sets to the S.E., and the ebb to the N.W., 
about 2 miles per hour, with arise and fall of 9 or 10 ft. on the springs. At 
the western part of the coast of Pedir, it is high water at about lOJ hours, 
on full and change of the moon, and at 12 hours off Diamond Point. The 
soundings are not very regular in the offing, the depths being from 20 to 35 
or 40 fathoms, about 3 miles, to 45 and 60 fathoms at 5 or 6 leagues from 
the point ; and soundings extend from hence across to Pulo Pera, and from 
the latter to the Ladda Islands, and to Penang. A little outside of Pulo 
Pera there are no soundings. 

The coast to the south-eastward has been surveyed by Lieut. Jackson ; 
but the directions of Commander Fell are adapted to this later chart. 

Adie, 20 miles South of Diamond Point, claimed Dutch protection in 1874, 
and a coal depot has been established here. Between Diamond Point and 
Adie are several rivers and creeks. On the western side of Diamond Point 
is DJambu Ayer Creek, and on its eastern side Mentui Creek. In lat. 5° 14' N. 
is Bekas Creek. Pareh Busuk, in 5° 13' N., is an entrance between two islands. 
Ringin Creek is in lat. 5° 11' 30" ; Betas Creek in 5° 11' ; Simpang Olim River, 
in 5° 9' 30", has its entrance marked out by stakes on the sand banks ; the 
town is about 6 miles from its mouth, and there are some pepper grounds on 
its banks. Malikan River is in 5° 8' N. Arakun Dur River, in 5° 6' N., has 
a town, Telok Sintang, 1^ mile from its entrance, and some pepper grounds 
higher up. In lat. 5° 4' 35" is the mouth of the Djolokh River, a mile below 
it the Buging River; a mile S.E. of Buging River is Bagan River, and in 
lat. 5° 2' 45" the mouth of the Bagan Panas River. 

Edie Besaar River has a fort and flagstaflP on the South side of its entrance, 
in lat. 4" 58' 40" N., long. 97° 46' 35" E. Some stakes mark the entrance, 
which lies between sand banks that extend off either point and form a chan- 
nel, running N.W. and SE., and open to the northward. 

Prauhilah Point, in lat. 4° 53' 15" N., long. 97° 53' 30" E., bearing from 
Diamond Point S.E. J E. 11 leagues, has a reef projecting North and 
N.N.W. from it about 4 miles, near which the soundings are very irregular, 
although between it and Diamond Point they are regular at a short distance 
from the shore. There are 4 J fathoms, mud, 2 J miles from Prauhilah Point. 
On the North side of the point is the entrance into the river, which is almost 
dry at low water ; but inside of it there are 2 fathoms for several miles up, 
with a small fishing village at a considerable distance from the entrance. 
Off this part it is high water, at full and change, at 1 2'\ 

Raija River, the North entrance point of which is in lat. 4° 44' 38' N., 
long. 97° 57' E., has an extensive sand bank lying off its entrance. Along 
the South side of this sand bank the channel into the river carries a depth of 


2f fathoms, but there is less water outside, as little as 4^ ft. being found at 
1 J mile S.E. of the North point. 

LANKSA BAY, 20 miles S.E. by S. from Prauhilah Point, formed by 
Ujong Byan to the N.W., and Ujong Kwala Lanksa to the S.E., is about 
4 miles wide, containing numerous shoals, with narrow channels leading 
into the different rivers, which fall into this bay. Near Ujong Kwala 
Lanksa lies Pido Laga Tojoo, a small island, about a mile in extent, having a 
channel about 300 yards wide, with 6 and 7 fathoms water between it and 
Ujong Kwala Lanksa. 

The entrance into Lanksa River bears from it about South, and there is a 
safe but narrow channel on either side of the island ; the best channel, how- 
ever, is from theN.E., between the island and Ujong Kwala Lanksa, having 
2 J fathoms least water. In the entrance of the river there are two small 
islands, and the town is said to be at a considerable distance inside, contain- 
ing a number of inhabitants, who cultivate rice, pepper, and rattans. There 
are only 3 fathoms, mud, about 6 miles distant from the bottom of the bay, 
and the reefs extend 3i or 4 miles from the nearest land. Five leagues S.E. 
of Lanksa Bay is Vjo7ig Tannang, or Tamiang, with Ujong Roquit midway be- 
tween them. The coast in this interval is safe to approach, having from 15 
to 20 fathoms about 2 miles off shore, excepting at Pulo Roquit and at Ujong 
Tamiang, where there are reefs of breakers, which project out a mile. It is 
high water at full and change here at 12'' 30". 

Lunkat River, or Kwala Bulon, in lat. 4° H' N., long. 98° 29^' E., lies at 
the S.E. extremity of a deep bay, formed between it and Ujong Tamiang. 
The bay is not easily perceived from the offing, as Pulo Tampelu and Pulo 
Sampatuan, two large islands fronting the bay, appear, unless close in-shore, 
as part of the mainland. Between these islands there is said to be a safe 
channel for small vessels, that leads to Kaya-la-pun River. 

From the mouth of the Lankat a bank extends about 6 miles to the north- 
ward and N.E., having dry patches on it, with breakers in some places. 
About 5 miles off the entrance of the river the depth is 3 fathoms, mud, and 
the tide rises and falls about 2 ft. on the springs ; high water at 3i hours, 
on full and change. About 4 leagues S.E. of Lankat River there is Lankat- 
tuah Island, close to Ujong Lankat-tuah, which is safe to approach, and which 
forms the northern extremity of the concavity of the land, where Dehli River 
is situated. 

Balawan and Dehli Rivers are separated at their entrances by a low 
island, covered with jungle, 2| miles long from East to West, and If mile 
wide, the eastern extreme of which is in lat. 3^ 47' N., long. 98° 48' E. The 
importance of these rivers arises from the fact that the Dutch Government 
have recently established a coaling station on the shore which faces the western 
end of the island before mentioned. Up to the coal sheds the least depth 
(8 feet at low water) is found between the outer dark wooden cross and outer 


\^'hite beacon. The entrance to Balawan River is about 300 yards wide, and 
much deeper than Dehli River. At 3 miles to the northward of the East 
extreme of the island which separates Balawan from Dehli River are the 
outermost of some fishing stakes, whic-h lie 2 miles off the low wooded shore 
to the westward, and mark the western side of the entrance to the channel, 
which thence extends to the S.S.W., and is marked on its western side by 
white basket-topped beacons, and on its eastern side by crosses of dark wood. 
About 3] miles up the channel branches off to the westward, between the 
island and the main, half a mile beyond a beacon marking a projecting shoal 
on the port hand it turns to the southward, a mile up which reach there is 
anchorage off the coal sheds. Dehli Town is reached by a channel to the 
S.E., in which there are 1^ and 2 fathoms water. Here the rise and fall of 
the tide is from 8 to 9 ft., high water at 3 hours on full and change of the 

South of the entrance to the Balawan River a depth of 3 fathoms is fmnd 
«,t 4 miles off shore, and for 3 miles eastward of the East point of the island 
the sand nearly dries. The mouth of the Dehli River is about a quarter of a 
mile wide, having 4 ft. at high water on some parts, but inside it deepens to 
2 fathoms ; about 3 miles from the entrance is the town of Dehli or Labuan. 
A mile up from the entrance the channel separates into two branches, one 
leading N.W. towards the coal sheds, and the other leading S.W. towards 
the town. There is only 3 or 4 ft. water in some parts of the channel, and 
abreast the town the river is only 40 yards wide, with a fresh stream always 

From Dehli to Tanjong Mattie, which forms the northern part of Batu 
Barra Bay, the coast extends about S.E. by E., 55 miles, having regular 
soundings to 4|- fathoms, within 2 miles of the low sandy beach that lines 
this part o^ the coast. 

There are some dangerous shoals off this part of the coast, as shown by 
the survey of Lieut. Jackson. 

The Dehli Shoal is the first of these, and lies 1 7 miles East by North from 
the mouth of the Dehli River, and nearly 12 miles from the nearest shore. 
Its least water is 27 ft., and it is surrounded by depths of 6 and 7 fathoms; 
just outside it there are 10 and 13 fathoms. No marks are given to 
avoid it. 

The Bungan Banks, or Varela Reef, are still more dangerous. They lie 
from 6 to 9 miles from the nearest land. Point Bungan Bungan, 25 miles 
W. by S. from Pulo Yarela, and are two in nurr.l -^r. The outer one is a 
narrow spit, extending 3^ miles N.W. and S.E., with only 9 fi. least water 
on some parts. A channel, with 7 to 9 fathoms, nearly 2 miles in width, 
separates it from the inner bank, which is also narrow, and extends in the 
same direction for 4 miles. Between it and the coast, the channel, 4 miles 
wide, has a depth of from 7 to 11 fathoms. The Peak of Pulo Varela, 


bearing E J S., just clears theirnorthern edge ; the same peat, E. by N. ^ N., 
clears their southern part ; and a high tree on the main land, bearino- 
S. by E. f E., will lead clear of their eastern face. 

PULO VARELA, in lat. 3° 46' 20' N., long. 99° 29' 15" E., and 22 1 miles 
off the Sumatran coast, is very high, and may be seen 8 leagues off, although 
it is not more that a mile in circumference. It is wooded, and clear all 
round, with very deep water, 24 and 25 fathoms, close-to. A small rock or 
islet off its N.W. point, and another off the South end. There are some 
small sandy bays, the largest of which is to the S.E. On the South side ia 
a small cove, in which at some seasons water may be procured. It runs 
down the hill slowly into a small well. The island is visited by the Sumatran 
people for the purpose of catching turtle and preserving their eggs, fish-roes, 
&c. As these people are sometimes treacherous, boat parties landing for 
fire-wood, fishing, cr water, should be on their guard. 

A bank of 6 to 9 fathoms water lies to N.N.W. of Pulo Vai-ela. It is 7 
miles in length, its S.E. end being 7 miles from Pulo Yarela. Although the 
above depths were only found on the survey, it is reported that there are only 
2 fathoms over some parts. There is another bank with 8 and 9 fathoms at 
4 or 5 miles to the S.W. of Pulo Yarela. 

Point Mattie is 25 miles due South from Pulo Varela ; off it is the Mattie 
Shoal, nearly awash in parts, and 9 miles in extent, parallel with the coast, 
between which is a channel of from 15 to 5 fathoms water, from Ij to 2^ 
miles wide. It is high water here, at full and change, at 3 hours, rise from 
7 to 10 ft. 

Off Tanjong Mattie, to the northward, tbe depth increases to 12 and 14 
fathoms, and shoals suddenly to 5, 3, and 2 fathoms, on a sandy spit which 
projects about IJ mile from that point, and 6^ miles to the eastward of it, 
and the same distance to the northward of Batu Barra there is an extensive 
and dangerous sand-bank, having only IJ fathom, with a safe channel be- 
tween it and the mainland, 3 miles wide. 

BATU BARRA RIVER, in lat. 3° 14' N., long. 99° 35' 30" E., and the 
coast for some miles eastward, is fronted by an extensive mud flat, from 2^to 
4 miles oft' shore, having regular soundings, and projecting out to within 5 
miles of the South Brother. The river is about 300 yards wide, with regular 
soundings to the dry banks at its mouth, where a little way inside it divides 
into two branches, one to the eastward, and the other to the westward. 
About a mile up the western branch is the town where the chief rajah re- 
sides. On the banks of the eastern branch stands another town, and there 
are said to be other towns further up the river. The people on the coast 
are generally Malays ; those in the interior are Bataks. European vessels 
discontinued visiting this place for many year-, owing to the perfidious con- 
duct of the Malays, who formerly cut off several vessels that touched here to 

1. A. V 


trade. Nevertheless the people of Batu Barra appear more industrious and 
better inclined to trade than is usual with the other inhabitants of this 
coast ; and they carry in their own proas, to Penang and Malacca, the rattans, 
pepper, or other articles produced here. Goats and poultry are plentiful, at 
reasonable prices. 

The BROTHERS, two small islets, lie oflF Batu Barra, at 10^ and 15^ 
miles respectively, to the N.E. by E. The northernmost, Pulo Pandan, or 
Quandan, is much lower than Pulo Varela, from which it lies S.S.E. f E. 
25i miles distant. It is covered with wood, and surrounded on all sides by 
a reef to a considerable distance off it. Therefore it should not be made 
"free with. The southernmost, Pulo Salanama, is larger, and much more 
bold-to, although there are some rocks stretching from its North end for 
above half a mile, and another rock or islet lies to the E^st of its South end. 
The channel between the two islets, 4 miles in width, is perfectly safe with 
20 to 30 fathoms water ; and there is also a channel inside Pulo Salanama, 
about 3 miles in width, but then it should be borne in mind that the Suma- 
tran coast is here bordered by an extensive shelf, which extends for nearly 5 
miles off the point to the southward of the southern Brother. Prom this 
circumstance, it should not be used except under great necessity, seeing that 
the course outside it is so much preferable. There are several other spots 
shown on the charts, which will demonstrate the necessity of caution, should 
a vessel get too far over to the Sumatran side. The best course is, as before 
directed, to the eastward of Pulo Jarra. 

The COAST of Sumatra south-eastward of Batu Barra is laid down on the 
charts from the surveys of Lieuts. Rose and Moresby, I.N., and has not been 
so minutely examined as that to the north-westward ; but this is of the less 
importance, as a great portion of it is unapproachable to shipping, in con- 
sequence of an extensive mud flat which stretches off it for many miles. 

Assarhan River, in lat. 3° U'N., long. 99° 52J' E., has a mud flat, ex- 
tending from its entrance 8 miles to the N.E., upon which the soundings 
regularly decrease. From hence to Reccan River care is required not to 
approach too near the coast, as several mud flats extend to a considerable 
distance, upon the verge of which the water shoals suddenly ; particularly 
about 5 or 6 leagues to the S.E. of Assarhan River, fronting the bay of 
Lidang and its contiguous rivers, where the flat extends Zh leagues from the 
shore at the bottom of that bay. 

RECCAN, or Rakan River, has at the entrance two islands, Pulo Lalang 
Besar, in lat. 2° 12' N., long. 100° 36J' E., and Pulo Lalang Kechel ; the 
former is the largest, from which the other bears S. by E. ^ E., about 2;^ 
miles ; and there is a shoal channel between them leading into the river. 
They are low and woody, and not discernible above 10 miles. Having 
passed between these islands, and being a little to the eastward of them, the 
entrance to the river bears S.E. f E., and extends in this direction about 30 


miles ; then a small and shoal bank projects to the westward, called Banha ; 
but the main branch takes a S.E. direction, and is called Tanah Putie River, 
having a town of the same name at the mouth of this branch, which is here 
about IJ mile wide, and is said to take its rise from the mountains. It is 
shoal and dangerous, from the rapidity of the tides ; but several large and 
populous villages are said to stand on its banks, subject to the Rajah of 
Siak. The g-reatest breadth of the mouth of Reccan River is about 15 miles, 
decreasing about 8 or 9 miles up to 4 miles, afterwards 2 miles, and then 
continuing this breadth till it forms the two branches mentioned above. It 
is almost dry at low water spring tides, and is rendered exceedingly dan- 
gerous by their excessive rapidity of 7 miles per hour, producing a bore en 
the springs, and having a rise and fall of 30 ft. 

At the mouth of the river it is high water at 6 hours on full and change 
of the moon ; the rise and fall of tide about 26 ft. ; and here the velocity of 
the stream is about 5^ miles per hour, but it becomes much greater a few 
miles up. On the bank of the river the Nautilus found a straggling village, 
whence the inhabitants came off in great numbers, and entreated to be ad- 
mitted on board, under pretence of friendship, which was refused excepting 
to a few of them. They afterwards, without the least provocation, endea- 
voured to cut off one of the boats, which had got adrift by the rapidity of 
the tide. 

The Arroa Isles, described previously, lie oflf the mouth of the river, 40 
miles to the northward. 

From Eeccan River the land on the eastern bank projects to the N.W., 
forming the headland called Vjong Perhahean, in lat. 2° \&h' N., from which 
a mud flat extends to the N.W. and N.N.W. about 10 miles, and upon this 
flat the soundings decrease regularly. When clear to the eastward of this 
bank, and having Ujong Perbabean bearing S.W., and Parcelar Hill N.E., 
you enter upon the most dangerous part of this coast, its various sand banks 
extending from it over to the South Sands, with gaps and narrow channels 
of mud soundings between them. As the soundings afford no guide in ap- 
proaching these banks, the depth decreasing suddenly upon them, it is neces- 
sary for a vessel intending to pass between them to have a boat ahead sound- 
ing, and a good lookout kept from the fore-yard, for the shoal banks are 
plainly seen when the sky is clear in the daytime. 

PULO EOUPAT, the North point of which is called UJong Bantam, is 
in lat. 2° 8' N., long. 101° 40^' E. It is bold to approach, having 30 fathoms 
within \\ mile of the shore. The eastern side of this island is bold until the 
entrance of Brewers Strait is approached, where a mud bank extends out 
from the shore of Pulo Roupat about 5 or 6 miles between the North point 
of Pulo Roupat and Ujong Perbabean, the coast forms a deep bight, which 
is fronted by an extensive sand bank ; this bank, together with those in the 


offing, mentioned above, render this part of the Sumatra side of the strait 
very intricate and dangerous. 

BREWERS STRAIT, or Salat Panjang. — The North entrance of this strait 
is formed between the mainland of Sumatra and Pulo Bucalisse ; Tanjo-ng Jati, 
the North end of the latter, being in lat. 1° 36i' N., long. 101° 59' E., a 
shoal bank, extends 8 miles to the northward from the point. 

The northern navigable part of this strait is about 5 miles wide, with 
soundings of 8 to 15 and 20 fathoms, mud ; and 8 miles from the entrance, 
on the western shore, is the town of Bukit Batu, upon the banks of a very 
narrow river of the same name. The town is not easily perceived, the houses 
being scattered among and hid by the trees ; but it may be known by a tree, 
formed like an umbrella, near the entrance of the river. 

At Ujo7ig Ballai, a point of Sumatra, 3A- leagues to the S.E. of Bukit Batu 
Eiver, the strait becomes contracted to 3 or 4 miles in breadth ; and opposite 
to the point is the entrance to the narrow strait called Salat Padang, affording 
a safe passage for boats ; it is formed between Pulo Bucalisse and Pulo Pa- 
dang. From Ujong Ballai, Brewers Strait turns from a S.E. to a South 
direction, till opposite the mouth of the Siak Eiver. 

From the entrance of Siak Piver, Brewers Strait extends S.S.E. to the 
western end of Pulo Eantow, where it contracts to 1 mile in breadth, with 
regular mud soundings from 8 to 10 fathoms. Between Pulo Eantow and 
Pulo Padang is formed a channel leading to the sea, called Salat Ringit by 
the natives, and said to be used only by boats. From the western end of 
Pulo Eantow the strait takes an easterly direction about 20 miles, with 
depths from 10 to 15 fathoms, till a small island in mid straits is approached, 
on each side of which the passage is practicable, taking care to avoid the 
stream of the island, as a mud flat extends from it to the westward 2^ miles 
in the middle of the strait. From hence the direction to the strait is to the 
S.E., and, after passing three small islands on the port hand, the southern 
entrance opens, oflf which there are a great number of islands. The safest 
channel out appears to be between Panton Point and Pulo Senappu, having 
regular but shoal soundings of only 1 fathom at low water in some parts. 

SIAK RIVER, the entrance of which is in lat. 1° 11^' N., long. 102° 12^' E., 
on the western side of Brewers Strait, is about three-quarters of a mile wide, 
having a sandy spit, nearly dry at low water, extending almost across, but 
leaving a safe, although very narrow channel, close to Ujong Liang, the 
eastern entrance point ; the river becomes narrow, with deep soundings in- 
fiide, and is said to have its source in the mountains. 

The town of Siak stands at 65 miles from the mouth of the river. The 
Nautilus anchored in 6 fathoms, mud, within a quarter of a mile of the mouth 
of the Siak Eiver, and found the time of high water at full and change of the 
moon to be 9 hours ; rise and fall of the tide about 12 ft., and the velocity 2\ 
xniles per hour. 


Campou River, in lat. 0° 43' N., long. 103° 0' 30" E., is fronted by an ex- 
tensive mud flat, almost dry at low water ; and it is little frequented on 
account of the rapidity of the tides, occasioning a bore at times similar to 
that of Reccan River, which it resembles in several respects. In approach- 
ing the southern entrance of Brewers Strait, the tides are greatly influenced 
by this river, producing a strong eddy round some of the islands, so that, 
while the tide is running to the southward on one side of an island, it may 
be often found running to the northward on the other side. 

The rise and fall of tide near the southern entrance of Brewers Strait is 
about 15 ft. in some parts, with a velocity of about 3i miles per hour, but 
much greater when near the entrance of Campou River. The three islands, 
Pulo Bucalisse, Padang, and Rantow, which form Brewers Strait, and also 
Pulo Panjore, ought not to be approached but with great caution, at their 
eastern sides, as they are fronted by an extensive mud flat, with dangerous 
sand banks, in some places having only 1 J fathom water on them. These 
form what is usually called the Sumatra Bank, or third bank in the Malacca 
Strait to the N.W. of the Carimons, which has been before alluded to. The 
Carimon Islands, which form the head of the Strait of Malacca, have been 
described on page 136. 



This important and remarkable passage, the great portal of the Indian Archi- 
pelago, has been surveyed by the Dutch officers. Lieutenants Eietveld and 
Boom, in 1848, and their survey has been improved by the observations of 
many officers, especially by the late talented Melville Van Carnbee, of the 
Dutch navy, who drew up an excellent hydrographical description of Java, 
&c., which has been mainly followed hereafter.* 

The Strait of Sunda is a singular break in the continuity of that great 
chain of volcanic mountains which runs from N.W. to S.E. through Sumatra, 
and is continued eastward through Java. This depression in the mountain 
chains is not very much below the sea level, for the general maximum depth 
of the strait is not more than from 30 to 50 fathoms. But this slight de- 
pression, geologically speaking, has produced a great contrast in the islands 

* The fine surveys and charts of great portions of the Indian Archipelago, which have 
teen executed by the Dutch oflELcers attached to the Indian Possessions of that nation, have 
only heen known and justly appreciated in this country within a few years. The " Com- 
missie tot Verbetering der Indische Zeekarten " was instituted by the enlightened Governor 
General of Dutch India, Van der Capellen, in 1821, and since that period the commission 
has been sedulously and zealously occupied in surveying and collecting information in <all 
the surrounding seas. Captain-Lieutenant Baron Peter Melville van Carnbee became the 
secretary to the Dutch Commission, in 1850, and among numerous other works he was the 
author of the " Zeemansgids voor de Vaarwaters om Java," which was soon translated into 
the French and English languages, the latter being done by Dr. Norton Shaw, Secretary to 
the Royal Geographical Society. Besides this, he drew up a fine series of charts from the 
many scattered surveys and observations made by the Dutch officers under the commission ; 
these charts were published by the respected house of Wed. G. H Van Keulen, of Am- 
sterdam, and were afterwards copied in their main features by the English Admiralty, as 
the basis for all subsequent charts. Young MelviUe van Carnbee died in 1856, in his 
fortieth year, while engaged on the excellent " Algemeene Atlas Van Nederland's Oost 

To the works above quoted, very much is owing in the subsequent pages. — Editor. 

jg^. , 


*2^. K) '26 24 




















on either side of it. Each has a distinct class of animal and vegetable life. 
Thus the elephant and tapir of Sumatra have no existence in Java. The wild 
hog and rhinoceros of Sumatra are of different species to those found in Java. 
The orang-outang is found in Sumatra, but not in Java. The birds are also 
quite different ; many important families belong to each, without having 
them in common. These curious contrasts are also found to exi&t between 
the islands further to the eastward. These remarkable facts in the distribu- 
tion of life on the earth have been much discussed by naturalists, especially 
by M. Temminck and Mr. A. R. Wallace. 

The strait derives its name from the western portion of Java, which is 
peopled by the Sunda nation, who speak a diff'erent language, and are less 
advanced in civilization than the rest of the Javanese. 

In its widest sense, the Strait of Sunda embraces a very large area. Be- 
tween the western extremity of Java and the south-western end of Sumatra, 
the distance is 68 miles, and the bearing N. W. I N. and S.E. f S. ; and from 
this line to another at its N.E. limits, between St. Nicholas Point on Java, 
to the opposite side on Sumatra, the distance is 74 miles. The narrowest 
part of the strait is between Fourth Point on the Java side, and Hog Point 
in Sumatra, 1 3 miles apart. There are numerous islands in it, which sepa- 
rate the strait into several channels, of which that along the Java coast is 
the most used; the lofty and conspicuous island Krakatoa being the great 
land-mark from the westward, all the headlands being more or less grand in 
their character. 

The Dutch nation holds the sovereignty of the shores on either side, and 
being the surveyors of the strait, have the right to give the names and ortho- 
graphy to the points and islands, but as their excellent and expressive lan- 
guage is not so generally used, it will be preferred to give these common 
names in an English form (adding the Dutch), and the spelling in the 
ordinarily recognized form for pronunciation. 


The south-eastern side of the Strait of Sunda is formed by that portion of 
Java which gives its name to it, as before mentioned. The state extends 
eastward to Cheribon, and includes Batavia, the capital, embracing nearly 
one-third of Java. It is a mountainous country, but containing some rich 
valleys, and is said to bear the same relation to Java proper that Wales does 
to England, or the highlands to the lowlands of Scotland. It is more thinly 
populated, and the people less advanced than in the rest of Java. 

The volcanic ranges which traverse it, in continuation of that extending 


throughout the length of Java, give it a peculiarly bold character. Many 
of the peaks visible from sea attain to great elevation. Karang, in the rear 
of Anjir, is the loftiest, 5,943 ft. ; and a few miles to the South of it is 
Pulusari, 4,183 ft. ; several others reach to between 2,000 and 3,000 ft. 
The peak at the southward of Krakatoa Island is 2,623 ft. ; and Bezee, to 
the North of it, is 2,600 ft. 

The coast is deeply indented, and has some sheltering bays, but Anjir 
Eoads is the chief stopping place. Here is a Signal Station, at which an 
officer will reply to and forward answers to signals to Batavia, &c., the tele- 
graph system being perfect in the Dutch possessions. Lighthouses are shown 
on the chief points, and the following directions in connection with the chart 
will carry a ship through in safety. 

Java Head, the western extremity of Java, and the S.W. point of the 
Strait of Sunda, is a noble promontory, a fitting portal to that great entrance 
to eastern countries. But as it is frequently prudent to make the land to the 
eastward of the strait in apjjroaching it from the Southern Indian Ocean, 
the features of the southern coast of Java for a short distance will be briefly 
described first. 

Trower Island, or Pulo Tinj'il, is 3^ or 4 miles in length, and its East end 
is about 35 miles East of the meridian of Java Head. It is surrounded by 
a reef. On the North and West sides of it there are from 13 to 19 fathoms 
water, and at the S.E. and South sides, at some distance, no bottom at 50 
and 100 fathoms. A mile to the northward of the island there is a rock, on 
which the native proas have sometimes struck. Everywhere else round the 
island from 13 to 19 fathoms will be found, and at a short distance to the 
southward more than 100 fathoms. 

Klapper Island, or Breakers Island, called by the Malays Ftdo Deli, 8 miles 
distant from the nearest shore of Java, 13 miles West by South from Trower 
Island, and about 18 miles E.S.E. from Cape Sangian Sira, the S.W. point 
of Java. It is 148 ft high, covered with large trees, those along the beach 
being cocoa-nut, and is surrounded by a reef, which in many places stretches 
off a mile ; but on the N.W. side there is a good watering place in the S.E. 
monsoon, as boats can enter a little river through a channel with reefs on 
both sides, and ships may anchor in 18 to 24 fathoms, clay bottom, 2 miles 
distant from the island, close to those reefs which partially dry at low water. 
The depths are from 30 to 40 fathoms at 4 miles off the South shore of the 

Sodon Point, on the South coast of Java, is, as before said, 8 miles North 
of Klapper Island. The head of Welcome Bay, on the North side of the 
island, reaches to within 3 or 4 miles of this southern coast. 

Along the coast to the northward of Klapper and Trower Islands, as far 
as Cape Sangian Sira, there are rocks which in some places lie 1^ and 2 
miles off; and no shelter whatever can be found there from S.W. and S.E. 


gales. A shoal lies to the eastward of Sodon Point, about H mile from the 
shore. It bears N. ^ E. from the East point of Klapper Island, and N.W. 
by W. f W. from the "West point of Trowers Island. 

When making Java Head in hazy weather, the appearance of the land to 
the eastward of Cape Sangian Sira, between it and Sodon Point, bears much 
resemblance to the high land of the West point of Java, with the adjacent 
hills on Princes Island ; and the low land in such circumstances not being 
distinguishable at a distance, the position of it is often mistaken for the 
entrance to Princes Channel. 

From Java Head the coast runs S. by E. f E. about 4J miles to Palem- 
bang Point, which is 1 j mile northward of Cape Sangian Sira. 

CAPE SANGIAN SIRA, the most southern point of this part of Java, is 
in lat. 6° 52' S., long. 105° 14' E. It is the S. W. point of an irregular mass 
of mountains, which rise abruptly from the sea to a height of 1,050 and 
1,300 ft. on the eastern side, and to 618 and 1,400 ft. on the western side. 
From this cape, and 1^ mile to the southward, several rocks project, some 
of which are above water. Captain Newby, in passing close round by 
Palembang Point, thought he saw a clear but narrow channel inside these 
terrific pinnacle-shaped rocks, which might be used by keeping the point on 
board, but it should not be tried. The soundings are very deep close to these 
rocks, and along the shore as far as Java Head there is no bottom with 100 
fathoms ; but as the breakers which line the whole coast seem to indicate 
that there are rocks under water, it will be advisable to give the shore a 
berth of at least 2 miles in passing. 

From Cape Sangian Sira the soundings decrease in the direction of Klap- 
per Island to 40 and 20 fathoms ; while farther eastward, between this island 
and Trower Island, they decrease from 20 to 12 fathoms. 

Palembang Point is the N.W. point of the promontory of which Sangian 
Sira is the South extreme. They are a mile apart, and the reef of pointed 
rocks around the land here comes close up. The coast to the northward, for 
a distance of 4^ miles to Java Head, is formed by the steep-sided mountains 
before described, which are dark, covered with trees, some of which on the 
summits are very large. No signs of any inhabitants. Under these dark 
frowning hills is a belt of green herbage, and then a sandy beach of dazzling 
whiteness, with several detached steep rocks, some of which would look like 
a boat under sail. 

JAVA HEAD.— The West point of Java is in lat. 6° 46' 40" S., long. 105° 
12' 22" E. Being frequently the first land made after a long voyage across 
the Atlantic, and round the Cape of Good Hope, its lofty and majestic 
character strikes those who approach near it with greater force than even 
its natural features would command. Captain Newby was much struck with 
its grandeur. He says : — It is composed of a confused mass of cliffs jum- 
bled together. Two hundred yards North of it is a splendid arch or chasm, 

I. A. i 


in a high detached rock, through which the surges roll their white foam. 
Through the arch ou the main you behold the most luxuriant green vegeta- 
tion, contrasting with the white surge, the sombre cliffs, and the variegated 
surface of the ocean. This arch resembled the cloisters of some ancient 
cathedral. Three hundred yards to the North of this first-named arch is 
another, but smaller one, of similar character. Through this is seen the 
white sand and shells ou the beach, and between the water is of a light 
green shade ; outside, between us and the arch, the water being deeper, is 
of a darker green. Sailing on, the projection, or point, called the Capuchin, 
appeared, and soon after the Friar, for which, as the wind was rather scant 
off, I hauled up, and the water being very smooth, I passed it at not more 
than one cable's length distance, at b'^ 15™. I could not see any hidden 
danger or rock under water in my track. When we had passed the Friar, 
and neared Mew Island, he appeared conspicuous. But as the land be- 
tween is very high, and very thickly wooded, the Friar could not be very 
well made out as seen from a vessel in the offing, unless she was well to the 
eastward. From W.S.W. it did not appear to me to be an island at all ; 
there seemed to be dry rocks between it and the hill to the South, which 
connected the Friar with the higher land to the southward. liound the 
pitch of the Friar there is a very fine spacious-looking bay, called Mew Bay. 
There seems to be a low black detached rocky islet, a mile or so beyond the 
Friar to the S.E., but it is nearer the West than the East side very much. 
This bay seems very snug and convenient for anchoring in with a wind any 
■way from the E.N.E. round by the southward to S.W. 

FIRST POINT {Eerste Punt), and the Friars Eoch.—The coast between 
Java Head and First Point forms a bight, and is fronted by high rocks, 
stretching out a considerable distance in some places. First Point, or Tan- 
jong Along-Ajang, the South point of entrance into Princes Channel, has a 
conspicuous rock lying abreast of it, called the Friar {Be Mo7inih), before 
alluded to, which rises abruptly out of the sea, and is steep-to, so that with 
a steady wind a ship may pass close to it. Close to the northward of First 
Point there is another rock above water, which together with the former are 
properly called the Friars. 

The LIGHTHOUSE on First Point was first illuminated in June, 1877. 
It is a stone tower, painted white, from which is shown a revolving light, ex- 
hibiting a flash of six seconds' duration once in every half minute. The 
light is elevated 305 ft. above the sea, and should be visible 25 miles off' in 
clear weather. 

PRINCES ISLAND {Prinsen Eiland), cr Pulo Panatan, separated from the 
West part of Java by Princes Channel, is the largest island in Sunda Strait. 
Its greatest length, between the West and N.E. points, is 12 miles, and its 
breadth about 8 miles. It is of an irregular form, projecting to a point on 
the N.E. side, and having a large bay on the S.W. side, the horns of which 


form the "West and South points of the island. The middle and eastern 
parts of the island are hilly, the highest peak, 1,450 ft. above the level of 
the sea, being on the eastern shore ; but in some parts, particularly at the 
West end, the land is level and low from the sea ; all parts of the island 
abound in wood. 

A ship in want of water may anchor on the eastern side of this island in 
35 fathoms, soft ground, about half a mile from the shore, with the peaked 
hill bearing about N. W. by N. Here is a small sandy bay, and at its eastern 
part a run of fresh water, where the casks must be filled about 100 yards 
up, the higher the better, otherwise the water will be brackish. 

It is, however, only in the N W. monsoon that water can be procured 
here, for in the S.E. monsoon all the springs are dry from want of rain, and 
there is, moreover, no safe anchorage in this monsoon along the East side of 
the island, as it is a dead lee shore. 

Kasuaris Bay, on the S.W. side of the island, is 4 miles deep, and has 
at its entrance soundings varying from 30 to 50 fathoms, decreasing inside 
to a convenient depth for anchoring ; but, being open to all winds between 
the West and South points, it is not frequented, and cannot be recom- 

The Carpenters {Timmerlieden) are a large group of rocks about a mile in 
extent, projecting from the South point of Princes Island. Most of the 
rocks are above water ; they are black and pointed, looking very dangerous, 
and the sea is usually breaking over them. There is no bottom with 50 
fathoms a short distance from these rocks. 

The West point of Princes Island is fronted by a reef to the distance of 
about Ih mile, several rocks of which are seen above water. 

On the N.W. and North sides the island is steep-to close to the fringe of 
reef which edges those shores. 

A fringe of reef extends from the N.E. point of the island, and along the 
shore on each side. 

A similar fringe extends about a third of a mile off the S.E. point of the 
island ; nearly 2 miles W.S.W. of which, close inshore, and near a conspi- 
cuous white rock, is a coral reef, upon which the sea is always breaking. 

PRINCES CHANNEL, between the Carpenters Ptocks ojBf the South end 
of Princes Island, and the Friars Eocks off the First point of Java, is 3 
niiles broad at its narrowest part, and possesses the great advantage of 
affording anchorage to vessels when becalmed, which the Great Channel 
does not. Light baffling winds and calms are very common about the 
entrances to Sunda Strait, occurring even in the strength of the S.E. mon- 
soon, and vessels, when not able to anchor, are liable to be set back by 
adverse currents. 

The depths in this channel are much greater on the Princes Island shore 
thau on the opposite coast. Close to the Carpenters there is no bottom 


with 50 fathoms ; with Peaked Hill, on the S.E. part of the island, bearing 
from N. I W. to W. by N., there are 10 to 30 fathoms, coarse sand, shells, 
and coral, little more than a cable's length oflF shore ; with the same hill 
bearing from N.N.W. to S.W. there are 36 to 44 fathoms about a mile dis- 
tant from the shore. Towards Mew Bay the depths decrease to 20 fathoms 
and less. 

Directions. — In the S.E. monsoon, when proceeding either way through 
Princes Channel keep closer to the Java coast than to Princes Island. 

In the N.W. monsoon it often happens that vessels outward bound get 
very quickly to the westward by proceeding through Princes Channel, while 
those using the Great Channel are detained by heavy squalls and adverse 
currents. Indeed, instances have occurred in which ships have worked 
through this passage in a remarkably short time in a westerly gale, by 
carrying a heavy press of sail, and tacking between the squalls, at times 
when it was impossible for any ship in the Great Channel to beat against the 
current and heavy sea. 

Proceeding through Princes Channel in this monsoon, keep near Princes 
Island and the Carpenters, especially when working out against westerly 
winds, for a current will then sometimes be found setting to the westward. 
It is moreover very important to keep close to the Carpenters when working 
out, to avoid being set upon the rocks near Java Head and Palembang Point 
by the heavy swell, for, being once outside anchoring ground, and in a calm, 
a ship would have much trouble to clear the coast of Java. The S.E. coast 
of Princes Island must not, however, be approached within a mile. 

GREAT CHANNEL lies between the North point of Princes Island and 
the South point of Krakatoa Island, which are 23 miles apart; and although 
too deep for anchorage, it is much frequented, being the widest passage into 
the strait, and is considered to be, with the exception of the doubtful 
Hoedeken Rock,* clear of danger. If the strait is entered by this channel, 
keep Princes Island aboard, and when farther in the strait, keep on the Java 

MEW ISLAND (Meeuwen Eiland), or Pulo Kanti, lying about 2J miles 
eastward from First Point, is nearly 2 miles in extent North and South, and 
1 mile East and West. The island is hilly, and abounds with wood. 
Between it and First Point, close inshore, is a small islet or rock above 

* Hoedeken Sock is said to lie about 5 miles S.W. f S. from Krakatoa. Captain Drury, 
R.N., is reported to have examined a rock S.S.W. of Krakatoa some years ago, and found 
it to be near the water's edge. The Abdul Hassim, drawing 14 feet, is also said to have 
struck upon a rock, from which the peak of Krakatoa bore N.E. \ N., distance from the 
nearest part of the island 6 miles. There is, however, reason to believe that no rock 
e-xists in thi.s locality, for Mr. Richards, commanding EL.M. surveying vessel Saracen, care- 
fuUv sounded over it in 1854. 


water, called the Mew Stone. The shore is rocky on the outside of Mew 
Island, but safe to approach. The soundings decrease gradually to 8 or 9 

Between Mew Island and the main there is a narrow but safe channel, 
with depths from 10 to 5 fathoms, sandy bottom. When taking this pas- 
sage, keep close in towards Mew Island, as a shoal, called the Watson Bank, 
lies near the Java shore. Sometimes the sea breaks upon this bank, but 
between it and Mew Island there are depths of 3, 5, and 10 fathoms, clay 

To the eastward of Mew Island, on the Java shore, there is a good water- 
ing place in the S.E. monsoon ; the water is excellent, and is poured by a 
cataract upon the beach. Largeboats may approach this spot at high water 
through a narrow channel in the reef, and fill the cask by a hose. At low 
water they will require a great length of hose to reach the boats. 

A little to the northward of the watering place lies a reef of coral, about 
a cable's length in extent, and about half a mile from the Java shore. 
Upon its shoalest part there is 1 fathom water, and all round from 5 to 6 
fathoms. A ship standing in for the watering place, must steer between 
this reef and the island, or rather nearer towards the island, and anchor in 
9 or 10 fathoms. 

In the S.E. monsoon there is also a good anchorage a little farther out, 
with the North point of Mew Island about W. ^ S., and the East point 
S. by W., in 16 to 19 fathoms water, sandy bottom. 

Plenty of wood may be got upon Mew Island or the main land. Shore 
parties should be on the guard against any hidden assaults from the natives. 

At Mew Bay it is high water, full and change, at about 6''. 

SECOND POINT {Tweede Punt, or Tanjong Gukulang, consists of a low 
foreland, somewhat broad in appearance, the western extremity of which 
lies about N.E. by E., nearly 9 miles distant from First Point, and its 
northern extremity— which is usually known as Second Point — about 3 miles 
farther to the north-eastward. It may be approached without danger to 
the distance of a mile or even half a mile, and in from 26 to 20 fathoms 
water, the reefs projecting a little way off shore. 

From Mew Island towards Second Point reefs project half a cable's length 
from the shore, having very near them 5 to 6 fathoms water, which increases 
speedily to 10 and 20 fathoms ; but with due care and attention to the lead 
a ship may approach the shore in order to anchor. On the coast there is 
scarcely any population, but sometimes proas may be met with having turtle 
fowls, and cocoa-nuts for sale. 

WELCOME BAY ^Welkomst Baai).—^.'E.. by E., distant 20J miles from 
Second Point is Third Point, and between is a deep bight, named Welcome 
Bay, which in the S.E. monsoon affords good shelter, but should be avoided 
in the S.W. monsoon. There is, however, good anchorage in the S.AV. 


monsoon, when the wind is not too northerly, behind Second Point in 9 or 
10 fathoms water; but this anchorage should be approached with great 
caution, as the soundings decrease very suddenly near Second Point, and a 
shoal with 12 ft. water on it and 6 fathoms close-to, extends half a mile off 
shore between Second Point and Tambing Point. 

The West side of the bay takes from Second Point a direction about 
S.S.E. i E. for a distance of 11 miles, but about the middle of it the beach 
forms a small bight, with 4 fathoms at its entrance, but only 1 fathom further 
in. The whole of this side of the bay is skirted by reefs, some parts of which 
are a mile distant from the shore. 

Lieuts. Rietveld and Boom, D.E.N., surveyed Welcome Bay in 1841, and 
determined the positions of the shoals and islands given below. A large 
portion of the bay inside Panter and Rocky Ridge Reefs has not been ex- 
amined, but it is supposed to be dangerous. 

Two small islets, named Andellan and Little Andellan, lie contiguous to 
the S.W. shore of the bay, about 8 miles from Second Point, and 5 miles from 
Rocky Ridge. Three sand banks, each surrounded by a sunken reef, lie 
from half to three-quarters of a mile off these islands, in a N.N.E., East, and 
S.E. direction. Between these banks and Andellan are from 4 to 6 fathoms, 
mud; and between that island and the shore from three-quarters to If 
fathom. Near the liead of the bay, to the eastward of a small islet named 
Eongit, is a fourth bank. 

The distance across from the southern shore of Welcome Bay to the South 
Coast of Java is not more than 3 miles, and the sound of the surf on the 
South coast may be distinctly heard across the isthmus. 

The eastern shore of the bay is 22 miles in length, from the head of the 
bay to Third Point, in a direction about N.N.E., and the general depths off 
it are 15 to 24 fathoms at some little distance from the coast. Several islets 
and dano-ers lie off this shore. Baddu (Baddoe) is a small islet, surrounded 
by a reef, lying about 5 miles from the head of the bay, and about U mile 
N.W. of a point named Tanhjngi Parrie. Between this point and the islet 
are many coral rocks, for the most part dry at low water, and with depths of 
7 to 9 fathoms between them. 

A large coral rock above water, usually covered with a heavy surf, and 
appearing of a bright white colour, lies W. i^ N., about \^ mile from Baddu ; 
and near it appear to be several reefs. Between the rock and the island are 
6 to 12 fathoms water. 

Five or 6 miles north-eastward of Baddu is Plaggan Point, or False Rook, 
with some islands off it, the southernmost of which is called Mangir, and the 
others War, Umang (Oemang), and Sumiir (Soemoer). These islands, as well 
as Plaggan Point, are surrounded by reefs, a cable in breadth, but at a mile 
outside there are 15 fathoms, over mud bottom. 

Rocky Ridge is an extensive reef mostly above water, and always covered 


by breakers, by whicb it may be distinguished at a great distance. It lies 
about halfvray between the western shore of the bay and the Panter Reefs ; 
and from it Second Point bears N.W. by W. | W., the South puint of 
Baddu S.E. by E. J E., and the East point of Andellan S. ^ E. That part 
of it which remains dry at low water is about 100 yards in length, and the 
breadth of the surrounding reef the same. The soundings round it are 10 
and 12 iathoms, increasing at some distance to 18 and 19 fathoms. 

Panter Reefs are the outermost of the known dangers which encumber 
"Welcome Bay, and they lie nearly midway between Second Point and Plag- 
gan Point. Erom their North extremity, in 11 fathoms, Second Point bears 
W. f N., Third Point N E. J N. 16 miles, the East point of Andellan Island 
S. by W. i W., and the S.W. point of Baddu Island S.E. ^ S. They con- 
sist of four different patches, lying in a N.N.E. and S.S.W. direction from 
each other, the whole being from half to three-quarters of a mile in extent. 
The shoalest patch has IJ fathom water, rocky bottom, but between and close 
round them are 9 and 10 fathoms, mud. 

East and West of these reefs are 17 and 18 fathoms, and to the north- 
ward 20 and 25 fathoms. 

Welcome Bay appears to be fuU oi dangers not surveyed, and should be 
entered with extreme caution. 

THIRD POINT {Berde Point), or Tanjong Lussong, like Second Point, is 
very low, although sharper, and fronted by rocks to the distance of 2 cables, 
from which the depths increase to 10 and 18 fathoms. The peak of Krakatoa 
Island bears N.W. by N. from it, and is distant about 21 miles. 

PEPPER BAY {Pej)er Baai).—'N.'E. by E. ^ E. 11 miles from Third Point 
is PapoUe Island, and between is Pepper Bay, which is formed by the coast 
trending away from Third Point to the southward for a distance of nearly 5 
miles. Its shores are fronted by reefs, which near the points project about 
half a mile, increasing their distance from the shore towards the depth of 
the bay, where they extend lA mile. The bay is also encumbered with 
two dangerous reefs known as the Coral Bank and Paniang Reef. The 
soundings in the bay generally decrease uniformly from 14 to 10, 5, and 4 
fathoms ; the latter depth will be found 2 miles off shore. In the eastern 
monsoon there is safe anchorage N.E. of Lawvengan Isle, in 6 or 8 fathoms, 
soft bottom. 

Coral Bank. — Nearly 2 miles East from Third Point is a coral bank, the 
greater part of which is above water, and readily distinguished by its bright 
white colour. The direction of this bank is S.E. by E. and N.W. by W., 
about 3 cables in length, and from it Third Point bears W. i S., the N.E. 
point of Lawvengan S.E. J E., and the West point of Papolle N.E. by E. 
Between this bank and Third Point there is a channel of 4 to 9 fathoms 
■water, and the depths increase quickly from 7 to 15 fathoms at the distance 
of a mile. 


Lawvengan Islet, lying in the depth of Pepper Bay, E. byS. J S., distant 
3J miles from Third Point, is about three-quarters of a mile long, a aN.W. 
^ W. and S.E. h E. direction, a quarter of a mile broad, and is surrounded 
by a reef, which projects farthest at the North side, where it reaches the dis- 
tance of 1 J cable's length. 

Three-quarters of a mile to the north-westward and to the westward of 
Lawvengan Islet are two reefs, partly dry at low water, and usually breaking. 
To the southward, and mid-channel between Lawvengan Isle and the shore, 
is a reef with only 3 ft. water upon it, between which and the island there is 
a narrow channel with 3 and 4 fathoms ; but between it and the shore are 
several small coral reefs that dry at low water. 

Paniang Reef is a ledge of rocks, the N.W. point of which bears W. by 
S. I S. IJ mile from the N.W. point of Papolle Island. It is a mile long, 
in a N.N.W. and opposite direction, and half a mile in breadth, and the 
shoalest water upon it is 3 ft., and on some parts from 1 to 3 fathoms are 
found. This ledge is very dangerous, as the sea does not often break upon 
it, and it cannot be approached by the lead, the depths very near it being 6 
and 7 fathoms ; but by keeping a good lookout it may be distinguished by 
the light colour of the water, and its brown patches. 

Between Paniang Reef and Papolle Island, the soundings are 7 to 4 fa- 
thoms, mud bottom ; and on the East and S.E. sides of the reef 5 to 3 fa- 
thoms, towards the shore. 

Papolle Island, small, round, and about half a mile in diameter, lies 
within a mile of the shore, with which it is connected by a reef; there is, 
however, a channel of IJ fathom through this reef, fit for the navigation of 

Tyringin or Tjeringie Reef, lying 5 miles North of Papolle Islet, and 
two-thirds of a mile off the shore near Tjeringie, is of coral, partly above 
water, and generally breaks. It is half a mile in extent N.N.E. and S.S.W., 
and very steep, having close outside of it 6 fathoms water, increasing to 9, 
12, and 15 fathoms at 2 miles distance from the shore. 

Between this reef and a small rock near the shore there is a channel of 3 
fathoms, often used by large proas. 

Anchorage. — Supplies may be obtained at Tjeringie, and a convenient an- 
chorage will be found to the northward of Tjeringie Eeef, at 1^ mile off 
shore, with Papolle bearing S. by E., and the flagstaff at Tjeringie E. by S. 
or E.S.E., in 7 fathoms, clay bottom. 

The COAST from Tjeringie runs N. by E. and N.N.E., and may be ap- 
proached, with due attention to the lead, to 2 miles distance, in 18 fathoms, 
without danger of striking upon the Catharine Eeef. The general appear- 
ance of the coast is low, though occasionally interrupted by hills and con- 
Bpicuous rocky points. 

Catharine Bank, lying about 4 miles to the southward of Fourth Point, 


and half a mile off shore, is a quarter of a cable in extent, N. by E. and 
S. by W., with some rocky points even with the water's edge, and in other 
places only half a fathom water ; with a little breeze the sea breaks upon it. 
From its outer edge Fourth Point bears N.N.E. ^ E., Krakatoa Peak West 
a little southerly, and the West point of Thwart-the-way N. 2 W. 

Outside this reef are 4 fathoms water, increasing to 10, 14, and 18 fa- 
thoms, the latter depth being within a mile of it; the channel between it 
and the shore has 3f and 4 fathoms, and is used by proas. 

Directions. — With a steady and commanding breeze a ship may steer 
N.N.E. from Third Point for Thwart-the-way, which is distant 30 miles ; or 
a N.N.E. ^ E. course for 26 miles, which will place her 2 or 3 miles off 
Fourth Point, when she may either proceed on her voyage or haul in for 
Anjer Road. Very often, however, the winds become light and variable 
there, and she may be compelled to anchor, in which case these courses 
would lead too far from the land. For these reasons it is better to keep on 
the Java shore, avoiding, however, the dangers in Pepper Bay, which 
should not be approached under a depth of 14 fathoms. 

When the current is running to the westward in the middle of Sunda 
Strait, an eddy will be experienced near the land, besides which, a vessel 
may be anchored anywhere along the shore, except near Fourth Point, where 
the bottom begins to get foul and rocky. When beating up, therefore, with 
a contrary wind, it is advisable not to keep too far out in the offing, in order 
to make the eddy available, and not to lose favourable anchoring ground, 
and perhaps be compelled to anchor in deep water. 

Along the coast to the northward of Tjeringie there are numerous villages 
(campongs), the inhabitants of which frequently come on board ship with 
fruit, fowls, eggs, &c., and often with turtle. 

FOURTH POINT ( Vierde Pmit), or Tanjong Tyhoravg, bearing N.N.E. f E., 
distant nearly 27 miles from Third Point, is low, but easily discerned from its 
numerous cocoa-nut trees. From it the nearest point of Thwart-the-way 
bears N.N.W. b\ miles, and Krakatoa Peak W. by S. nearly 27 miles. 

LIGHT. — In 1865 a stone lighthouse was erected on Fourth Point, near 
to the old tower. It is coloured white, 35 feet high, and exhibits, at 151 
feet above the level of the sea, a. fixed white light of the second order, visible 
in clear weather at 20 miles off. A second light, visible 8 miles off, is shown 
in the direction of the telegraph cable, and vessels are warned not to anchor 
with both the lights in sight, or in the day time with the Lighthouse bearing 
between S.E. i S. and E. by S. f S. 

A signal station is attached to the lighthouse, from which signals by the 
Commercial Code will be answered or transmitted. 

Caution should be observed in approaching or rounding Fourth Point, for 
a reef projects from it more than half a mile, with soundings of 20 fathoms 

I. A. Y 


close-to. Outside, or to the northward, the depths increase quickly to 25 
fathoms, and at 2 or 3 miles off the point to 30 fathoms. The point should 
not, therefore, be approached any nearer than H niile when rounding it. 
The telegraph cable between Fourth Point and Anjer is marked by three 
white huoijs. 

ANJER.— At 2 miles E.N.E. from Fourth Point is the flagstaff at Anjer, 
in lat. 6° 3' 10" S., long. 105° 54' 50" E. The town is not easily perceived in 
coming from the westward, being situated in a bay where the houses are 
scattered amongst the cocoa-nut trees, and nearly obscured by them, and by 
a spur of a chain of hills inland. The easternmost of these is a sharp peaked 
hill called Anjer Peak, directly over the town, and is on with it bearing 

A red light is shown on the extremity of the western pier of the boat creek 
at Anjer Point. It is elevated 23 ft., and visible 4 miles off. 

The Road or anchorage is N. by W. from the fort in from 12 to 19 fathoms 
water, soft ground. From a position in 16 fathoms, three-quarters of a mile 
off sh'^re, the flagstaff of the fort bears S.S.E., Fourth Point S.W. \ S., the 
Cap N.N.E. i E., and the Button N. ^ E. ; and from thence the soundings 
decrease uniformly to 9 and 8 fathoms at about a cable's length from the 
reef which fringes the shore, This is but an indifferent roadstead in the 
N.W. monsoon, and landing is dangerous on account of the high surf. At 
this season the anchorage near North Island, on the Sumatra shore might 
be found more convenient. 

In the S.E. monsoon, ships, both outward and homeward bound, generally 
call here for water and refreshments, unless they are content to purchase the 
latter from some of the numerous native boats usually to be met with on the 
look out for vessels passing through the strait. Buffaloes, poultry, vegetables, 
and frequently hogs, sheep, and turtle are to be procured here : water may 
be had by applying to the shore boats. 

There is a signal station at Anjer for communicating with passing vessels. 
A telegraph cable crosses the strait from Anjer round the West end of Thwart- 
the-way, close by Hog Point, and up the eastern coast of Lampong Bay, to 
the coaling station near Telok Betong. Vessels should avoid anchoring in 
its vicinity. 

Light. — Two lights, each elevated 35 ft., are exhibited on the piers form- 
ing the boat creek at Anjer Point. 

Caution. — Ships should approach the anchorage of Anjer Road with great 
caution, especially at night, paying particular attention to the lead. They 
should not attempt to bring up in less than 15 or 13 fathoms, or they will 
probably get too near the reef fronting the shore, very close to which are 8 
and 7 fathoms water. 

"In weighing from Anjer Road with a westerly wind and flood tide, a 
vessel should cast as quickly as possible with her head off shore, and shoot 


well into the strait, where she will have room and time to pick her anchor 
up ; it being dangerous to keep a ship drifting in the road while heaving it 
close up, in consequence of a steep rocky point to leeward, called Lenning. 
A large ship was recently totally lost upon it, having drifted on while get- 
ting her anchor to the bows. 

" Ships have frequently found themselves in dangerous proximity to this 
reef from anchoring in too small a depth of water, and with no room to veer 
in the event of sudden and violent squalls, which, as in most tropical coun- 
tries, are very common in this strait." — Capt. J. B. Caldheck. 

THWART-THE-WAY {Dwars in den weg), or Pulo Renjang, lying in the 
middle of the narrowest part of Sunda Strait, is 450 ft. high, and easily 
recognized by its irregular shape. It is 2^ miles long N.N.W. and S.S.E., 
and very steep all around, except at its southern extremity, where a reef 
projects 2 or 3 cables' lengths, on which a rock above water is visible. 
Capt. J. B. Caldbeck states that the reef projects a greater distance out than 
is generally supposed from the southern end of Thwart-the-way ; and that 
at low water the sea breaks more than a mile from the island. The 
highest part of the island bears N. by W. f W., 6^ miles from Fourth Point, 
S.W. by W. f W. from St. Nicholas Point, and N.E. by E. J E. from 

The West side of the island forms a small bay, in which there is temporary 
anchorage in 16 or 17 fathoms pretty close to the reef, with the N.W. point 
bearing North to N.N.W., and the South point from E.S.E. to S.E. by E. 
A 5 -fathom patch lies about a mile oflf this part of the island, with irregular 
depths, 10 to 26 fathoms, around it. 

CHANNELS. — The channel between Thwart-the-way and Java is the most 
convenient for sailing vessels, owing to the depths of water being but from 
20 to 30 fathoms, whereas the channel between Thwart-the-way and Sumatra 
has 40 to 50 fathoms. The latter channel, described hereafter, is moreover 
encumbered with the Stroom Rocks, in dangerous proximity to which ships 
are liable to be set by rapid currents, and unable, from the great depth of 
water, to bring up by anchoring.* The narrowest part of the channel be- 
tween the rocks oflF the South point of Thwart-the-way and the reef off 

* " "With regard to the respective merits of these channels, being bound either way 
through the strait, the preference may he decidedly given to that between Anjer and 
Thwart-the-way, in consequence of the great rapidity and uncertaint}' of the tides in the 
neighbourhood of the Stroom Rocks, rendering their proximity very dangerous, and unless 
in a strong breeze a ship is almost unmanageable. The depth of water on the Stroom side 
is almost double that on the Anjer shore, except in a S.W. line from the Button to Thwart- 
the-way. Instances have lately been known of ships which, being drifted dangerously 
close to the Stroom Rocks, let go their anchors and run their cables out to the clinch ; they 
were of course still whirled on until by a lucky chance they barely went past the rocks and 
no more."— Capt. J. B. Caldbeck. Naul. Mag., 1843. 


Foint is a little more than 4 miles ; and the distance is the same between the 
S.E. end of Thwart-the-way and the Cap. 

The Cap {Bralands hoeclje), or Pulo Vlar, is a small rourd-shaped island, 
only about a cable's length in diameter, lying N. by E. 3 miles from Anjer, 
and about E.S.E. 4 miles from the S.E. end of Thwart-the-way. 

A shoal is said to lie between the Cap and the main land of Java, from 
which Fourth Point bears S.W., and the Cap N.W. by W. ^ W. 

BROUWERS SAND is a dangerous bank, lying between the Cap and 
Merak Island, nearly 2 miles off the Java shore. It is composed of very 
hard sand, and extends nearly 3 miles along the coast in a N.E. f N. and 
opposite direction, its breadth being only 2 cables. There are three shoal 
patches on the bank, the least water being IJ fathom at low tides, and the 
general depths 3J or 4 fathoms. Its southern limit is 2J miles N.E. from 
the Cap ; and its northern end forms with Merak Island a channel 2 cables 
wide, with depths of 18 to 10 fathoms water. 

Between this bank and the shore there is a channel a mile wide, with 6 to 
10 fathoms water, which increases in the direction of the Cap to 15 and 20 
fathoms. But in this channel a rock called Kroenjo, which partly dries at 
low water, lies at 1^ or 2 cables off shore, with the Cap bearing S.W. by 
W. i W., the Button N.W. i N., and the West point of Merak Island 
N- I W. To avoid it, when standing in shore, the Cap should be kept inside 
of Fourth Point, for the Cap in line with Fourth Point leads just outside the 
edge of the bank. 

GREAT MERAK ISLAND, or Pulo MeraTc Besar, lying N.E. f N. 5 J miles 
from the Cap, is of considerable height, nearly round, and about half a mile 
in diameter. The island is bordered by a reef, which on the N.W. side pro- 
jects nearly a third of a mile.- 

Little Merak, or Pulo Merak Ketchil, lies near the shore, abreast the North 
end of Brouwers Sand, about half a mile to the south-eastward of Great 
Merak. It is connected to the main by a reef of rocks, which is just under 
water, and consequently cannot be passed by laden boats. 

MERAK HARBOUR is between Great and Little Merak Islands and the 
main coast of Java. It is nearly half a mile in extent, but in mid-channel 
between the islands there is a rocky bank called Tarremhoe, which partly dries 
at low water. The harbour may be entered by the channel on either side of 
this bank, as they carry from 5 to 10 fathoms water. The channel into the 
harbour North of Great Merak is the best, as it is more than a cable in 
breadth, and carries 6 to 14 fathoms. Entering by the southern channels, 
keep nearer to the Merak Islands than to the Tarremhoe Bank ; entering by 
the northern channel, keep Great Island shore aboard. 

The anchorage with S.W. winds is East from the highest part of Great 
Merak, and North of Tarremhoe Bank, in 6 or 11 fathoms water, soft ground. 
The Juva shore is steep-to. Sometimes a heavy swell sets into the harbour, 


for which reason it is not to be considered safe for ships in the N.W. mon- 
soon, but small vessels will always find good shelter under Great Merak. 

The COAST from Merak Island takes a north-easterly direction for about 
4^ miles to St. Nicholas Point. About midway between is a small islet, 
named Tempoza, lying close in shore. A reef fronts this coast, extending 
a third of a mile from it, and passing just outside Tempoza. Close to this 
reef are depths of 10 and 15 fathoms. The shore should not be approached 
nearer than half a mile, or in less than 20 or 18 fathoms water. The sound- 
ings increase regularly from the shore to 30 fathoms ; at a distance of 4 miles 
there are 40 to 50 fathoms. 

The BUTTON {Toppers hoedje) is a high and steep little island covered with 
trees, and about the size of the Cap, lying well out in the fairway of Sunda 
Strait, 5 miles to the north-eastward of Thwart-the-way. It has 34 and 30 
fathoms close-to, and bears from St. Nicholas Point AY. by S., distant nearly 
7 miles, and from Hog Point E. | N., \2^ miles. 

The Anna anchored, to wait a tide during the night, in 28 fathoms, E. 3° S. 
from the Button ; and on another occasion she anchored for the night in 37 
fathoms of water, with the Button bearing S.W. J S. : here, however, a 
hard bottom was found. 

ST. NICHOLAS POINT, inlat. 5° 52' 33" S., long. 106° 2' 10" E., is the 
extreme end of the high bold promontory forming the northern point of Java. 
Dangers extend about a third of a mile oflF the point, and close to them are 
11 fathoms, and 32 to 35 fathoms at a distance of from 1 to 2 miles. 

Directions. — When proceeding to the northward from, or being abreast of, 
Anjer Poad, steer to pass outside the Cap and inside the Button, at any con- 
venient distance from either, taking care not to borrow too close to Brouwers 
Sand in passing. When clear of that shoal and the Button, steer about 
N. by E. for the Two Brothers, if bound to Banka Strait ; or to pass St. 
Nicholas Point at about 2 miles if bound to Bantam or Batavia. 


The western coast of Sumatra, terminating at the N.W. point of the Strait 
of Sunda, is described in our " Directory for the Indian Ocean." The deeply 
indented southern (.oast of this great island forms the northern side of the 

It is occupied by the Lampiings, or Lampongs, a distinct people from the 
other nations of Sumatra, resembling in this respect the people of Java on 
the other side of the strait, and is, like them, subject to the Dutch Govern- 
ment. The geologic formation is of the same character as that of the Sunda 
country of Java, a mass of volcanic mountains, some of which rise to great 


elevation, as those of Lampong and Tanjamus, 7,500 ft. The people are, 
compared with the rest of the Sumatrans, rude and unpolished, though 
having a written language. Their country is far from fertile, and much of 
it incapable of being cultivated. The chief product for exportation is black 
pepper, next to this are rattans and dammer or resiri. It was formerly the 
dominions of the King of Bantam. It has been surveyed by order of Admiral 
E. Lucas, by Lieutenants J. A. G. Eietveld and E. H. Boom, 1841. The 
correct Dutch orthography can scarcely be followed, as many of the names 
have for so many years been recognized as they will be given, that it has 
been thought advisable to retain them. 

The South coast of Sumatra, between Flat Point on the "West and Hog 
Point on the East, a distance of 70 miles, is indented by two large bays, 
named Keyser and Lampong, the shores of which are fronted by numerous 
islands and rocks. 

FLAT POINT ( riaklce Hoek), in lat. 5° 59' S., long. 104° 32' 37" E., is the 
southern extremity of Sumatra, and the north-western boundary of Sunda 
Strait. It is properly the western extreme of the low projecting tongue of 
land which separates Keyser Bay from Blimbing Bay, and the East point of 
which is usually, though improperly, called Chinna Point, its correct name 
being Rada, another point 3 miles more to the westward being Chinna Point. 
Mada Point bears East a little northerly, and is distant 9 miles from Flat 
Point. A small reef fringes the shore about Flat Point, but at a mile off 
shore are 7 to 10 fathoms. 

At 2| or 3 miles S.W. of Flat Point there is a narrow bank, with 8, 13, 
and 15 fathoms water on it, about 5 miles in length, W.N.W. and E.S.E., 
and about a mile in breadth., partly consisting of reddish sand. The 
soundings outside this bank increase rapidly to 30, 40, and 50 fathoms, 
and inside of it there is a channel, about 1^ mile wide, with 14 and 15 

LITTLE FORTUNE ISLAND {Klein Fortuin Eiland), or Pulo Batu Ketchil, 
lies in front of Blimbing Bay, just outside Sundd Strait, N.W. by W. 9 
miles from Flat Point, and about 5 miles from the main ; it is low, 
woody, about a mile in diameter, and surrounded by a reef also a mile in 

BLIMBING or Billimbing Bay is inside Little Fortune Island, and north- 
ward of Flat Point. At its entrance ships may anchor in 7 or 8 fathoms, 
and find a good berth with S.E. winds, but not with those from the N.W. 
Small vessels will be sheltered from all winds by anchoring further inside 
in 3 fathoms, behind the projecting reef. 

There is also anchorage off the East side or Little Fortune Island, in 9 or 
10 fathoms. In some charts two reefs are placed in this bay close in 
shore ; it is very probable they do not exist, but it will be advisable to be 


On the East side of this bay is a small river, but its water is brackish ; a 
fresh-water spring, however, may be found inside the S.W. point, from 
which a reef projects a quarter or half a mile to the northward. 

Approaching Sunda Strait by night, the soundings will be a good guide 
in passing Little Fortune Island and Flat Point. At 6 miles off shore the 
depths are 40 and 30 fathoms, and, with a commanding breeze, ships may 
venture into 20 or even 15 fathoms; but when too dark to distinguish the 
land, it is advisable not to shoal to less than 20 fathoms. 

KEYSER or SAMANGKA BAY runs inland in a north-westerly direction 
about 30 miles, and is about 20 miles wide at entrance. Its western shore is 
steep, affords no shelter from south-easterly winds, and has 20 or 30 fathoms 
water within half a mile of it. 

Tampang Bay, just round Eada Point, on the western side of Keyser (pro- 
perly Keizers) Bay, is only an open bight, but has good anchorage ground 
in depths from 12 to 15 fathoms, a mile off shore. A ship will be exposed 
here to south-easterly winds, and will have much difficulty, on account of 
the rocky shore, in getting water from the shallow rivulets that discharge 
themselves into the bay. 

The village of Borne is in the N.W. part of Keyser Bay, at the mouth of 
Samangka rivulet, the water of which is good, but boats will find it difficult 
to enter. The land is low, and fronting the sea marshy. The best an- 
chorage is East, or E. by N. from the mouth of the rivulet, 1 or 1^^ mile 
distant from the shore. Ships lie here usually without danger from south- 
easterly winds, which seldom throw a very high swell so far up the bay. 
Near Belong Point, the southern extremity of the bay near Borne, there is a 
rocky shoal which projects more than a mile in the offing, with 10 fathoms 
very near it. 

The eastern side of Keyser Bay, North of Kalang-bayang Harbour, is not 
so steep as the western side, and affords good anchorage about 2 miles off, 
in 20 or 30 fathoms ; but it is also exposed to south-easterly winds. 

KEYSER ISLAND, or Pulo Lahuan, lying nearly in the middle of the 
entrance of Keyser Bay, is high and steep-to all round, and affords but one 
spot fit for anchorage, a very indifferent berth in the western monsoon, 
which is on the N.E. side in 25 to 30 fathoms, sand, and very near the shore. 
There is fresh water, but the high surf renders landing very troublesome. 
The island is inhabited, well cultivated, and produces large trees fit for 

Kalang-Bayang Harbour, or Koloemhyan Bay, on the eastern side of Key- 
ser Bay, and about East from the North point of Keyser Island, is small, but 
safe, and affords good shelter from all winds, with sufficient depths of water 
for large ships. It may be easily recognised by the high and rocky island 
of Eyoe, which lies about a mile outside, and can be seen 1 5 miles off. Half 
a mile north-westward of Eyoe there is another island, or rather rock, called 


Pulo Klappa, with a single cocoa-nut tree upon it. There is a safe channel 
with 25 fathoms water between these islands. 

This harbour has been said to be well adapted for a fleet in want of re- 
freshments, as every supply may be obtained ; but the Java Guide says that 
refreshments are very scarce. Water may be obtained from a small rivulet 
in the north-eastern part of the bay. 

In the N.W. monsoon, enter the harbour by the western passage between 
Pulo Klappa and the North point called Tanjong Napal, and when the latter 
bears about West, or W. by S., anchor near the eastern beach in 10 fathoms, 
soft ground, or anywhere in the harbour, there being no hidden danger. 

In the S.E. monsoon, steer in about N. by E., between Eyoe and Klappa 
Islands. With a commanding breeze a vessel may pass eastward of Eyoe, 
between it and Pulo Batu Kabu on a N.N.W. course. These channels lead 
close to the Bover Hocks, which are, however, easily avoided, and left to the 
eastward, as most of them are above water. 

Kiloang Bay lies 5 miles to the south-eastward of Kalang-bayang, and 
also affords safe anchorage. It may be known by Tongkalie Island, which is 
visible 12 miles off, and lies off the East point of the bay, being separated 
from the main by a small channel only fit for boats. This bay, as well as 
Kalang-bayang Harbour, contains all sorts of wood. 

Coming from the westward or southward with a leading wind, steer for 
Tongkalie till it bears East, distant 2 or 3 cables' lengths, when three groups 
of black rocks will be seen, the southernmost of which bears N.N.W. from 
Tongkalie, and S.W. from the others. Steer N.E. and E.N.E. past these 
rocks in from 30 to 20 fathoms, for the eastern side of the bay, which is very 
high, till Kiloang Island bears West, where a good anchorage may be taken 
in 13 fathoms between it and the beach, and sheltered from all winds. Ki- 
loang Island, which is small and not very high, lies near the eastern beach 
of this bay, with some rocks at its northern and southern extremities, a large 
reef to the eastward, and a smaller one on its western side. Although the 
bay is spacious, yet pass close to the westward of Tongkalie. Everywhere 
€lse in the bay anchoring ground may be found in 16 to 18 fathoms, but 
accompanied by a heavy swell. 

MOUNTAINS. — The land of Sumatra, eastward of Kalang-bayang Har- 
bour and Kiloang Bay, is very high, consisting of the Kalang-bayang or 
Kamantara Mountains, 3,418 ft. high; and 3 miles farther to the northward 
the Ratteh Mountains, the southernmost peak of which is 5,097 ft. above the 
sea. More westerly, and not far from the shore of Keyser Bay, the Lani- 
pong Mountains rise to the height of 6,560 ft., and Joukamoe, or Keyser Peak, 
situated 11 or 12 miles farther to the north-westward, and near the head of 
the bay, reaches to 7,412 ft. 

Pepper Bay is on the North shore of Lagundy Strait, on the West side of 
Tikus Point, the S.W. point of entrance of Lampong Bay. It has a huge 


three-cornered rock in the middle, and is very limited ; but the native proas 
row up behind the high western beach, where there are 18 fathoms water 
close in. 

LAMPONG BAY, formed between Tikus Point on the West, and Pvajah 
Bassa on the East, is very extensive, being about 20 miles wide at entrance, 
and stretching northward into the land nearly the same distance. At its 
entrance the Lagoendy Islands, hereafter described, extend 8 miles to the 
eastward from Tikus Point. Other islands line the western shore of the bay 
inside, between which and the main there are several good roads or places of 
shielter. In every part of the bay, from North to South, will be found from 
10 fathoms, mud, to 20 fathoms, clay bottom. 

If a vessel keep outside the islands on the western shore of the bay there 
are but tivo dangers, both of which may be easily avoided. The first is a 
sandbank, dry at low water, surrounded by a reef, which rises from 17 
fathoms, mud, and bears E.S.E. 1^ mile from Kalagian, and N.E. :^ N. 2 
miles from Little Pokowang. The second is a reef with 2 and \^ fathoms 
upon it, bearing S.E. ^ S. 1;^ mile from the easternmost of the Choondong 

Pedada Bay, the first bight to the northward of Tikoes Point, on the 
western side of Lampong Bay, is 1^ mile wide at entrance, and 3|- miles 

When running into this bay in the direction of the southern end of the 
Kalang-bayang Mountains, on a W. ^ N. course, the soundings will be 20 
to 15 lathoms, clay and mud, and ihe three small islands of Pedada, Pena- 
rian, and Lilanga will be seen. Pedada is the easternmost and highest, but 
N. by E. from it half a mile there are two detached reefs, usually covered 
with breakers ; and a third reef N.E., which bears W. by S. from the North 
point of the bay. Keeping this last reef on the starboard bow, and the other 
two on the port bow, will lead to an anchorage in 15 fathoms water, very 
near the village of Pedada, bearing W. ^ N. This village is to the westward 
of Lalanga Island, and stands on a clear fresh- water stream. The high rocky 
islet of Klappa is connected with Pedada Point by three groups of rocks 
above water, leaving, however, between each of them a passage for small 
craft. North-eastward of Klappa lie also three patches of rock, with 17 and 
16 fathoms, clay, between them ; to avoid them, keep Lalanga Island to the 
westward of North, This small island is also high, with a reef extending 
about 2 cables from its N.E. point. 

Poondo Bay, lying 4 or 5 miles to the northward of Pedada Bay, is 2 
miles wide and 3 miles deep, with 10 to 7 fathoms water. Across the en- 
trance lies Pokowang, the largest island iu Lampong Bay except Lagoendy, 
with a peak on its northern side, and to the eastward a small island, to which 
it is connected by a reef. 

Poondo Bay may be approached on either side of Pokowang. When 

J. A. 'i 


taking the northern passage, which is preferable, the white coral reefs are 
seen at some distance, but avoid the reef X)rojecting 3 cables' lengths N.E. 
from the island, with 15 fathoms close to it. There is also a detached coral 
reef close to the N.W. point of Pukowang, which must be kept on the p'jrt 
side, while the four coral reefs, lying mid-channel N.AV. and W.N.W., 
from the centre of Pokowang, should be kept on the starboard side. 

Kateh. Bay comes next to Poondo Bay. It is 3 miles in exteut each way, 
with 16 to 18 fathoms, mud bottom, and at the entrance lies Kalagian. 
Inland, which is high, and has a small island separated from its South point 
by a boat channel of 3 to 8 fathoms water. 

Not quite a mile S. by E. from Kalagian lies a coral reef, showing at low 
water like a black speck, and bearing W. by N. J N. 1^ mile from the 
above-mentioned coral reefs, between which is 17 and 14 fathoms, mud. 

Eatteh Bay may be approached on either side of Kalagian ; and the two 
reefs, which dry at low water, to the westward of the island, may be discerned 
at some distance, and consequently easily avoided. 

Mahitam Island lies off the North point of Eatteh Bay, with which it is 
connected by a reef. There is good anchorage on its North side, in 13 
fathoms, mud bottom. 

Tagal Island, flat-topped and conspicuous, bears N.E. If mile from Ma- 
hitam, and about W. by S., 3^ miles from the Choondong Islands, and is 
visible throughout the whole of Lampong Bay. When coming in from the 
eastward, a vessel may steer for it on a N.W. bearing, and pass it in 15 
fathoms ; if entering from the southward it is a mark for Lagoendy Strait. 

In the bay north-westward of Tagal there are the two villages, Ringong 
and Oerong ; and near the South point of the bay is the small island Laho, 
connected to the shore by a reef, and throwing out another to the nurthward. 

Tankel Island is 3 miles North of Tagal. The North side is low, but the 
South side high. 

The Head of Lampong Bay, northward of Tankel, narrows, so as to be 
scarcely 4 miles wide, but it contains four islands : — Pomogotang, 1^ mile 
Noi'th from Tankel, is all sand, but has some trees, and is surrounded by a 
large reef. Little Pomogotang is a bank without trees, 1 mile W.N.W. from 
the former, and also begirt by a broad reef. Koeher Island, lying S.W. from 
Pomogotang, is separated from the main by a 5-fathom channel, and a reef 
runs out 2 cables' lengths from its eastern side. A black beacon buog marks 
the eastern side of a reef; it lies N. 39° E. from Koeber Island, and South 
from a white beacon buoy, with the harbour office at the mouth of the river, 
N. 43° W., and the foot of Mount Apen N. 7° E. The fourth is the low 
island of Passarang, in Telok Betong Road, S.E. from the river. Besides 
these islands there are some coral reefs. 

Telok Betong, situated in the north-western part of the bight, is the chief 
town of Lampong Bay. Its population consists of natives of Sumatra and 


Bugis, with a Regent from the Dutch Grovernment as their chief. They 
trade with the Javanese in Larapong tobacco, which is highly esteemed. A 
telegraph cable connects Telok Betong with Anjer. The Dutch Government 
have a coal store at or near here, but fresh provisions are reported as difficult 
to be obtained. A red light, elevated 39 ft., is shown from an iron column. 

The eastern side of Lampong Bay, between Telok Betong and the Choon- 
dong Isles, is high, free from dangei', and may be approached in safety to 
14 and 15 fathoms, close to. From the Choondong Islands to Rajah Bassa 
the coast, at 2 or 3 cables' lengths distance, is fronted by a line of rocks. 

The Choondong Islands are three in number, of which the northernmost is 
a steep rock, and the two others are larger, but not so high. A detached 
6-ft. reef is reported 1 J cable E. of the southernmost of the Choondong Isles. 

To the northward of the Tiega Islets the Sumatra coast forms a deep 
curve, called Blantong or Lohogh Bay^ with 4 or 5 fathoms, mud, and a salt- 
water river. The points of the bay on each side are covered with rocks and 
a high surf. 

Tiga or Tiega Islets, three rocky islets lying 3 miles off shore, appear as one 
when coming from the eastward, and do not begin to open until Rajah Bassa 
Road is approached. 

Eajah Bassa Road. — The land forming the south-eastern part of Lampong 
Bay is high, and rises to two conspicuous peaks, 3 or 4 miles inland, named 
Rajah Bassa Mountains. The height of the N.W. peak is 4,398 tt., and that 
of the S.E. peak 4,093 ft. Rajah Bassa Road, which lies directly off the 
high land, was frequently visited by the China ships, it being an excellent 
place to obtain good water with facility, and other refreshments, although 
Anjer is still better. 

There are three villages on the shore of Rajah Bassa Road. The first is 
Kalinda, bearing N.N.E. f E. from the Tega Islets, and having in front of 
the white sandy beach some large rocks above water, between which are the 
openings that make it easy to land. The anchorage is in 7 to 10 fathoms, 
mud. West from the village, and a mile off shore. The second village is 
Tyanti, which lies E.N.E. from the largest Tiga Islet, and abreast that part 
of the road where is the best anchorage, and the best watering places. The 
third village, called Rajah Bassa, is just to the northward of Cocoa-nut Point, 
and about East from the Tega Islets ; it is the largest one of the three, but 
the watering there is very difficult, at least much more so than at Tyanti, 
and the landing dangerous with westerly winds. 

KLAPPA, or Cocoa-nut Point, or Rajah Bassa Point, is low, covered with 
cocoa-nut trees, and bears N.W. by W. nearly 8 miles from Hog Point, and 
E. by S. \ S. from the Tiga Islets. Between Cocoa-nut and Hog Points the 
coast curves in to the north- eastward 2 miles, and at the bottom of this bight 
are the two small Bight Islands, surrounded by reefs. 

About li mile north-webtward of Hog Point, and about 1^- mile off shore. 


is the Tims Klip or Collier Hod; 6 or 7 ft. above water, and 56 ft. In circuit. 
It is fringed by a reef, which on the N.E. side projects about 50 ft. Another 
rock above water lies about a cable's length westward of Hog Point, with 
deep water all around it. 

The LAGXTNDY or LAGOENDY GROUP, lying in the S.W. part of the 
entrance to Lampong Bay, consists of seven islands, viz., Lagoendy, Eound, 
Saka, Soengal, Tims, Sussarat, and Mangoman. They are uninhabited, but 
produce good timber, deer, and wild hogs. Along the southern shores of the 
first four islands the sea in the western monsoon is very violent 

Lagoendy, the largest island of the group, is nearly 5 miles in length, 
E.N.E. and W.S.W., and close to the southward of its West point' are two 
liigh, round-shaped rocks, covered with verdure, N.E. ^ E. and S.W. ^ "W. 
from each other, with a boat channel between them. On the S.E. side of 
Lagoendy there is another rook or islet of the same character. 

On the North side of Lagoendy there is a small but safe bay, Navgga Har- 
hour, with depths of 15 to 7 fathoms. In the middle of the entrance is the 
small island Fafappati, behind which a ship may find good shelter from wind 
and sea. There is room for ten or twelve ships, and fresh water is found on 
Lagoendy, S.E. from Patappan. 

Mangoman Island, lying a little outside Nangga Harbour, has 15 to 22 
fathoms, clay, all round it, except on its eastern side, where there are only 
10 to 15 fathoms. When coming from the eastward or northward, a mistake 
may occur between this island and Patappan, but the latter is lower and 
smaller than Mangoman. 

LAGOENDY STEAIT, between Tikoes Point and the Lagoendy Islands, 
is 2 miles wide, and may be recommended to ships working out of Lampong 
Bay in the N.W. monsoon. About mid-channel is the high island of Sus- 
sarat, with 10 fathoms, sand, close-to, and 30 fathoms farther off. Near its 
W^est point there are some rocks, but they are high above water. Although 
this island is in the middle of the channel, yet in a calm ships need not be 
alarmed by the current whieh seems to set towards it. The passages on 
either side of Sussarat are equally good. 

A Coral Reef, carrying only 2 fathoms water, and having 13 fathoms 
around it, lies northward of Mangoman Island, and from its N.E. side the 
highest point of Sussarat bears S.W. by W. \ W. ; the West point of 
Lagoendy S.W. \ S. ; the North point S.E. ^ E. ; and the middle of Man- 
goman S. \ E. The reef is about 75 yards long, and cannot be distinguished 
by discoloured water. 

A rock awash, which breaks in moderate weather, has been discovered in 
Lagoendy Strait, S. 24° E. from Tanjong Blantong (^?). — Naut. Mag.^ June, 
1877, pp. 622-3. 

Eound Island lies ofi" the East end of Lagoendy, its length being about 
2^ miles, N.W. and S.E., and its breadth nearly a mile, Saka lies about 


one-third of a mile off the S.W. point of Eound Island ; and Soengal about 
the same distance off the S.E. point. 

The passage between Lagoendy and Round Island cannot be recommended, 
nor that between Eound Island and Soengal, for although the water is every- 
where deep, the gr"und is foul and the current strong. 

Tims Island, lying 3 miles eastward of Soengal, is very small and low, 
consists chiefly of red day, and is surrounded by a broad reef with heavy 
breakers ; bnt thp channels on either side of it are quite clear. 

KRAKATOA ISLAND (or Krahatou), lying in the middle of Sunda Strait, 
is about 5 miles in extent N.N.W. and S.S.E., and 3 miles broad. Its fine 
conical peak, rising boldly up to the height of 2,623 ft., may be seen at a 
considerable distance, and serves as a fairway mark for ships entering the 
strait from the westward. It is in lat. 6° 9J' S., long. 105° 27' 20" E. Arange 
of high land runs from the peak in a northerly direction for \\ mile, when it 
turns to the north-westward, and, gradually diminishing in height, disap- 
pears at the N.W. point of the island ; the outline of the range is marked by 
several prominences or peaks. The North coast of the island consists of 
rocky hills, without any vegetation whatever. The West and South coasts 
also consist of a steep and rocky shore, and it is only on the eastern coast 
that there is any level land. 

There is a small spring of fresh water on the N.E. side of Krakatoa, oppo- 
site the South end of Lang Island, but it can only be approached by boats 
at high water, and ships should not depend upon watering there. A short 
distance to southward is a hot spring, in which the thermometer rose to 154°. 

A bank of soft mud extends from the Eist side of Krakatoa and Lang 
Island about 3 miles, with the peak bearing W.S."W. to S.W. by W., 
affording excellent shelter. from westerly gales, by anchoring in from 20 to 
23 fathoms about Ij or 2^ miles off shore. The peak bearing S.W. by W. 
is the best berth ; but a ship should not anchor with the North end of the 
island to the southward of West, or she will be exposed to a heavy eea 
rolling in from the westward between Krakatoa and Pulo Bezee, during a 
westerly gale. 

A submerged rock, hereafter described, is marked on the chart nearly East 
from the peak of Krakatoa, and a quarter of a mile off shore. 

On the 21st February, 1829, the Russian corvette Holler, commanded by 
Captain Liitke, although only drawing 14 ft., touched on a coral patch, 
said to lie \\ mile from the nearest point of Krakatoa, and S.E. from the 
isle lying off its N.E. point ; but the description of its position, being rather 
ambiguous, is not satisfactory. 

Verlaten (or Fomaken Island), 2 miles long, and half a mile broad, lies 
close off the N.W. end of Krakatoa, from which it is separated by a narrow 
channel with numerous reefs, which make it dangerous for boats to pass 
through. A white rock 60 ft, high, and another rock 80 ft. high, lie about 


three-quarters of a mile oflF its S. W. end ; and about a mile East of that end 
of the island, between it and Krakatoa, is a rock or islet, with a rock awash 
a short distance to the southward of it. 

Lang Island, about 1| mile long North and South, and about half a mile- 
broad, is separated from the N.E. side of Krakatoa by a channel barely 2 
cables wide at its narrowest part. A reef stretches out from its N.W. side 
nearly half a mile, and encircles its North and East sides at an average dis- 
tance of half a mile, terminating off its South point. The West side of the 
island is bold and cliflPy, with deep water close to. The Polish Hat {Poohche 
hoed) is a round islet, lying off the West side of Lang Island, between it 
and Krakatoa ; a reef projects about half a cable's length from its N.E. side. 

The Channel between Lang Island and Krakatoa is from one-half to one- 
quarter of a mile wide. The shore of Krakatoa, forming: the West side of 
the channel, is fringed with a reef extending about a cable's length from it, 
except at the point nearest Lang Island, where it projects only about a 
quarter of a cable. The soundings in the channel are deep, 30 and 28 
fathoms, but they are very irregular, decreasing towards the Polish Hat 
from the southward. 

A shoallies a mile S.S.E. from the South point of Lang Island, and about 
a quarter of a mile from the shore of Krakatoa. It extends about 1^ cable 
in the direction of the chai nel, and has a rock which is sometimes awash, 
and others just under water, upon it. The West extreme of Lang Island in 
line with the Eist extreme of Krakatoa leads between this shoal and the reef 
extending off to the S.E. point of Lang Island, although it passes very close 
to both. 

BEZEE, or Tamarind Island, bearing about N. by E., nearly 12 miles from 
Krakatoa Peak, is nearly 3 miles in extent North and South, and 3;^ East 
and West. This island has also a high peak, named Sehezee, sharper than 
that of Krakatoa, and resembling a sugar-loaf, which rises abruptly to a 
height of 2,825 ft. from the southern extremity of the island, and slopes 
gently down to the northward. A reef projects about a third of a mile from 
the West side of the island, some rocky points of which are visible above 
■water ; and off the N.E. side there are three small islets called Huisman, 
Little Tamarind, and Govts, all of which are surrounded by small reefs having 
banks between them ; the islands and reefs extend a little over half a mile 
from the shore. Bezee Island produces a certain tjuantity of pepper, and is 
inhabited by natives belonging to the villages in Lampong Bay. The village 
is on the East side, opposite Little Tamarind Island. 

All around this island there is good anchorage in 15 to 25 fathoms water ; 
and at a mile from tlie N.E. side there is an excellent roadstead, even in 
S.W. gales, with 13 fathoms water. 

Bezee Channel, between Krakatoa and Bezee, is 7 miles wide, and fre- 
quently used by ships working out in the N.W. monsoon, in preference to 


the Great channel, because here they have regular soundings from 18 to 30 
fathoms, and may anchor when convenient. 

Boom Eock, lying nearly half a mile off the South point of Bezee Island, 
is a few feet above water. 

Hindostan Rock is the only known danger in this passage. A ship of 
that name is said to have struck upon it in 1791, and found on its summit, 
which was only 6 or 8 ft. in diameter, 15 ft. water, and 10 fathoms close-to. 
Krakatoa Peak bore from it S. by W. i W. ; the "West extremity of Verlaten 
Island S.W. ; the East extreme of Lang Island S. 5 W. ; Bezee Island from 
N.E. to N. i W. ; the peak of Keyser Island W. by N. ; and the Zeeklip 
W. i N., well open to the southward of Keyser Island. 

Lieutenants Eietveld and Boom tried to discover this rock, but without 
success, though they found a shoal with 5^ fathoms least water, consisting 
of hard rock and coral, and having all around 6 to 13 fathoms, soft mud and 
clay, and at some distance 19 fathoms. From this slioal Krakatoa bore 
8. by W. J W. ; West extremity of Verlaten Island S.W. ; South point of 
Zeeklip West ; and the angle between the two extremes of Bezee Island waa 
68° 30'. Some of these bearings agree exactly with the former, and it is 
more than probable that it is the same rock ; but, if not, the true Hindoston 
ruck must be very near to this shoal, possibly a little to the north-eastward 
or eastward of it. To avoid the Hiudostan rock or rocks, keep at least 2 
miles from the South side of Bezee Island The best mark for proceeding 
through this channel, is never to bring Gap Eock open to the southward of 
Keyser Islaud, W. by N. Between Hindostan Eock and Boom Eock there 
are 10, 16, and 20 fathoms water, rocky bottom; but between this latter 
rock and Bezee there are 8, 9, 13, 11, and 8 fathoms, with foul bottom. 
Lieut. Eietveld saw here different patches of light-coloured water, owing, 
apparently, to an eddy current, and although they much resemble sunken 
rocks, all the casts of the lead indicated IG to 19 fathoms. 

Zee-Klip {Sea Eock), bearing W. by S. 6 miles from Sebezee Peak, con- 
sists of three pyramidal rocks very near each other, and showing above 
water ; the southernmost is the largest, and is often called the Gap Hock, on 
account of a cleft in it. They are visible at a considerable di:?tance, bearing 
N. 5 E. and S. J W. from each other, and are connected under water by 
reefs, upon which the sea continually breaks. They are steep-tu and inac- 
cessible; and near them are 26 and 30 fathums, mud and clay. 

SEBUKO ISLAND (or Seboeko), N.N.E. a mile distant from Bezee, is not 
so high as the latter, and consists mostly of craggy hills. It is inhabited by 
natives of Enjah Bassa, who cultivate some pepper plantations. Its extent 
is 3i miles North and South, and about 3 miles East and West. 

Close to the East side of Sebuko is Beschutter Islet, which is high on the 
East side, has a reef on its South side, and forms with Sebuko a small bay, 
with 15 to 19 fathoms water, affording good anchorage for proas. A coral 


rock, lying mid-channel between the East point of Sebuko and North point 
of Beschutter, renders it dangerous to enter this little bay from tlie north- 
ward with westerly gales; but there is a good road for large vessels in 
11 and 13 fathoms, 1 or Ij mile from Sebuko, near the East side of Bes- 

Eeefs project from the numerous points of Sebuko, and in some places 
they either show above water, or the sea breaks over them, but they do not 
seem to extend far off, except from the West point, from which a reef 
stretches off nearly 2 miles ; it is very steep-to, but not dangerous, because 
the westernmost rock on it rises to a considerable height out of the water, 
and has a slight resemblance to Zeeklip. This rock lies W.N.W. from the 
South point of Sebuko; S.W. by W. i W. from its N.W. point; N. | E. 
from the West point of Bezee, and If mile from the West side of Sebuko. 

The Channel between Sebuko and Bezee Islands is not quite a mile wide, 
with soundings from 19 to 23 fathoms, hard sandy bottom; the passage 
northward of Sebuko, between it and the Tega Islets, is 1^ or 2 miles wide, 
and has 20 to 34 fathoms. A sandbank lies West \h mile from Tiga Isles, 
and N. by W. from the North end of Sebuko. 

HOG POINT, or Varkenshoek, Tanjong Toka, bearing S.E. by E. 7* miles 
from Cocua-nut Point, is the south-eastern extreme of Sutuatra, and between 
narrowest part of Sunda Strait, across which tlie Telok Betono; telegraph cable 
is carried to Anjer. The point has a round hilly appearance, and is easily 
distinguished when approaching it from the eastward ; but, coming from 
the westward, it has been mistaken for one of the Zutphen Islands. The 
soundings a mile distant from it are from 40 to 60 fathoms. 
it and Fourth Point on the Java coast, which bears S.E. ^ E. 13 miles, is the 

The ZUTPHEN ISLANDS front the coast of Sumatra to the north-east- 
ward of H(jg Point. Four of them are large, and the remainder are very 
small, the whole extending N.E. and S.W. about 4 miles, and within 2^ 
miles of the main. There are several shoals in the passage between them 
and the coast, amongst which there is said to be anchorage in some places. 
This passage is generally used by proas, and might be taken by large ships 
with a commanding breeze, there being sufficient depth of water, but great 
caution is recommeudud. The islands are steep-to on their South side, 
having 40 and 50 fathoms water very near them. 

Kandang, the south-westernmost island of the Zutphen Group, is about a 
mile long N.E. and S.W., and half a mile broad, of considerable height, and 
covered with large trees. Off its N.W. side aie two coral rocks, visible above 
water, and steep-to on their western sides. Near these rocks, on the N.W. 
side of Kandang, there is a small bay that affords a safe anchorage to proas 
in 11 or 12 fathoms water, close in-shore, and even large vessels would find 
ealety there; very often it is frequented by pirates. 

High and Kout Islands [high and woody islands), lying to the eastward of 


Kandang, are of considerable height, rocky, and covered with trees. They 
are about half the size of Kandang, the three islands being separated by 
narrow channels. Between Kandang and High Island is a small islet, with 
some cocoa-nut trees upon it. 

A reef of rocks lies 2 cables' lengths from the N.E., East, and S.E. sides 
of Hout Island, with 10 or 12 fathoms in the narrow gut between it and the 
island. The soundings eastward and south-eastward of Kandang, and High 
and Hout Islands are very deep, there being 40 to 50 fathoms a short dis- 
tance off' them. 

Cocoa-nut Island, lying westward of Kandang, is small, very low, and sur- 
rounded by a reef, which is very steep-to. The Brothers, two small islands 
lying to the northward of High and Hout Islands, are low and sandy, 
covered with small wood, and surrounded by a narrow but steep reef, with 
15 and 18 fathoms water close-to. 

Hemoa Island, the northernmost and largest of the Zutphen Islands, is 
also the highest, being elevated 300 or 400 ft. above the sea. To the N.W. 
there is a low neck of land, which at 2 cables' lengths from the ground be- 
gins to rise ; the South end is the highest. Part of the low neck is a sandy 
beach, which atfords a good place for boats, it being very difficult to land 
anywhere else. Eemoa is covered with trees, large and small, as also are 
the other islands belonging to this group. 

The South side of Eemoa is fronted by a reef, partly above water, with a 
very narrow channel between it and the island ; it is called Boompjes Reef, 
and carries some small brushwood ; from its South point the N.E. point of 
Thwart-the-way bears S.E. ^ E. 

Fatal Islet and Eeef.— Close to the N.E. point of Eemoa is a high rocky 
islet, called Fatal, and from thence a reef projects to the North and N.W., 
on which is a separate cural rock, dry at low water, and all stretching otf 
about half a mile, with depths of 11 and 12 fathoms close to them, so that 
the lead gives but little warning. Erom the northern point of this reef the 
North point of Fatal Island is on with the Button ; and from its western edge 
the West point of Eemoa is on the West point of Kandang Island. Toempal 
Island, lying westward of Eemoa, is small, very low and woody, and sur- 
rounded by a reef, which is steep-to. 

South of Toempal, and nearly in mid-channel, are two steep coral rocks, 
with 2 or 3 ft. water upon them at oi'dinary tides, and sometimes dry. They 
lie in the line of the Boompjes Ee f and the N.E. point of Thwart-the-way 
in one, S.E. | E. A little further South lies a small but steep coral rock, 
sometimes dry at low water, from which Boompjes Eeef is on with theNortli 
point of the Button, E. by S. 

On account of the rapid currents experienced at times near the Zutphen 
lelands, in the westerly mousoou, ships oujjht not to approach their South 

I. A. 2 A 


and S.E. parts nearer than U or U mile, particularly in passing Hont 
Island, where the current runs with great velocity, sweeping to the S.W. and 
W.S.W. round Hog Point. 

Lieut. Prins, in 1844, discovered an excellent anchorage for a dozen or 
more large vessels between Hog Point and the Zutphen Islands. He says, 
if in either of the monsoons a vessel cannot beat through, or is detained by 
calms cT currents, she may bring Kandang Island to bear N.E., and Sindo 
Island North, and to the westward of that line she may choose her berth in 
from 30 to 5 fathoms, sand ; and from thence the land wind will enable her 
on the following morning to pursue her voyage. Moreover, just to the 
westward of Sindo there is a small river, with good water, near Pagatau 

Vessels are strongly advised not to try the intricate and dangerous passage 
inside the Zutphen Islands, especially as there is no reliable chart of it yet 

The Channel between Thwart-the-way and the Zutphen Islands is but 3^ 
miles wide, and encumbered with two dangers, viz. : the Stroom Rocks off 
Thwart-the-way, and the Winsor Eoek off the Button. Owing to the great 
depth of water in it, 40 to 50 fathoms, it is not so convenient as the channel 
between Thwart-the-way and Java, where the depths being only 20 to 30 
fathoms, much greater facility is afforded for anchoring in calms. The 
channel between Thwart-the-way and Sumatra is much frequented in the 
westerly monsoon by ships bound to the westward. 

STROOM ROCKS, lying N.N.W. i W., li mile distant from the West 
point of Thwart-the-way, are a group of three or four rocks very near each, 
other, with some of their tops visible above the sea at high water, and then 
only discernible in fiue weather at a short distance ; at other times they may 
be seen at a considerable distance by the breakers on the reef which connects 
them under water. They are steep-to, having 40 and 50 fathoms very near 

The currents which meet about here from the North and East are very 
strong, and with the opposite wind there is, near these rocks, such a boiling 
and eddying of the water all around, that it almost appears as if they are 
connected to Thwart-th.e-way, the light-coloured patches between them ap- 
pearing like rocks under water. 

Winsor Rock, on which the American ship Claudius, Capt. Winsor, struck 
in May, 1837, was examined by Lieut. B. Gr. Escher, D.R.N. From it the 
middle of the Button bears S.E. by E. | E., distant 1 J mile ; the S.E. point 
of Thwart-the-way, S.S.W. ^ W. ; its N.W. point, S.W. | W. ; and the 
South point of the southernmost Zutphen Island is just in one with the 
northernmost visible point of Bezee Island. The least water on it is 16 ft., 
the depths increasing suddenly in every direction. Other rocks were seen 
in the edd}' on the lee side of the rock. 


The COAST of SUMATRA from the Z itphen Islands runs N.N.E. J E. 
for the distance of 3 miles to a point, not named on the charts, where it 
trends away to the northward. This part of the coast is fronted by rocks. 

Pulo Logok is a small but very high island, lying 1 mile North of the 
above-mentioned point, and 4 miles N. by E. from the Zutphen Islands ; the 
coast near it is rocky and steep. Lieut. Kolff found there 15 and 20 fathoms 
hard sand ; but further to the southward towards the steep point near the 
Zutphen Islands, a mud bank projects from the shore ; the lead is there a 
sure guide, for the bottom in 9 and 10 fathoms is hard, while in 7 and 6 fa- 
thoms it becomes soft. 

The Sisters {De Gezusters) are three small islands, lying about N. by E. 3 
to 4^ miles from Logok Island. S.E. nearly a mile from them is a small 
reef with only 2 fathoms water, on which a ship was aground, with North 
Island bearing N. \ E., and the middle of the Sisters W.N. W. Another in 
the same predicament had the East point of North Island N. by E., and the 
outermost Sister N. by W. \ W. to N.W, It is, therefore, advisable to give 
the Sisters a berth of 2 miles, where irregular soundings of 16, 12, and 8 
fathoms will be found. 

North Island, in lat. 5° 40^' S., long. 105° 50' W., is small, bushy, and a 
full mile distant from the coast of Sumatra. There is a small islet, called 
Sina, at its southern extremity ; and extending to the S.E. of it is a shoal of 
3 J fathoms water. The island therefore requires a berth of at least 1^ mile; 
its North and S.W. sides are steep-to. 

Lieut. Riddle, E.N.R., recommends North Island as a suitable stopping- 
place during the westerly monsoon. He anchored his vessel in 13 fathoms, 
with North Island bearing N. by E. 2 miles distant, and found a deep ship 
channel between the island and the main ; but a spit, steep-to, extends 100 
or 200 ft. from the N.W. end of the island. Between Sina Island and North 
Island is a narrow and deep channel, bounded on either side by coral reefs. 
The natives of North Island were friendly, and showed where the best 
water could be obtained : this was easily shipped, while at the same time at 
Anjer the surf was too violent to allow boats to come off with water. 

Between North Island and the Sisters the coast bends in a little, and is 
edged by a mud bank ; so that 2 miles from the shore will be found good 
soft ground for anchoring, in 8 to 12 fathoms, with North Island bearing 
N. by E. Small vessels will find good anchorage between the Sisters and 
the main, in 2 or 3 fathoms water. Abreast of the Sisters there is a fresh 
water spring, but Lieut. Kolff found its contents detrimental to the health of 
his crew, although it was clear, and free from any unpleasant taste. 

The Winds experienced in the Strait of Sunda have been briefly described 
on page 14. 

The Currents are also described on page 27. 

DIRECTIONS. — The brief instructions for passing along either coast of the 


strait, before given, will be sufficient for passing it with a fair wind. The 
following is for the return voyage. 

Working out of the Strait ix the North-west Monsoon. — The best 
way is to pass between the Zutphen Islands and the Stroom Eock, and give 
the Zutphen a berth of at least 1} or 1^ mile on their eastern side, and 
beat up by short tacks along the coast of Sumatra between them and Hog 
Point. Afterwards, passing either North or South of the Tega Islets, as the 
strong currents and hard squalls may allow, try to get westing in Lampong 
Bay, to the northward of Tims Island, and to pass between it and Soengal, 
or through Lagoendy Strait. In this manner a ship will make a quick pas- 
sage through the strait, if the wind be not too variable, besides having the 
advantage of anchoring behind Sebuko Island, or in Lampong Bay, it the 
currents or winds are too strong. 

There are, however on record many instances of vessels having beaten out 
of the strait along the coast of Java, during the western monsoon, with more 
ease and celerity than could have been effected by stretching into Lampong 
Bay, in consequence of the westerly current having at those times developed 
its chief strength along the former side of the strait. 

It has been generally supposed that the currents at both ends of Java are 
regulated by the monsoons ; but, according to Captain M. H. Jansen, of the 
Dutch Royal Navy, who has had great experience in the Indian Archipelago, 
it appears that most part of the year a westerly current sets out of Sunda 
Strait. It is much to be wished that this important element in Indian navi- 
gation should no longer be left a matter of doubtful opinion. 

Some remarks on this subject will be found on page 54. 



The EAST COAST of SUMATRA, between Sunda and Banka Straits, has 
never been regularly surveyed. The coast is generally low, and covered with 
wood to the water's edge, and does not therefore present much variation in 
aspect. It is fronted by some very extensive shoal banks, which in some 
places project 14 or 15 miles from the shore, but their exact boundaries are 

The Winds of the Java Sea are described on pages 14 — 16 ante. 

The Currents in the Java Sea are for the most part influenced by the pre- 
vailing monsoon. They incline to the northward or southwai'd, according to 
the influence of the currents of the straits of Sunda, Banka, and Gaspar ; 
for during the western monsoon they run to the eastward, or more southerly 
according to the set of these which come from the straits ; and in the eastern 
monsoon they run to the westward or more northerly from a similar cause. 
Through a succession of tides which were observed, chiefly during the 
eastern monsoon, it was found that those which followed the direction of the 
monsoon were stronger and of longer duration, so that a daily allowance 
from 8 to 12 miles may be made in the eastern monsoon, and from 20 to 24 
miles in the western monsoon. 

The COAST trends from abreast North Island with a slight curve inland, 
nearly North for 13 miles, to a point at which is the entrance of a small 
river named Nihonng. Two other rivers, the Sakampang and the Niale, also 
appear on the chart of this part of the coast. From the Nihoung Eiver, the 
coast line runs nearly straight, N. by W. for another 13 miles, where it 
forms a small bay, and from thence it assumes for a distance of 20 miles a 
rather irregular outline, in a general direction about N. by E. | E. to Tan- 
jong Supong. 

Mount Imbong, in lat. S'' 20^' S., generally described as, and sometimes 
named, Knoh Hill, is the most prominent hill on the coast near the Brothers, 


but the latter name tends to mislead. It is of low elevation, of ver^- gradual 
ascent, and clothed with trees. There is a hill to the N.W. of it, of hum- 
mock form. 

SHAHBUNDAR BANK and SHOALS.— Abreast of Mount Imbong and 
of Tanjong Supoug, the bank fronting the Sumatra shore projects about a 
mile only ; but between these points it stretches 10 miles in the direction of 
the Two Brothers ; the channel between the bank and those islands being 
about 6 or 7 miles wide. Upon the outer edge of the bank are several slioal 
patches, upon one of which the Dutch ship Shahhundar narrowly escaped 
destruction. As the depths decrease gradually towards this bank, the lead, 
if attended to, will indicate its proximity. 

From Tanjong Supong to a point l^ mile north-eastward of the river 
named Eali Saputi, the bearing is North a little easterly, and the distance 
13 miles, the coast between forming a bight 3| miles deep. From thence 
the coast line runs N. J W. for 11 miles, and then a little more westerly for 
11 miles further, to the large river Kali Tulang Bawang or Toelang. The 
hank, fronting the coast between Tanjong Supong and the entrance of 
the Kali Saputi, extends a little more than half a mile from the shore. The 
Kali Saputi, the mouth of which is in 4° 44' S., may be approached as near 
as 3 or 2 miles out. 

Tulang Bank. — Northward of the Kali Saputi, the extensive hard sand- 
bank of Tulang projects as far as 14 miles from the shore; but its South 
side, bending in to the northward, forms a kind of bay. 

Kali Tulang Bawang. — The mouth of this river, in 4° 21' S., may be closely 
approached. Near its entrance there is a small village ; and three days* 
journey up the river, according to the natives, is a town called Mmigala, 
where the Eajah resides. Pirates sometimes hide tliemselves there. 

The Coast from the Kali Tulang Bawang to Tree Island, 37 miles to the 
North, curves inland 3 or 4 miles, and about the middle of it is the mouth 
of the Eiver Masudyi. Tree Island is in about lat. 3° 41' S., and close to a 
point of land, to which it is joined at low water. From thence the coast 
curves round to a point N. by E., distant 17 miles; from which Lucipara 
Point, at the entrance of Banka Strait, bears about N.E. by N., distant 15 
miles, the coast between forming a bight 3 miles deep. 

Between the Toelang and the Mesudji Rivers the bank extends from the 
shore about 3 miles only, but a little northward of the latter it again projects 
to the distance of 14 or 15 miles; from thence it edges away towards the 
coast in a N. by W. direction to about 7 miles northward of Tree Island, 
where it approaches the shore within 3 miles; it then runs N.E. for 16 or 
17 miles, where its edge is 11 miles distant from the land; here it falls back 
again towards the coast, and takes a northerly direction to Lucipara Point, 
from which it projects but 2 miles. On this bank between the Mesudji 


Eivpr and Lucipara Point, are many dangerous, and occasionally dry 

Some of the dangers supposed to exist between the Thousand Islands 
and the Sumatra shore, known as the Dolphin, Antelope, Banterer, and 
Paulowna, were searched for in vain by Com^mander C. Bullock in H.M.S. 
Serpent (1865), and expunged from the chart. The position of the Lynn 
Bank, as well as that of the Coventry Reef, both of which uncover at 
low water, were accurately determined. The positions of several other 
dangers in this route were also rectified, but as no complete survey has 
been made, vessels navigating this locality are recommended to proceed with 

Jason Rock, searched for in vain by Commander Buckle in 1865, was 
found about 2 miles out from its original position in 1870 by the master of 
the English ship Tewkeslury. It is described as 40 ft. in diameter, with 13 ft. 
least water and 10 fathoms around it. The Netherlands Gruvernment steamer 
Borneo afterwards examined it, giving the following bearings : — North 
Watcher, N. 40° E. ; Pulo Doea, S. 89° E. ; and W. Island or Pulo Pablo- 
kan, S. 62° E. 

Helens Rock. — The barque Helens, Captain Inkster, on a voyage from 
Bangkok to Melbourne, struck on a rock 6 miles E.N.E. of the position 
assigned to Jasan Rock. The lead was immediately hove, and got 5-^- fathoms 
in starboard gangway, and suddenly deepened to 10 and 15 fathoms. The 
bearing of several islands were as follows : — North Watcher, N. bv E. | E. ; 
West end of North Island, just open to the westward of Doea Island ; Ran- 
gat, S.E. by S. ; Peblakan, S. ^ E. 

WEST ISLAND, or Pulo Peblaken, in lat. 5°28J'S., long. 106° 23' E., is a 
quarter of a mile in length, and low, but the trees on it may be seen 13 or 
14 miles from a vessel's deck. It is steep-to on all sides at half a cable dis- 
tant, except round its N.E. sandy point, off which a coral reef extends a 
quarter of a mile. 

COVENTRY REEF, of coral, dries at low water, and was seen always to 
break in the calmest weather. The shoalest part is S.S.W. 1 mile from 
West Island, and is about a cable in extent, but it appearpd to shelve off to 
the S.W. for a quarter of a mile, which would agree with the account given 
at the time of its discovery by the Caroline Coventry, in 1858. It is probably 
the same as that stated to have been seen by the Anna Paidoivna. Pulo 
Doea kept open West of West Island will clear it to the westward ; and 
Pulo Gosong Rangat in line with any part of North Island will clear it to 
the eastward. 

NORTH ISLAND and PULO DOEA, the two north-westernmost of the 
Thousand Islands, stand out very conspicuously from the group. They lie 
respectively N.E. by E. \ E. 6 J miles, and N.E. i E. 6 miles from West 
If-land. In the channel 1 mile wide between them, Mr. Roes, proprietor 


of the Keeling Islands, reported a detached reef, which was seen breaking 
from the mast-head of the Serpent. It lies nearer to North Island. 

The NORTH WATCHER and LIGHTHOUSE.— The North Watcher js 
a narrow island, half a mile in length, the N.E. part covered with high 
trees, the S.W. part with low trees, visible in clear weather 18 or 20 miles 
off. A coral reef, with only 6 ft. water in some places, stretches about 
half a mile round the South end of the island, with a rock in one place above 

The ligJithouse on the North Watcher is a white iron tower, in lat. 5° 13' 30" 
North, lono-. 106° 26' 30" East. The light, first exhibited in June, 1869, is 
a bright light, revolving once in every minute, elevated 159 ft., and visible 
20 miles off. 

The wreck of the War Eagle was reported in the last edition of this work 
to lie S.W. by W. 5 miles from the S.W. point of the North Watcher, in 
12 fathoms, mud bottom, her topmast heads showing above water. A blue 
flag was placed on the main topgallant mast-head. She is alleged to have 
struck on a reef 2 miles to the N.W. of the North Watcher, for which a 
Netherlands vessel was sent to search. 

OMEGA ROCK, on which the American ship Omega struck in 1835, lies 
about E. by S., distant three-quarters of a mile from the North Watcher. 
According to her captain, it is composed of coral, about 150 to 200 yards in 
extent, N.N.E. and S.S.W., and about 60 or 70 yards broad, is steep-to, and 
has not more than 9 to 12 ft. on the shoalest parts. It should be given a 
wide berth by a vessel passing eastward of the North Watcher, from which 
it is separated by a narrovC channel with 11 and 12 fathoms water. 

EDELING SHOALS.— Between Pulo Doea and West Island lie some 
patches of rocky ground, named the Edeling Shoals, to avoid which it is 
recommended that vessels of heavy draught should not pass eastward of a 
line joining the two islands, unless South of Pulo Gosong Eangat, the 
small island surrounded by a sand beach, which lies 2f miles E.N.E. of 
West Island. 

These shoals consist of two coral patches East and West of each other, and 
half a mile apart. On the eastern shoal there may be as little as 3 fathoms 
at low water; on the western, 4J fathoms. They lie directly between Pulo 
Doea and Eangat ; from the latter they bear N.E. f N., and N.N.E. i E. 1 J 
and I5 mile respectively. There were found two other patches of 9 fathoms, 
and so many indications of sandstone bottom, that vessels should appi'oach 
this vicinity with caution. 

E. ^ N. from the South point of Peblakan or West Island, distant about 
3^ miles, is a reef of coral and stone ; this reef extends about 1 cable North 
and South, and 2^ cables East and West. There is about 4 ft. water over 
the shoalest part, and from 4 to 5 fathoms around the reef; from it the ex- 
tremes of Kangat Island bore N.W. \ N. and N.W. by N. respectively. 


A reef also, on which the sea breaks heavily, extends a distance of about 
2 cables (by estimation) from the North and N.E. sides of Rangat Island. 

The TWO BROTHERS are low islands, which together extend 1 mile in 
a N. I E. direction. The North Brother is small and round, with high trees ; 
the South Brother is 4 cables long, and two of its trees are very high and 
conspicuous, and may be seen in clear weather 20 to 23 miles off. Broad 
coral reefs surround the South Brother ; round the North Island they are 
narrower. There is a passage between the islands 2 cables wide, carrying 7 
to 5 fathoms over an apparently regular bottom. To the East of the islands 
is good anchorage in 9 to 10 fathoms. The South point of the South Brother 
is in lat. 5° 10' 25" S., long. 106° 6' E.* 

SWALLOW ROCK.— In April, 1866, Mr. Wilds, Master Commanding 
H.M. surveying vessel Swallow, succeeded in finding the rock marked ou 
former charts at about 8 miles S.S.W. of the Brothers. Its position is in 
lat. 5° 17' 40" S., long. 106° 3' 50" E., the South Brother bearing N. 17° E. 
(true), distant 7f miles. There are only 22 ft. water on the rock, and vessels 
of heavy draught should be careful to give it a wide berth, as there was 
neither ripple, break, or swell over it to indicate its position. At half a mile 
S. by W. i W. from the rock, soundings in 5 fathoms were obtained on a 
small patch of sand and shells, with 9 fathoms between it and the rock. The 
depths around the rock and patch were 9 to 10 fathoms, sand. 

LYNN BANK is composed of coral, a cable's length in extent, N.N.E. and 
S.S.W., and half a cable in breadth, carrying general depths over it of 3 to 

* Doubtful Dangers. — The dangers said to lie in the track of vessels sailing direct 
between Sunda Strait and the North Watcher were searched for by the Serpent during 
several days. The hand and deep-sea leads were kept constantly going, and the sharp- 
ness of the mast-head man's eyesight was stimulated by the ofler of a reward for their 

A short time was also devoted to the Antelope and other shoals, reported to lie South 
and S.S.W of the Brothers, but nothing was seen of them. A 9-fathom bank of fine 
speckled sand was found 2\ to Z\ miles S. \ E. of the South Brother. This bank, which 
showed of a pale green colour, visible 2 miles, would prove at times a convenient an- 
chorage ; the Brothers just touching lead over the shoalest part. There are not more than 
10 fathoms between this and the Brothers. 

The Dolphin Kock, on which the ship Dolphin was said to have been aground, was 
searched for by the Serpent during part of two days. It was described as nearly even 
with the water's edge, and to lie about 6 miles S.S.E. from the South end of the Two 
Brothers, but it does not appear ever to have been seen by any other vessel. The distance 
from the Brothers is precisely that of the Lynn Bank, and a change in the bearing from 
S.S.E. to E.S.E. (such an error being not an uncommon one), would make it the Lynn. If 
it were not for some indication of sandstone bottom, no credibility need be attached to the 
statement which records its existence. 

Pruisen Bank, sometimes placed in lat. 5' 17' S., long. 107° 9' E., does not exist, nor does 
there appear to be any authority whatever to place it in that position. 

1. A. 2 B 


4 feet, with some rocks that dry at low water. There are 8 fathoms close to 
the rock, deepening to 13 and 14 fathoms at a cable's distance. It is in 
lat. 5° 12' S., long. 106° 12' E., and from it the North extreme of the North 
Brother bears N. 68° W. 6§ miles, and the South extreme of the South 
Brother, N. 77° W. 

These extremes of the islands subtend an angle of 9 degrees ; if, therefore, 
they be made, whilst passing on (or within a point or more of) the above 
bearings, to subtend an angle of 8°, a vessel will pass about a mile outside 
the bank ; and if an angle of 10°, half a mile inside it. In calm weather the 
shoal, from its dark colour, is extremely difficult to see until close upon it ; 
the above method as a safeguard will then be invaluable, and may be used 
with confidence. A sharp lookout should always be kept, as the shoal may 
only be detected by a slight ripple. At night it is recommended to close the 
Brothers and pass them at 1 to 2 miles. 

BROTJWERS REEFS are two dangerous coral shoals, separated about 
half a mile from each other, with a dry patch of sand and coral upon each. 
They are together a mile in extent, and a quarter of a mile in breadth, with 
depths of 4f to 15 fathoms in the swatch between them. Hard ground 
stretches out from their North and South ends ; at a short distance to the 
eastward and westward the bottom is soft, and the depths 1^ mile eastward 
are generally H|^ and 15 fathoms, regular soundings. 

The Serpent anchored near the N.E. part of these reefs. No astronomical 
observations were obtained, but the position of the North reef, by careful 
magnetic bearings, was made to be in lat. 5° 4f' S., long. 106° 15' E., the 
North Brother bearing S. 60° W., distant 10 miles, and the North Watcher 
S. 58° E., 15 miles. This is rather nearer the Brothers than the commonly 
received position. 

A vessel passing eastward of the Brouwers and Lynn Eeefs should keep 
nearer to the North Watcher than to the Two Brothers. The high moun- 
tain seen to the southward is Mount Karang, South of Anjer, and in lat. 
6° 15' S., but from the above reef and islands the round hill over St. Nicho- 
las Point is more often visible, and is a good landmark. The latter is named 
Mount Agoeng on some charts, but is called by the Dutch Gedeh, and its 
height is 2,100 ft. 

Clifton Shoal. — The ship Clifton, of Bristol, is reported to have grounded, 
in November, 1850, on a shoal with 2 J fathoms on it, lying N. J W., 10^ 
miles from the Brothers. It is now marked on the Dutch charts with 1 8 ft. 
and 24 to 27 ft. to seaward, about 9 miles to the eastward of Cape Scopong 
or Supong, in lat. 4" 56' S., long. 106° 3' E. 

Comara, a shoal danger of doubtful existence, with 7 fathoms close-to, 
placed on the Dutch Government charts about 9 leagues to the N.W. of the 
North Watcher, and 7 leagues from the coast of Sumatra, in lat. 4° 49' 30" 
South, long. 106° 14' 30" East. 


Ocean Mail, marked on the Dutch Grovernment charts with 18 ft. and 7 
and 8 fathoms all round, is situated 11 leagues to the eastward of the 
Toelang River, in lat. 4° 18' S., long. 106° 26' E. 

A patch of hard ground, about 2 miles in extent, having but 4^ fathoms 
least water over it, appears on the chart in lat. 4° 11' S., long. 106° 8' E. The 
soundings around it are irregular, 6 to 1 1 fathoms on the East side, and 6 to 
9 on the West. 

Arend Bank, in lat. 3° 45' S., long. 106° 16' E., is 2 miles in length, and 
the same in breadth, consisting of fine gray sand and broken shells. It has 
4^ to 6 fathoms water over it, and is surrounded by a depth of 6 fathoms, 
which rapidly increases, over a soft bottom. 

Boreas Bank lies E. by N. 11^ miles distant from the Arend Bank, in 
lat. 3° 44' S., long. 106° 27^' E. It is also composed of a fine gray sand, and 
the least water upon it is 5 fathoms. Around it the depth increases rapidly 
to 10 and 13 fathoms, except on the N.W. side, where the soundings are 
regular for some time with 5 and 6 fathoms. Between the Arend and Boreas 
Banks there are irregular depths of 8 to 14 fathoms. 

City of Carlisle Patch. — A ship of this name, in 1861, reported a patch 
of 16 ft. to exist in lat. 3° 46' S., long. 106° 20' E., or S.W. by W. * W., 3^ 
miles from the Boreas Bank. Its North end is now marked on the charts 
in lat. 3° 27' S., long. 106° 24^' E., whence the bank extends 2^ miles to the 
S.E., with 5 and 4 J fathoms. 

Caution. — Vessels in this neighbourhood unexpectedly shoaling their 
water at night ought to be very careful, for many that considered themselves 
to be upon these banks were in fact upon those off the coast of Sumatra, near 
Tree Island, and consequently in great danger. These two banks consist of 
fine gray sand, while those near Tree Island are of coarse sand with gravel. 

The depths in that part of the sea which lies between the North Watcher, 
Two Brothers, and Lucipara, are, except the banks of Comara, Ocean Mail, 
Arend and Boreas, tolerably regular from 10 to 16 fathoms; but nearer to 
Sumatra, about 22 or 24 miles from the coast, they become irregular, chang- 
ing often, and suddenly, from 10 to 5 and 6 fathoms. Towards Lucipara, in 
the usual track towards Banka Strait, the water shoals gradually to 6 and 
4 A fathoms. 


General Description. — The Strait of Banka separates the islands of Banka 
and Sumatra, and trends with many bondings to the north-westward. 

In the ensuing account of it we have followed entirely that given in the 
China Sea Pilot, as the features of this important passage have been carefully 
and recently surveyed by our officers. 


The coast of Sumatra is very low, densely covered with wood, and offers 
no other variation than a few points, or rather roundings, which are only 
clearly distinct at short distances, and are easily mistaken for the so-called 
false points, which are observed immediately after rounding the real points. 
The shore being inundated at high flood, the distance from it is generally 
over estimated. 

The Island of Banka is covered with hills and mountains, varying from 
930 to 2,320 ft. in height ; and it is remarkable that, notwithstanding their 
comparatively small heiglit, their summits are generally covered with clouds, 
whifh accounts for the erroneous heights given to these hills by various 
authors, who have estimated them at upwards of 9,000 ft. 

On the Banka Coast are prominent points, sandy beaches, and in some 
places deep bights, as on the Sumatra side ; as a rule, wherever sand occurs 
casuarina trees will be found ; the other trees are principally pine, teak, and 
aspen. Near the western point of Banka stands the capital of the colony 
(or residency) of that name, called Mintok, and its roadstead is much visited 
by the coasters that supply the Chinese miners with rice. 

The whole coast of Sumatra is bordered by a mud flat, which is narrower 
off the points, but in some of the bights from 2 to 4 miles wide. Towards 
the Banka side the bottom becomes gradually harder, and even rocky. 
Besides the few small islets and rocks in this strait, there are the group of 
Nangka Islands, where vessels sometimes proceed to procure fresh water 
and wood. Many rivers discharge themselves into the strait, of which the 
principal are the Soensang and the Assing, both navigable to a great distance 
for vessels of heavy burden. 

The entrance to Banka Strait is encumbered with numerous long and 
narrow banks of sand, having various depths of water over them, and deep 
channels between. Only two of these channels, however, are available for 
the ordinary purposes of navigation, as it is not possible to give any direc- 
tions which would enable vessels to use the others with safety ; but in the 
event of a vessel from accident or other cause finding herself amongst the 
banks, she would be enabled, by careful attention to the Admiralty Chart, to 
extricate herself without much difficulty.* 

Until the survey of this strait by Mr. "W. Stanton, assisted by Mr. J. W. 
Eeed, Masters E.N., in H.M.S. Saracen, during the years 1859 and 1860, 

* Caution — Buoys and Beacons. — The Captain of the French transport La Correze reports, 
in 1873, several of the beacons and buoys in Banka Strait as out of position, while others 
have disappeared. Captain F. G. Petersen, also, in a letter to the " Nautical Magazine " of 
February, 1875, says — " In the Admiralty charts are mentioned a lot of beacons and buoys, 
■which can never be seen in reality. I saw only one buoy in the whole strait on the 
Fredrik Hendriks Rock. In the same charts are many conspicuous trees mentioned, which 
are all or most of them gone. On the points of Sumatra should be some beacons and fishing 
stakes, but anything of them was not to be seen. 


very little was known of the banks at its entrance. The Dutch had published 
a chart compiled from the observations of the officers of the Dutch men-of- 
war employed at various times on the station, which furnished a pretty cor- 
rect outline of the coasts on both sides the strait, and showed the positions 
of the prominent dangers in the fairway, but the soundings on it were very 
imperfect, and the space eastward of Lucipara, occupied by the numerous 
long narrow sandbanks above referred to, was almost a blank. 

The ordinary route of vessels up to the time of the Sara<:en\ survey, was 
through the Lucipara Channel, between the Island of Lucipara and the Coast 
of Sumatra ; but the advantages which a navigable channel along the coast 
of Banka Island would offer to vessels passing through Banka Strait had 
been long felt by seamen, and Melvill Van Carnbee, in the Java Guide, re- 
marks upon this want as follows : — 

" The passage between Lucipara and Banka would have great advantages 
in entering or leaving the Strait of Banka, were it not encumbered so much 
with shoals and banks, the positions of which are not known correctly, and 
which render this passage unsafe, at least for large vessels, although Com- 
modore Watson took the Revenge by night to the eastward of Lucipara, into 
the Strait of Banka, and had not less than b^ fathoms water. For vessels 
of light burden and beating up against the western monsoon, this eastern 
channel into the strait is very desirable, as it is almost impossible to make 
any progress against the strong and continual currents in the Lucipara 

During the Saracenh survey, an excellent passage, now named Stanton 
Channel, nearly 5 miles wide in its narrowest pai't, and with depths varying 
from 7 to 20 fathoms, was found between Lucipara and Banka. Mr. Stanton 
gives the following reasons for preferring this channel to the old one between 
Lucipara and Sumatra. 

" The Stanton Channel will be found to possess many advantages over 
that of Lucipara, for it is a mile wider, the approaches to it are marked by 
well-defined hills on Bmka Island, and a vessel of the largest draught may 
pass through it at any time of tide ; whereas vessels frequently get on shore 
in using the latter channel, for the coast of Sumatra, consisting of low muddy 
mangrove shores about 50 or 60 ft. in height, is unmarked by a single con- 
spicuous object to assist the seaman to clear the mud flat bordering its entire 
length, and which a few miles southward of Lucipara Point extends 1 1 miles 
from the land. The island of Lucipara also is small, about half a mile in 
length, and no marks can be given to avoid the rocks extending a consider- 
able distance to the southward and eastward of it. 

" The water also in the Stanton Channel being much deeper than in the 
Lucipara, causes the banks, which are mostly of sand, to be easily recog- 
nized by the light colour of the water on them. The tide also ebbs and flows 
more regularly in this channel, and sets directly through it, which enables 


vessels even in calms to drop through ; whereas in light winds and calms they 
are often set over amongst the dangerous banks whilst rounding First Point 
in endeavouring to get through the Lucipara Channel. 

•* The wind in the N.W. monsoon blows off the Banka coast, and through- 
out the year land breezes generally occur during the night. A strong land 
wind from the N.E. has been experienced in the Stanton Channel during the 
S.E. monsoon, when the wind was blowing directly through the Lucipara 
from the S.W. 

" There is also but little variation in the depth of water between th© 
Sumatra coast and the Lucipara shoals; and it is stated that during the 
months of January, February, and March, when the N.W. monsoon is at its 
full strength, the southern current continues from 14 to 18 hours successively, 
with a velocity of 2 to 2 J knots, which would make it almost impossible for 
an indifferent sailer to make any progress against it. It is also said that 
during the latter part of the S.E. monsoon, it frequently blows hard from 
the S.W., accompanied with much rain ; this would considerably retard 
vessels going to the southward through the Lucipara Channel, and offer a 
fair wind to those proceeding through the Stanton Channel. 

TIDES and CURRENTS. — The tides in Banka Strait are strong, but irre- 
gular, and are greatly influenced by the monsoons. The flood-tide, entering 
the strait from the southward out of the sea of Java, meets another flood, 
about the Nangka Islands, coming from the northward out of the China 
Sea. The direction of the streams is entirely influenced by the windings 
of the strait, forming, at their meeting, whirls and eddies in the bights of 
the land. 

In the Lucipara Channel and the southern parts of the strait, sometimes 
there are two, but generally only one 6bb and flood in the 24 hours, the 
former running to the southward and the latter running to the northward. 
During the months of January, February, and March, at the greatest 
strength of the N.W. monsoon, the southern current continues often from 14 
to 18 hours successively, with a velocity of from 2 to 3 J knots ; the flood-tide 
is then very trifling, and sometimes not at all perceptible. On the contrary, 
during the S.E. monsoon, the stream of flood runs sometimes 14 to 18 hours 
with great velocity into the strait, and the ebb runs out during the other 10 
or 8 hours with but little strength. 

In the northern parts of the strait during the N.W. monsoon the southern 
current or flood remains longer and is stronger than the ebb, and the reverse 
during the eastern monsoon. The velocity of the tide is sometimes 2 or 2^ 
knots, and the range from 7 to 12 ft., and sometimes more; and in the 
mouth of the rivers the water during the western monsoon, from the heavy 
rains which prevail at that period, is much higher than during the eastern 

Between the monsoons flood and ebb succeed each other generally every 


1 2 hours, and the one or the other is then stronger, according to the -wind 
being northward or southward. The rise of an ordinary tide is 5 to 7 ft., 
and a spring tide 9 to 10 ft., and sometimes 12 ft.; but the average rise 
seems to be much, greater during the eastern monsoon than during the 
western one. 

Mr. Stanton observes, that on the Sumatra shore, when the monsoon is 
blowing strong, a constant surface current will be found setting to leeward, 
and extending nearly mid-channel, except between Fourth and Batakarang 
Points, where it is influenced by the numerous branches of the Palembang 

On the coast of Banka, owing to the formation of the land, more regular 
tides will be found ; therefore, ships in working should only keep on the 
Sumatra side between Batakarang and Fourth Points, and when Tanjong 
Tadah bears N.E. f N., work along the Banka coast, as by so doing, and 
leaving either extremity of the strait at low water, they may carry a fair 
tide all the way through, and generally have the advantage of a land wind 
at night. 

Throughout the strait, a difference of 12 hours in the tides was observed 
in the opposite monsoon. It is high water, full and change, in the S.E. 
monsoon about 8^ 30" p.m., but in the N.W. monsoon high water takes 
place at nearly the same time in the morning. 

Eddies in the Bights. — When beating through the middle of the strait 
during the strength of the monsoons, continuous and contrary currents are 
certain, and the skilful seaman will therefore find great advantage in avail- 
ing himself of the eddies, as well as of the more regular changes of tide, by 
standing into the bights and bays in those parts of the strait where he can 
safely approach the land. 

Inshore Tides. — In the Toboe AH Channel, also in the bay North of the 
Nangka Islands, and in the passage between Brom-Brom Eeef and Banka, 
we meet, even in the western monsoon, a pretty regular succession in the 
roadstead tides. It has been often observed, when passing the road of 
Mintok, that the vessels were lying with their heads in a contrary direction 
to those at anchor upon the bank outside. In that road the flood comes 
from the westward, and the ebb from the eastward ; but near the mouth of 
the Assing Eiver the contrary occurs ; the flood there runs West, and the 
ebb East. In the bays between Eerste and Tweede Points, and again be- 
tween Derde and Vierde Points, there are probably eddies of which vessels 
of light burden may make use, and heavier vessels may no doubt, in many 
places, run close enough to the shore to keep out of the influence of the 

Freshes. — Between Bata-karang and Fourth Points the ordinary current 
in Banka Strait, after heavy rains, is considerably accelerated and diverted 
in the direction of Kalian Point, until it nearly reaches mid-channel, by 


the freshes from the many rivers in this vicinity. Vessels sometimes take 
advantage of this to complete water, as it is frequently quite fresh on the 


During the westerly monsoon, which is the rainy season, these freshes set 
out of the rivers on the Sumatra coast with great force, and they require to 
be carefully guarded against in the night. Upon one occasion, when H.M.S. 
Saracen was at anchor near Lalarie Point, her decked pinnace, moored at 
the boom, was fairly pressed under the water and swamped by the force of 
the current. 

LUCIPARA ISLAND, half a mile long, W.N.W. and E.S.E., and a 
quarter of a mile broad, lies at the southern entrance of Banka Strait, 9 
miles East of Lucipara Point, in lat. 3° 13' S., long. 106° 13' E., and is 
visible in clear weather at 14 or 15 miles. It is surrounded by a reef, which 
from its S.E. end extends rather more than 1^ mile ; and around this reef is 
a bank, with 2^ and 3 fathoms over it, extending about 1^ mile to the north- 
westward from the island, and 2 miles to the south-eastward of it. 

Formerly, the trees on the S.E. end of the island rose to a sort of peak 164 
feet high, but all the trees on this peak have been cut down (1875). 

Rocky Patches. — Lucipara should not be approached on its S.E. side 
nearer than 3i miles, for a rocky patch with 2^ fathoms water over it lies 
S.E. by E. i E., distant nearly 2 J miles from the island; and a mile to the 
westward of this patch is another of 2f fathoms. 

LUCIPARA POINT, which forms the south-western limit of Banka Strait, 
is in lat. 3° 13^' S., long. 106° 3' E. It is covered with trees, the tops of the 
highest being 89 ft. above the level of the sea. 

The COAST between Lucipara and First Points is formed of mangrove 
jungle, and was found in the survey of 1859 to extend considerably more 
eastward than shown in the Dutch chart. This extension has evidently 
taken place since their survey in 1818, and it may be attributed to the sedi- 
ment from the numerous small rivers in that vicinity affording more soil for 
the growth of the prolific mangrove. The contour of the dry mud was ob- 
tained and sounded close-to at the springs, and it will be a guide to show any 
further extension. 

Green Point, so called from the trees on it being of a lighter and brighter 
green than elsewhere, bears N. ^ W., distant 9 miles from Lucipara Point, 
the coast between forming a bight about 1|^ mile deep. Between these points 
is a ridge of high trees standing about 1^ mile back from the coast line, with 
a conspicuous tree, 153 ft. high, near their centre. 

EERSTE, or Pirst Point, bears N. J W., distant 4^ miles from Green 


Point, the coast between fornaing a bight. The trees on it are of equal 
height, 60 ft., and present a level appearance. 

Mud Bank. — From the southward the coast line approaches Lucipara 
Point in a north-easterly direction ; but the 3-fathoms line, which may be 
considered the edge of the mud-bank which fronts the whole coast of Suma- 
tra, from a distance of 10 or 12 miles southward of the point, approaches it 
nearly straight in a N. by W. direction, and passing Lucipara Point about 2 
miles off, follows, with a slight curve in towards the coast, the same general 
direction until abreast of Green Point, from which, it extends a little over a 
mile ; it then takes a direction a little more westerly until abreast of the 
South part of First Point, from which it is distant three-quarters of a mile. 
In rounding First Point, the bank approaches nearer to it, and on its N.E. 
side projects only about a quarter of a mile from the shore. 

From 10 or 11 miles to the southward of Lucipara Point, to within 2 miles 
of Grreen Point, the soundings decrease regularly towards the bank ; but 
just to the southward of, and fronting Green Point, the water shoals sud- 
denly from 6 to 3 fathoms ; and, therefore, this part of the flat should never 
be approached into less water than 7 fathoms. Near First Point the bank 
is also steep-to, especially on the N.E. side, and should not be approached 
under 12 or 10 fathoms, those depths extending to the distance of 1 to 1^ 
mile off the point. 

The COAST from First Point takes a N.W. by W. f W. direction for 6f 
miles to False First Point, having a small bight or indentation between, at 
about two-thirds of that distance from First Point. From False First Point 
it falls back S.W. by W., about 3 miles, and then forming a deep bay, 
gradually curves round to a slight point (False Tweede Point of the Dutch), 
from whence it runs pretty straight about N. J W. for 7 miles to Tweede or 
Second Point. 

VALSCHE EERST, or False First Point.— The trees upon this point are 
more elevated than those on First Point, being 105 ft. high. Lalarie Point, 
on the Banka side, bears from it N. ^ W. nearly 7^ miles, and Second Point 
N.W. i N. 18^ miles. 

The mud-bank projects two-thirds of a mile from False First Point, and 
more than 3 miles from the shore in the depth of the bay between that point 
and Second Point. The bank is very steep close-to, and should not be ap- 
proached under a depth of 12 fathoms near the points, nor under 10 fdthoms 
in the bight between them. 

TWEEDE, or Second Point, the trees on which are 81 ft. high, bears 
from First Point N.W. i N. 21^ miles, and from Lalarie Point N.W. | W. 
13 miles. From this point the coast falls back, and curves round until 
within 5 miles of Third Point, forming a bay about 5 miles deep ; it then 
runs nearly straight to Third Point. 

I. ▲. So 


The mud-bank extends about two-thirds of a mile from Second Point, and 
being very steep-to should not be neared under a depth of 12 fathoms. 
Between Second and Third Points it runs very nearly straight from point to 
point, filling up the bay. The soundings here do not, as a general rule, 
shoal so suddenly as they have been described to do between the other 
points, but at 2 or 3 miles South of Third Point the bank curves out consi- 
derably, and is dangerous to strangers, particularly when coming from the 
northward, as they are likely to infer that the bank falls back in the direction 
of the land. The depths, too, here again begin to shoal suddenly, adding to 
the danger, so that it is necessary to exercise caution and give a good berth 
to this part of the bank. 

A Spit or Horn extends 1^ mile from the above mud flat, and then in a 
south-easterly direction for 2 miles, with depths from 2J to 3 fathoms, mud, 
on it, and from 4 to 5 fathoms between it and the flat ; from its northern 
extreme Second Point bears S.S.E. 8 miles, and Parmassang Peak E. by S. 
12^ miles ; therefore in passing this spit. Second Point should not be brought 
eastward of S. by E. f E. until Parmassang Peak bears E.S.E. 

Doubtful Patch. — There is said to be as little as 4 fathoms over muddy 
bottom, with Little Nangka Island bearing North, and the middle of Par- 
massang Hill East. 

DERDE, or Third Point, bearing N.N.W. f W. 20J miles from Second 
Point, is 78 ft. high, and has on its North side a square beacon, with a white 
top and ball. From this point the coast runs back about W.S.W. for 2 
miles to the entrance of a small river, named Songi Kisoegean, which, from 
native information, is said to connect with a branch of the Palembang River ; 
from thence it curves round in a West and W.N.W. direction for 4 or 5 
miles, and then assumes a tolerably straight outline until within 3 or 4 miles 
of Fourth Point, which it approaches in a N.W. by W. ^ W. direction. 

The mud-bank does not extend more than half a mile off Third Point, 
but is very steep-to, and should not be approached under three-quarters 
of a mile, or in less than 15 to 13 fathoms water. Between Third and 
Fourth Points the bank runs pretty nearly straight, the edge of it being 
distant from 1 to H J^il© ivovtx the shore, except in front of the bight just to 
the westward of Third Point, where it is 2 miles distant from the shore. 

The soundings between Third and Fourth Points are irregular, but vessels 
may, with careful attention to the lead, stand towards the mud-bank into 7 
or 6 fathoms, until nearly abreast of Fourth Point, where the bank gets 
steeper, having 10 fathoms close-to, and only 8 fathoms a little further off. 

Four-and-Three-quarters Fathoms Bank. — A mud-bank, about 2 miles in 
length, and three-quarters of a mile in breadth, and having 4| fathoms water 
over it, lies between Third and Fourth Points, about two-thirds of the dis- 
tance from the former, and nearly 3 miles from the shore ; between this bank 


and the edge of the mud flat extending from the shore, is a channel about 
three-quarters of a mile broad, with 7 to 9 fathoms water in it. 

VIERDE, or Fourth Point, bears from Third Point W. J N. distant 23i 
miles. The trees upon it are 112 ft. high; and a square beacon, with white 
top and ball, stands, or used to stand, at the edge of the mangrove. 

The coast from Fourth Point stretches westward for 22 or 23 miles, and 
in this space the different branches of the Palembang River fall into the 

Banks off Fourth Point. — A bank of sand and shells, having 4f to 6 fa- 
thoms water over it, lies 4 miles off Fourth Point. It is 3 miles long 
W.N.W. and E.S.E., about 1:^ mile broad, and from its western extreme the 
beacon on Fourth Point bears S. by W. I W. 3 miles, and from its eastern 
extreme the beacon bears S.W. by W. | W. 4 miles. Between it and the 
mud-bank extending from the shore are from 7 to 9 fathoms. 

Another patch, about a mile in extent, and having 6 fathoms water over 
it, lies nearly 2 miles north-eastward of the last-mentioned bank, with the 
beacon on Fourth Point bearing S.W. J S. 6J miles, and the dry rocks on 
the Brom-Brom Reef N.E. by N. 3 miles. 

Between these banks the depths are from 8 to 14 fathoms. 

The Mud Bank from Fourth Point takes a W.N.W. direction for 18 miles, 
where it trends away near South, forming one side of the entrance to the 
Soengsang River ; a spit projecting from the land forms the other side of the 
entrance to that river, as also the S.E. side of the entrance to the River 

Caution. — This bank, for 6 miles westward of Fourth Point, is composed 
of hard sand, covered with a thin stratum of soft mud, and is exceedingly 
dangerous, being steep-to, and many ships, including H.M.Ss. Himalaya and 
Assistance, have grounded upon it. The lead cannot at all be relied upon 
for giving warning in time to avoid it, for 1 1 fathoms may be had, and the 
ship be aground the next instant. The safest plan is not to pass the beacon 
on Fourth Point within 3 miles, and having passed it not to bring it to the 
eastward of S.E. ^ S. until Monopin Hill bears North. 

From 10 to 12 fathoms will be obtained very close to this steep bank, out- 
side of which is a long strip of 8 and 9 fathoms ; outside of this strip are 10 
to 13 fathoms, so that it is not at all possible for a vessel to discover her 
position by the lead only. The soundings, however, become more regular 
off the mouths of the Palembang Rivers, and towards and abreast Bataka- 
rang Point the lead will in those localities, if properly attended to, enable a 
vessel to proceed with ease and safety, as the soundings decrease regularly 
towards the shore. 

Great care, however, is requisite in navigating this part of the strait 
during the rainy season, for large drifts are then brought down these rivers 
by the freshes, which set strong over to the West end of Banka ; and as the 


flood runs strong into them on the springs, a vessel may be driven too near 
either shore, both sides of which are fronted by dangers. 

SUMATRA EIVERS. — To the westward of Fourth Point are the entrances 
of the Elvers Saleh and Oepan, then the Soensang, and lastly the Assing ; 
the last two are navigable for vessels of light draught as far as Palembang. 

SOENGSANG or PALEMBANG RIVER.— Mr. Stanton has furnished the 
following account of this river and town: — Since the survey of the N.W. 
part of Banka Strait in 1860, a deeper and more direct entrance to the main 
channel of this river has been formed, carrying 9 ft. at low, or 22 ft. at high 
water springs. 

This new entrance is marked with beacon poles, similar to those in the old 
passage, but as, on account of the many floating trees and strong freshes, 
they will probably not remain long in their position, a vessel of large 
draught may safely enter at high water by bringing the trees forming the 
West point of the river entrance S. by W. f W., and running for them on 
that bearing until Pulo Payong (Umbrella Island) bears South ; then steer 
for the island, but take care in approaching it to keep close to the eastern 
bank of the river, to avoid the spit extending 2 miles off its North end. 
If a pilot is required, one may be obtained at Kampong Soengsang, the 
small village on the left bank, but there is no channel available for ships ou 
the West side of Payong. 

This branch of the Soengsang at its entrance is upwards of a mile wide, 
but within, the navigable channel is contracted in some places to the width 
of a cable's length by the different islands and banks, until close up to the 
town of Palembang, when the river widens to three-quarters of a mile with 
6 and 6 fathoms close to the shore. 

Vessels can navigate the whole length of the river up to the town by keep- 
ing close to the right bank ; but those of large draught are recommended, 
when passing Pulo Singris and the bank off Kampong Maya, to keep near 
the opposite shore. Both sides of the river are wooded, and on nearly all 
the isolated banks there are small trees, and on others fishing slakes, conse- 
quently there will not be much difficulty in avoiding them. 

PALEMBANG, one of the largest Malay towns in the Archipelago, and 
the largest in Sumatra, derives its name from the many bridges across the 
numerous creeks that intersect it. A Dutch resident and other officials 
reside here, and to support their authority there is a military force, con- 
sisting of one European and two native companies. The total number of 
Europeans in the town is 109, and by the last census the native population. 
consisted of 45,000 Malays, 4,000 Chinese, and 1,000 Arabs. The climate in 
the vicinity is considered so salubrious that convalescent soldiers are sent 
here from Banka. 

Near the extreme end of the town, commanding the mouth of the Ogan 
Eiver, is a substantially built fort. It is a square enclosure of masonry, 


with walls 8 ft, thick, about 50 ft. high, loop-holed, and at each angle a 
circular bastion mounting eight guns in casemate embrasures. The fort 
could easily accommodate 1,500 men, and is surrounded outside with strong 
wooden palisades, a thick bamboo hedge, and a ditch 20 ft. broad. The 
fort is in lat. 2° 59i' S. There are several smaller forts some distance up 
the river. 

Covered prahus (called bedahs) daily arrive from the interior, laden with 
large supplies of cotton for exportation. This useful article grows quite 
wild some distance up the river, in some places close to the stream, and 
covering many miles of land. The greater portion of it is sent to Batavia. 
The total quantity exported this season is estimated at 1,735,500 lbs. 

All the necessaries of life are here found in abundance. The country 
abounds in large game, deer, wild pigs, &c. The river swarms with fish. 
Beef, fruit, vegetables, &c., are cheap and plentiful. Foreign vessels are not 
permitted to trade, and Dutch European vessels are not allowed to enter the 
river unless under special circumstances. The export trade, consisting 
principally of pepper, rattans, cotton, honey, dye-woods, and gutta-percha, 
is confined to thirteen European built ships, and numerous country craft, all 
owned by wealthy natives. 

Erom November to March rains prevail, and the wind varies from N.W. 
to N.E. At this period vessels belonging to Palembang either remain ia 
port or trade to other places, as it is almost impossible for sailing vessels 
at this period to make any progress up the river against the freshes. 
During a stay of five days off the town in January, the influence of the 
flood was not once felt. The ebb slackened during the day, but at night it 
often ran 5 knots. After much rain the freshes out of the river are felt in 
Mintok Bay. 

ASSING or SALT EIVER offers the best passage to Palembang, being 
at ail times navigable for vessels of the heaviest burden, but the shallow at 
its entrance often causes a delay of several days. At its mouth, which was 
surveyed in the beginning of 1846, Monopin Hill bears N.E. by E., and 
Assing Point N.W. by N. At the entrance, in mid-channel, there are 8 to 
10 fathoms ; and close to the poles at the back on the eastern side of the 
channel from 4 to 5 fathoms. Higher up this river the Pontain and Jarang 
Channels are just as good as that through the Soensang. 

Directions. — To enter the Assing, bring Monopin N.E. by E., and Teloo 
Point N.W. by N., then steer in a S.W. direction, according to the state of 
the tide, for the ebb runs strongly over the very shallow outer bank towards 
Soensang, and the flood towards the inner banks. 

Having reached as far as Api Point, take the mid-chaanel, between the 
beacon-poles, towards Bayan Point, and then, though still following the 
middle of the river, keep rather towards the Laga Point side, round which 
the Pontian Channel is entered. With a flood tide keep on the eastern 


shore, as the stream runs with force past that channel ; taking care, at 
the same time, to avoid the shoals which surround the point. In this river 
we have only to mind the points, as from most of them project small mud 

Pontian and other Affluents. — The juntion of the rivers Pontian, Kietjar, 
Gassing, and Sebalick, which last unites the Pontian to the Jarang, causes 
a part of the ebb to run from the first two rivers through the Sebalick, and 
compels vessels having come so far with the flood to anchor, and to wait for 
the ebb. The Pontian is generally deepest on its western side, except near 
its mouth, where the greatest depth is in the middle ; but again towards the 
western side, higher up, and in front of the shoal off the point, between the 
Kietjar and the Sebalick. When near its junction with the Sleino and 
Jarang Rivers, keep close to the eastern shore, in 6 to 8 fathoms, to avoid the 
reef which projects from the point between the Sebalick and Jarang. When 
there is no wind, it is necessary to anchor and wait for the flood coming up 
by the Sleino, in order to proceed up the Jarang, and it will be found that a 
great part of the flood goes into the Tambangadin Eiver, while that going 
up the Jarang is very trifling. Having reached the Jarang Ketjil, anchor 
again till high water, to wait for the ebb from this river, which will soon 
take the vessel into the Soengsang. 

Jaraxg Bank. — The bank off the Jarang is very shallow, but on the North 
side there is a narrow passage with 5 or 6 fathoms. Vessels of less draught 
than 15 ft. can also find a passage on the South side. 

The AssiNG, always navigable. — The difficulties in going up the Assing, 
caused by the narrowness of the rivers Pontian, Sebalick, and Jarang, and 
the necessity of stopping so often to wait for the tide, are amply compensated 
by the advantage that vessels of even the greatest burthen suffer no delay at 
its mouth. 

Freshes. — Vessels navigating these rivers, especially during the western 
monsoon, should be aware that the heavy rains in the interior cause such 
strong freshes to run out of the river as to reach towards the opposite shore, 
and that in the spring, especially during the eastern monsoon, very powerful 
floods pour into the rivers. High up the rivers are seen ripplings like 
breakers, caused by these tides and freshes, which frequently bring down 
large detached masses of grass and brushwood like floating islands. 

BATAKARANG POINT, the N.W. boundary of Banka Strait, is in lat. 
2° r S., long. 104° 50' E., and bears N.W. f W. 32 miles from Fourth Point. 
It may be known by a group of trees, 130 ft. high, which gives it a bluff and 
jagged appearance. 

Valsche or False Point is more sloping and flat, and lies 9 miles to the 
south-eastward of Batakarang Point ; and there is another point about 3 
miles in the same direction from Batakarang Point. 

The mud-bank projects 4^ miles off Batakarang Point, and 2 miles off 


False Point. It then trends away to the south-westward, bounding the 
entrance of the Assing Eiver on its N.W. side, to Tanjong Kampie, from 
which it projects not quite a mile. 

The soundings off Batakarang Point are regular, and the point may be 
passed in from 6 to 4| fathoms water. 

COAST OF BANKA.— This coast, which separates the straits of Banka 
and Gaspar, is treated of here, as being intimately connected with the 
former, for Mr. Stanton observes, that at the entrance of Banka Strait, in 
the S.E. monsoon, the ebb tide during the night at springs will be found 
setting to the south-eastward ; consequently many vessels, although steering 
a course for the strait, get set between Pulo Dapur and Baginda Point. 

The SOUTH COAST, between Baginda Point and the Dapur Islands, in 
extent about 14 miles E. f N. and "W. | S., is generally low, and covered 
■with trees ; it presents, however, some points sloping down from hills of 
moderate elevation. It should not be approached under 3 miles, for it is 
fronted with a mud-bank, extending in places nearly 2 miles from the shore, 
upon which are many rocks above, and many others below water. 

TANJONG BAGINDA, the south-eastern extreme of Banka, is in lat. 
3° 4' 40" S., long. 106° 44' E. It slopes gradually in a south-easterly direc- 
tion from a hill 387 ft. high, which rises a mile inside the point. Two miles 
inside the point, in a NW. by W. J W. direction, is another hill, named 
Baginda Peak, 521 ft. high. 

Tanjong Dua {Doeija) bears W. by S. J S. 2J miles from Baginda Point, 
from which it is separated by a bay about half a mile deep. N.N.W. 1^ 
mile from the point is a hill, 432 ft. high, from which the land slopes down to 
the coast. 

Eocks, some of which are above water, extend to the southward of this 
point and for more than a mile along the coast to the westward, to the dis- 
tance of half a mile. A sand-bank, with rocky patches, commences about 
1^ mile S.S.E. i E. from it, and extends to the westward until it meets 
the mud -bank which fronts the coast as far as Tanjong Tan ah Eoboe. 

Tanjong Kejang is 231 ft. high, and bears West-southerly 2f miles from 
Tanjong Dua, from which it is separated by a sandy bay about two-thirds of 
a mile deep. 

Karang Layar is a rocky reef above water, lying on the outer edge of the 
bank above mentioned, and S.W. by W. distant If mile from the East ex- 
treme of Tanjong Kejang, Inside these rocks to the north-westward is 
another bed of rocks, some of which are above water. 

Tanjong Bantil, 240 ft. high, bears W. by N. 2J miles from the nearest 
part of Tanjong Kejang. The bay between these points seems to be full of 
rocks ; and large and small rocks above water, with others awash, extend 
to the southward of the point, nearly to the edge of the mud-bank, which 
projects neai'ly a mile off shore. 


Tanjong Tanah Roboe is 3-J- miles W. by S. ^ S. from Tanjotig Bantil, and 
off it, as at Tanjong Bantil, a number of rocks, some above and others 
below water, project nearly a mile to the southward to the edge of the 
bank ; the bank curves round this point, and terminates just to the westward 
of it. 

Dapur Point. — The coast from Tanjong Tanah Eoboe runs West about 
a mile, and then, curving to the north-westward into a small bay about half 
a mile deep, runs about S.W. by W. with a rugged outline to Dapur Point, 
under Toboe Ali Lama Peak, which forms the south-western extreme of 
Banka. Adjoining Dapur Point is an islet or rock 40 ft. high, with smaller 
rocks above water on both sides of it. 

Dapur Islands * are two islets lying a little more than a mile S. by E. 
from Dapur Point, and forming a good landmark when approaching from 
the southward. They form the south-eastern limit of the entrance to Banka 
Strait by the Stanton Channel, are nearly round, and about a cable's length. 
in diameter, and connected at low water by rocks. The southern one is 120 
feet high, resembles a shoe in appearance, and is fronted by a coral sandy 
beach. Some rocks above water lie about a cable's length to the southward, 
and a rock under water about 2 cables to the south-eastward of the islet. 

There is a narrow channel, half a mile wide, with depths of 5 J fathoms, 
between the Dapur Islands and Dapur Point ; from thence to Nangka Point 
there are several white rocks lying inside the mud flat close to the shore. 

Sand Ridges off the South end of Banka. — H.M.S. Saracen, when searching 
for the coral reef reported by the Netherlands barque Banha f (many promi- 
nent points offering good objects for fixing her position), was enabled to 
extend the soundings 20 miles off the land. The soundings were found to 
be very irregular, long sand ridges, with deep water over a muddy bottom 
between. None of these banks have less than 5 fathoms on them, with the 
exception of one lying S.E. 1^ mile from Pulo Dapur, where there are 
several patches of 3J fathoms over a sandy ground. At 7 miles E. by S. of 
these patches, and separated by deeper water, is a bank of 4^ fathoms, coral 
and sand, extending in an easterly direction for 3 miles ; it appears to be a 
continuation of the Dapur Bank, and from its shoalest part Tanjong Baginda 
bears N.E. by N. 6 miles. 

Overfalls. — At full and change great overfalls were repeatedly noticed, 
caused by the meeting of the ebb stream from Banka and Graspar Straits 
over an uneven bottom. 

* Dapur means cooking place. Prahus, in passing, generally land on these islands to 
catch turtle, as it is the only place in Banka Strait where thej"^ are seen. 

t This coral reef, ahout 3 miles in circumference, and prohablj' only 6 ft. water on it, 
was reported as lying 15 miles from the South end of Banka Island. Its position was 
given aslat. 3° 21' S., long. 106° 41' E,, and the land in sight (probably Mount St. Paul, 
930 It. high) bore N.N.W. 


TOBOE ALI LAMA is a hill about IJ mile N.N.E. of Dapur Point. Its 
peak is of p3'ranii(ial lorm, and rises to an elevation of 512 ft. 

NANGKA POINT is 2 miles N.W. from Dapur Point, and the coast be- 
tween is ironted by rocks extending; about half a mile from it. The edge of 
the bank is nearly a mile from Narigka Point, and has 5 fathoms water close 
to, so that it must be approached carefully. The point may easily be dis- 
tinguished by a round hillock over it 264 ft. high, and also the land receding 
forming Toboe (Tobu) Ali Bay, the shore of which is low, and fringed at high 
•water with sandy beaches inside the mud flat, which here extends 2 miles ofif 
the land. 

TOBOE ALI POINT, bearing N.W. byN., distant 5^ miles from Nangka 
Point, has several white rocks near it, and has or had a conspicuous tree on 
its summit, elevated 213 ft., and visible 14 miles ofll'. 

Toboe Ali Port, with its red-roofed barracks, stands half a mile S.E. of 
Toboe Ali Point, upon a low mound 40 ft. in height, at the left point of 
entrance of a small river, on the banks of which is the village of Sabang, 
situated close to the fort, and containing (^in 1860) a mixed population of 600 
Malays and Chinese. At low water the river dries to a distance of 3 cables' 
lengths from its mouth. A Dutch Administrator and a Captain with a small 
military force garrison the fort. 

The anchorage off Toboe Ali Port is in 4 fathoms, mud, with Toboe (Tobu) 
Ali Lama Peak S.E. by E. ^ E., and Gadong Peak in line with Taboe Ali 
Fort N.E. J N. Smaller vessels may approach on this bearing nearer the 
shore, as the soundings decrease regularly. In southerly and south-westerly 
winds there is a heavy swell here, which makes landing difficult. 

No supplies of any description can be procured but water and wood ; the 
former may be obtained at the above river, or at a small stream half a mile 
to the eastward of it, from half flood to half ebb. 

Mount St. Paul, 5 miles E.N.E. from Toboe Ali Point, rises with a gradual 
acclivity on its south-eastern shoulder to a peak 990 ft. in height, with two 
others adjoining of nearly the same eleviition, the western peak terminating 
rather abruptly to a lower spur in the direction of Gradong Hill. When to 
the westward of Puui Island, owing to a projecting spur from the middle 
peak, the eastern peak of St. Paul is hidden, and the western one then ap- 
pears the highest, and forms, with the N.W. brow, a saddle hill. 

Gadong Hill is a pyramidal peaked hill 593 ft. high, W. by N. distant 
nearly 2^ miles from Mount St. Paul. 

Owing to the land contiguous to these hills and to Toboe Ali Lama being 
low, they appear as islands at a distance over 15 miles. 

Gossong Point bears N.W. byAV. 4 miles from Toboe Ali Point, the land 
between forming a deep bay, with low mangrove trees. From Gossong to 
Laboh Point the laud is more elevated, with numerous rocks close to the 

I. A. ii D 


shore. Puni Island, lying midway between Gossong and Laboh Points is 
a small islet, 47 ft. in height, and conspicuous from its white granite rucks. 
" The small Puni Island and Gossong Point, seen in one, is a good mark for 
being clear of the banks. Seen from a northerly bearing, this poiut looks 
like an island."— (F. G. Petersen, 1875.) 

Laboh Point bears N.W. f W., distant 12 miles from Nangka Point. 
There is a hill, 250 ft. high, about a mile to the eastward of it, and another, 
about the same height, and the same distance, to the nurthward. This point 
from the suuth-eastward presents rather a shelving appearance, with large 
white rocks extending from it. 

Dahun Point is 7^ miles N.W. by W. \ W. from Laboh Point, and the 
shore between is low and covered witn mangroves ; a range of hillocks runs 
parallel to the coast. 

The land at Dahun Point attains a greater elevation, and is faced with 
sandy beaches and rocky points. At 4|^ miles N.N.E. ^ E. from the pcjint is 
around woody hill, 315 ft. in height. Close to the coast, 2 miles N. by 
W. i W. from Laboh Point, is a remarkable square tree, 167 ft. high, 
which is very conspicuous, there being no others of the same elevation near 
it. In clear weather it may be seen 12 miles off, closely resembling a ship 
under sail. 

Pulo Dahun, 30 ft. in height, is one of a cluster of rocks lying off Dahun 
Point, nearly all of which are covered at high water. It is or was remark- 
able by having a solitary tree on it. Paiijang Hill (or Long Hill) rises 
close to the coast between Dahun and Banka Points. It had one conspi- 
cuous tree on it in 1875. "When seen from the south-eastward it shows as a 
•wedge, with its greatest elevation, 316 ft., on the eastern end. A stream of 
fresh water runs close to the North side of this hill. 

Banka Point and Hill.— Banka Point is 12^ miles N.W. by W. | W. from 
Laboh Point, and the laud to the westward of it recedes into a bay. The 
point is about the same elevation as Pulo Besai, but at 1^ mile to the north- 
ward it rises to Banka Hill. From the north-westward it shows with a flat 
top, having three clumps of trees on its summit, the whole height being 256 
feet. Pulo Besar is nearly connected with Banka Point by rocks. It is but 
3 cables in extent, and b3 ft. high, but shows up well when bfcaring between 
S.E. and East. 

The Coast, from the foot of Banka Hill, takes a W.N.W. direction for 
about 4 miles, when it turns more to the northward to the entrance of a 
small river ; from thence it curves round, formiiig a small bay to Pudi Point, 
•when it runs pretty straight for 5 miles in a W. by N. direction, to Lalarie 
Point. Mamelon Hummoch is a small round hill 265 It. high, standing by 
itself 3 miles inland, in a N. by E. direction from Pudi Poiut. Two miles 
and a half E. by N. of the Mamelon is another small hill ; 2^ miles N. by E. 


of which is a double-peaked hill, 396 ft. high; about 1^ mile east-northerly 
of this last, is a hill 471 ft. high. 

Lalarie, or Langhong Point, 75 ft. high, is very conspicuous. It had a 
clump of trees on its extremity; those around it (in 186;^) have been cut 
down, and their trunks whitewashed. It is the turning point into the main 
part of the strait for vessels that have passed through the Stanton Channel. 
"Round Lalarie Point should be ' whitewashed stumps,' but are not. The 
point itself is very sharp and good for bearing. From N.E. the point looks 
at first as if it were an island ; from the South the point is very sharp. 
Clump of trees mentioned ia the chart I could not distinguish." — (F. G. 
Petersen, 1875.) 

A mud bank fronts the whole coast just described between Dapur and La- 
larie Points. The 3-fathom line may be considered to mark its edge, which 
in most places shoals very quickly inside that line. The chart will best show 
its features. It should not be approached under 10 fathoms. 

Casuarina Point, so called from a number of casuarina trees on it, is nearly 
midway between Lalarie and Brani Points ; seen from the northward it ap- 
pears as an island. The coast between is low, with sandy beaches at high 
■water mark, 

Brani, or Bold Point, 1 1 miles N. by W. f W. from Lalarie Point, is a 
termination of a spur I'rom the Parmassang range, with a conical peak, 516 
feet high, over it, showing very prominently both from the northward and 

Timbaga Rocks (or Copper Each), so called from their reddish colour, are 
three small rocks, lying East and West of each other, about a cable's length 
in extent. The highest and westernmost rock is 4 ft. above high water, 
and from it Second Point bears W. I N. 5f miles, and Brani Point N. by E. 
3 miles. With a setting sun their reddish colour, from the contrast to the 
green verdure of the land, makes them readily identified, but to render thera 
more conspicuous at high water, and in the forenoon when they are not so 
clearly seen, a white conical beacon, surmounted with a ball, was erected 
on the highest rock, and the whole height being 24 ft. will make it visible 
in clear weather at 6 or 7 miles. Shoal water, about half a mile in breadth, 
extends nearly half a mile to the northward of the group, and 2^ miles to the 
southward, and forms, with the shore and bank of Banka, a channel three- 
quarters of a mile wide. 

Several shoal patches of coral and sand have been found nearly 1^ mile 
"W.N.W. from these rocks, but they are all inside the 10-fathom line, the 
depth vessels are cautioned not to go within when passing them. These 
patches are about a cable's length apart, having 2 fathoms least water on 
them, and 8 fathoms close to. In approaching them the soundings shoal 
suddenly from 20 to 10 fathoms. As a guide to lead ships clear, a temporary 


Hack huoy has been placed in 4 fathoms on the outer patch, about 2 cables' 
lengths westward of the shoalest water.* 

From the middle patch of 2 fathoms the Timbaga Rocks appear nearly in 
line with a sharp peak (130 feet high) South of Bukit Limmaun, bearing 
E.S.E. ; and the apex of a distant long hill (657 ft. high) is just open West 
of a white rock off Tanjong Bedaauw, N. by E. f E. These patches and the 
Timbaga Eocks will be avoided by not bringing Lalarie Point South of 
S.E. f S., until Brani Peak bears E. by N. f N. 

A rocky batik, about a mile in extent East and West, and half a mile 
North and South, having 7 to 9 fathoms water over it, and 14 to 20 fathoms 
close-to all around, lies W.N. AV. of the shoal patches just mentioned. From 
its outer edge the largest of the Timbaga Eocks bears E. by S. ^ S., distant 
3 miles, and Brani Peak E.N.E. 5 miles. Lalarie Point, bearing S.E. ^ S., 
which leads clear of the Timbaga Eocks and the above-mentioned patches, 
also leads just outside the edge of this bank. 

Water may be procured at a stream about half a mile to the northward of 
the Timbaga Rocks, from half flood to half ebb, after which the mud pre- 
vents a boat approaching near the shore. 

Parmassayig Range is a chain of hills running from Brani Point in a N.E. 
by N, direction for nearly 4 miles, to the highest peak, which rises to an 
elevation of 1,608 ft. ; the range then turns more to the eastward, for a dis- 
tance of about 3 miles, where it disappears. 

Tanjong Bedaauw is a bold headland, N. \ E. 3^ miles from Brani Point, 
the coast between forming a bay half a mile deep. A conspicuous white rock 
45 ft. high, lies immediately off the point. Pulo Pemein, a good sharp mark 
to be seen 7 miles off, is a small round island, 50 ft. high, lying N.W. by N. 
2 miles from Bedaauw Point. Tanjong Karrah, 171 ft. high, bears N.N.E. 
^ E., nearly 3 miles from Tanjong Bedaauw. Many rocks, some above and 
others below water, extend more than half a mile off this point. 

SLAN BAY. — The coast from Tanjong Bedaauw falls back to the eastward, 
and between Tanjong Karrah and a point about 9 miles to the eastward of 
the Nangka Islands is a deep shallow bight, named Slan Bay, into which the 
Rivers Kotta and Slan disembogue. From the latter point the coast runs, 
with a slight bend in towards a small river, about N.W. f N., 3^ miles to 
Tanjong Tedong. On the coast line, in the depth of Slan Bay, is a conspi- 
cuous tree, 196 ft. high. 

Slan is the chief town of a pangkal, or district, and is municipally governed 
by the administrator of the tin mines. Here, as at all other chief towns of 
districts, a small number of Dutch troops are stationed. 

* Captain Petersen reports that both the beacon and the buoy could not be seen by hira 
in 1876, while passing. 


The edge of the Shore Mud Bank is nearly a mile outside Lalarie Point, 
and from thence its direction is nearly straight, about North by West for 
18J miles, or for 2h miles beyond Pulo Pemein, passing Casuarina and 
Brani Points a little less than half a mile. It then assumes somewhat the 
form of Slan Bay, which it fronts, and surrounding the Great Nangka 
Island, projects a couple of spits or horns towards the bank extending 
northward from the middle Nangka, From thence the edge falls back in a 
north-easterly direction towards Tanjong Tedong, from which it extends 
little more than a mile. 

About two-thirds of a mile south-westward of Tanjong Bedaauw, a nar- 
row inlet, having 3^ to 5 fathoms depths of water, runs into the bank in a 
north-westerly direction, and turns to the northward nearly as far as Pulo 

Northward of the Timbaga Pocks the bank may be approached to 8 or 7 
fathoms, as far as a mile or two to the northward of Pulo Pemein, when 
vessels may stand into 7 or 6 fathoms, until near the Nangka Islands, which 
should not be approached on the West side nearer than 12 fathoms. 

The NANGKA ISLANDS, three in number, lie about the middle part of 
the strait, from 1^ to 4 miles distant from the shore of Banka Island, and 8 
or 9 miles eastward of Third Point, on the Sumatra coast. Great Nangka, 
285 ft. high, is If mile long North and South, and 1^ mile broad ; Middle 
and West Nangka are each about half a mile long, the former being 125 ft., 
and the latter 205 ft. high. 

Great Nangka is nearly half a mile within the edge of the mud-bank 
which extends from the Banka shore. From the Middle Nangka a bank of 
2 to 8 fathoms extends S.S.E. 1^ mile; from West Nangka a similar bank 
projects to the southward for nearly a mile, and S.S.E. distant three-quarters 
of a mile from its tail is a 3^-fathoms patch. 

A small flat rock, 6 ft. above water, named West Reef, lies about 1^ cable 
off the West end of West Nangka ; and another, 32 ft. high, named Tree 
Hock, lies nearly one-third of a mile south-eastward of Middle Nangka, be- 
tween it and Great Nangka. 

A reef, named North Reef, with rocks above and below water, lies a quarter 
of a mile off the North end of Middle Nangka, the mud-bank extending off 
in the same direction about a quarter of a mile further. 

Between the banks which surround the islands are intricate channels, from 
2 to 4 cables broad, having from 4 to 7 fathoms water in them. 

Water. — There is a stream of water on the West side of Great Nangka, 
and another and smaller stream on the N.E. side ; but both streams are fre- 
quently dry in the S.E. monsoon, and are difficult of approach for ships' boats. 
H.M.S. Belleisle was watering at Great Nangka night and day, and only filled 
30 tons in 36 hours. The natives are not to be trusted, but on the contrary 
much caution is necessary while watering. 


In the N.W. monsoon it is higli water, full and change, at the Nangka 
Islands, at 7 a.m., and the rise is about 9f ft. Many eddies and small 
races will be met with in the vicinity of these islands. They are caused 
by the tidal fluod wave from the China Sea meeting the flood from the south- 

TANJONG TEDONG, bearing N.E. by E. i E., ",^ mile from the West 
Nangka, is a conspicuous point, 234 ft. hi^h, inside tlie Nangka Islands, to 
which it is connected by the mud baiik. A large cluster of rocks, some 
above and others below water, lie about a mile north-westwar-d of the point, 
only a short distance from the edge of the nmd-bank. 

The Coast from Tanjong Tedong falls back to the N.E. into the bay, at the 
bottom of which is the small liiver Semhoehn ; from thence it curves to the 
N.W. to Tanjong Peiiegan, from which it again falls back about a mile to the 
entrance of a small river of that name. The const line from this river rounds 
the foot of the higher lani sloping down from Mundo Peak, and then forming 
a small bay, tr'^nds N.N.W. to a point bearing E. by S. 2 miles from the 
largest of the Meddang Islands, when it again bends to the N.E. for li mile 
to the entrance of the Mundo River. 

Mundo Bay.— From the Mundo River the coast trends to the N.W. about 
8 miles to Tanjong Jurung-patt, forming the shore of Mundo Bay, with a 
point about the centre of it projecting nearly a mile. T^^e -shore of this bay 
is low, and covered with trees, which, at the entrance of the Kotta Waringin 
River, are 121 ft. high. Tanjong Jurung-patt, 240 ft. high, is the western 
limit of Mundo Bay. The land here begins to be more elevated, and con- 
tinues to be so as far as the entrance of the Jiring River. 

The coast from Tanjong Jurung-patt takes a westerly direction for nearly 
3 miles to Tanjoyig Raya, where it falls back northerly about a mile to the 
Tempelang River ; from thence it takes again a westerly direction for nearly 4 
miles to Tanjong Ressam, the eastern extreme of Jiring Bay. This latter 
point is prominent, and faces the S.W. ; it lies N.W. by AV. 12 miles from 
the Meddang Islands. 

Jiring Bay is the deep bight between Tanjong Rpssam and Tanjong Tadah, 
the coast trending away from the former point in a N.N.W. direction to the 
entrance of the River Jiring, and from thence curving round about W.S.W. 
and S.W. to Tanjong Tadah, which bears from Tanjong Ressam W. ^ S., 
distant 8f miles. The shore of the bay is low, with three conspicuous trees 
152 ft. high in its N.W. part. Tanjong Tadah, 203 ft. high, is readily recog- 
nized, the land on botli sides being lower, and curving into two bays, giving 
it a very prominent appearance. 

Between Tanjong Tadah and Tanjong Puni, which lie nearly Eist and 
West of each other, about 8 miles apart, there are two bays, each about 
three-quarters of a mile deep, with a point having a hummock or mound, 
256 ft. high, upon it midway between. 


Tanjong Snkal, 2 miles East by North from TanjongPuni, has a hill 209 
feet high upon it, and a small river oa its West side. Tanjong Pani is low, 
and the coast line rounds away very gradually on either side of it. From 
thence to a point 7|- miles to the N.AV. by W. h W., the coast falls back and 
forms a bay about a mile deep. From the latter point to Kalian Point the 
bearing is W. f S., and the distance nearly 4 miles, the coast between form- 
ing Mintok Bay. 

There are several hills from 100 to 600 ft. high on the part of the coast 
just described between Tanjong Tedong and the Mundo River. Mundo Peak 
612 ft. high, and bearing E. by S. ;^ S. 4 miles from the Meddang Islands, 
is the most convenient for fixing the vessel's position. 

About three-quarters of a mile to the eastward of the Tempelang River is 
a small hill 263 ft. hi^jh ; and N.E. 3 miles from its entrance is Buht Tem- 
pelang, a hill 412 ft. high ; W. by N. | N. from Bukit Tempelang is Biikit 
Pandin, 585 ft. high, which will be found very useful when in this part of 
the strait Solitary Sharp Peak, 661 ft. high, is the summit of a sharp cone 
hill standing by itself, N. ^ E., distant 10^ miles from Tanjong Tadah ; this 
is also very useful when brought in line with nearer objects, for giving a 
correct line of direction. 

Four or 5 miles inland from the coast between Puni Point and Mintok are 
some hills, one of which, Bukit Beloe, IIZ ft. high, serves as a mark to clear 
the Brom-Brom Reef and Amelia Bank ; a little to the westward is another 
hiU 427 ft. high. 

About 2 miles north-eastward of Bukit Beloe is Buht Panjang, or long 
hill, 661 ft. high ; and nearly 3 miles north-westward of Beloe is a hill 454 
feet high. 

Meddang Islands are three islets lying about 3 miles off the entrance of 
the Mundo River, and forming the SDUth-western extreme of Mundo Bay, 
being joined to the main land by the mud flat. The largest islet is 147 ft. 
high, and bears North 9 miles from the West Nangka. A small island, 
named Pulo Antu, lies about 1^ mile north-eastward of the Meddang 

Pulo Sambayang is an islet 175 ft. high, lying about E. J S. nearly 3 
miles from Tanjong Ressam, and \\ mile W.S.W. of the entrance to the 
Tempelang River. 

Karang Sarabu are a cluster of rocks, some above and others below water, 
extending in a S. by E. J E. direction nearly 2 miles from the point with a 
hummock on it between Tanjong Tadah and Tanjong Sukal. 

MONOPIN HILL, or Gunong Manomhing, in lat. 2° U' S., long. 105° 12' E., 
rises near the West end of Banka, and its summit being 1,456 ft. high, may 
be seen at a considerable distance, and serves as a guide in approaching to 
or departing from the North end of Banka Strait. It frequently happens at 


the North entrance of the strait, that this hill is the only visible object, 
especially when a vessel is near Sumatra in 5 or 6 fathoms water. 

The edge of the bank, after passing a cable's length outside the rocks off 
Tanjong Tedong, takes a N.N.W. direction, till abreast of the Meddang 
Islands, outside of which it extends nearly a mile. From thence it curves 
round Mundo Bay, projecting 4 miles to the southward of Tanjong Jurung- 
ptitt ; it then runs to the westward, passing Tanjong Eessam at 4^ miles, 
and Tanjong Tadah at nearly 3 miles. 

Mundo Peak, well open to the southward of the Meddang Islands, leads 
clear of the edge of this bank between those islands and Tanjong Tadah. 

From Tanjong Tadah the bank still follows a westerly direction till South. 
of Tanjong Puni, when it trends away sharply to the north-westward, fol- 
lowing the curve of the coast line at an average distance of about \\ mile, 
until abreast the East point of Mintok Bay, from which it is distant only 
half a mile. 

Between Tanjong Tedong and Tanjong Tadah, the soundings decrease 
regularly towards the bank, which may there be approached to 5 or even 4 
fathoms, except near the Meddang Islands, where a vessel should not shoal 
under 9 fathoms. At Tanjong Tadah the bank begins to get steeper to, and 
abreast of the Karang Sarabu Eocks, there are 9 and 10 fathoms pretty close 
to its edge. 

Caution. — The bank South of Puni Point is very shallow and steep-to, 
having from 11 to 16 fathoms, almost close to its edge. Tanjong Tadah, 
bearing E. by N. \ N., jutt clears this dangerous spit to the eastward, and 
Monopin Hill N.W. by N., just clears it to the westward. 

KARANG BROM-BROM is an extensive shoal of rocks and sand, dry in 
some places at low water, lying 4| miles South from the shore between Tan- 
jong Puni and Sukal. It is a little more than 2 miles long in a W. ^ N. 
and opposite direction, and nearly half a mile wide at its western end, where 
the rocks are, and from which Monopin Hill bears N.W. ^ N. ; the eastern 
end tapers away to a sandy point. This danger was marked by a temporary 
beacon, which is said to have disappeared (1875). 

A red buoy was placed off the southern side of Karang Brom-Brom, in 1875, 
in 5 fathoms water, with the middle of Monopin Hill bearing N. 40° W., 
and the East point of Cape Tadah, N. 50° E. 

The highest part of the hummock on the point behind the Karang Sarabu 
Eocks bearing N. ^ E , or the highest part of Tanjong Tadah bearing 
N.E. t N., clears the eastern end more than half a mile ; and Bukit Beloe, 
bearing N. ^ W., clears the western end nearly a mile. 

A channel, 2 miles wide, having 7 to 15 fathoms water in it, lies between 
the Broni-Brom and the shore bank. Nothwithstanding that the channel 
between the Brom-Brom Eeef and Banka is only 2 miles wide, a vessel may 
easily work through it by day, during the western monsooD, because she cau 


take advantage of the tides; but on the coast of Sumatra a strong easterly- 
current runs with little interruption ; she must, however, be very careful in 
crossing over to the coast of Banka, as the bank is very steep, and she might 
suddenly fall from 7 to 3 fathoms before there would be time for a second 
cast of the lead. 

Amelia Bank is a small patch of hard ground, with 2| fathoms water over 
it, at the S.E. extreme of the Mintok Bank, to the shoal patches of which it 
is connected by a ridge of 4 and 5 fathoms water. From it the western ex- 
treme of the Brom-Brom bears East 4i miles, and Monopin Hill N. by W. JW. 
12 miles. 

Bukit Boloe bearing N. i E. leads a mile to the eastward of the Amelia 
Bank ; and the same hill N, by E. ^ E. leads the same distance to the west- 

Mintok Bank extends from the Amelia Bank in a direction nearly parallel 
to the shore, for a distance of 10 or 11 miles, to within about the third of a 
mile of the Karang Hadji Eeef, off Kalian Point. It is composed of hard 
sand, and has several patches with only 2^ and 3 fathoms water over them, 
and 4 or 5 fathoms between. A 2-fathoms patch lies N.W. by N. 2i miles 
from the Amelia Bank. Bukit Beloe, bearing N. by E. 5 E., which clears 
the Amelia Bank to the westward, also clears the patch to the eastward. 

From this last-mentioned patch, other patches of 2^ and 3 fathoms extend 
N.AV. by W. for 5 miles, this part of the bank being about IJ mile wide. 
For 2| miles further in the same direction the bank has from 4k to 7 fathoms 
water over it, the deepest water appearing to be with Mintok Fort flagstaff 
in line with the pier-head, bearing about N. by E. 5 E. 

Another 3-fathoms patch lies with the lighthouse on Kalian Point bearing 
N. ^ E. 1 J mile, from which 5 fathoms may be carried towards the Karang 
Hadji Eeef until very close to it, when the water will suddenly deepen to 11, 
17, or 20 fathoms. Monopin Hill, in line with the lighthouse on Kalian 
Point, N.E. 2 N., leads westward of the 3-fathoms patch, between it and the 
Karang Hadji Eeef. 

A ship working through the strait, to keep clear of Mintok Bank, should 
take care not to bring the lighthouse on Kalian Point to the westward of 
N.W. byN. 

KARANG HADJI is a dangerous reef of rocks and sand lying close to 
the N.W. end of the Mintok Bank ; the rocks on it are all covered at high 
water, but many of them are visible at half tide. The beacon marked on the 
chart was not visible in 1875. The reef is 1 S- mile long N.W. by W. and 
S.E. by E., and half a mile broad, and from its western and outer extreme 
Kalian lighthouse bears E. | N. 2^ miles, and Tanjong Oelar and Tanjong 
Bersiap are in line ; its eastern extreme bears S.'W. by W. J W. 1| mile 
I. A. 2 b 


from Kalian Point. Close to it on the North, West, and South sides, the 
depths are irregular from 16 to 21 fathoms. 

A rock, with 1 2 ft. over it at low water, lies about 2 cables northward of 
the Hadjie Reef, with Tanjong Bersiap, the western point of Banca Island, 
bearing N. % E., and Kalian Point lighthouse E. J N. 

Tanjong Oelar kept well open of Tanjong Bersiap clears the West end 
of this reef ; the highest part of Monopin Hill in line with the lighthouse 
clears its eastern extreme ; and Tanjong Puni bearing E. f S. clears it to 
the soil th ward. 

A red himj was placed off the N.W. side of Karang Hadjie, in 1875, in 4^ 
fathoms water; from it Tanjong Kalean bears N. 87° E., and Bersiap Hill 
N. 26° E. 

Inner or Binnen Bank, of hard sand, with 2^ fathoms water on it, and 7 or 
8 fathoms close-to, extends East If mile from Kalian Point, when it turns to 
the N.W. for about half a mile, thus forming a spit projecting to the east- 
ward ; from thence it curves away and is lost in the sand-bank which extends 
half a mile from the shore of Mintok. 

Two-thirds of a mile E. by S. from this spit is a 3-fathoms patch, from 
which Mintok pier-head bears N.N.W. | W., distant two-thirds of a mile, 
and Kalian Point lighthouse West, northerly. 

KALIAN Point and Light. — Kalian Point, low and sandy, with some 
trees behind it, is the south-western extreme of the West end of Banka. 
The lighthouse upon it, in lat. 2° 4' 37" S., long. 105° 9' E., is a white 
stone tower with a red lantern, which shows, at an elevation of 170 ft., a 
fixed white light, visible in clear weather at 20 miles. 

About three-quarters of a mile N.W. from the lighthouse is Tanjong Batu- 
hrani, the trees immediately behind which are 127 ft. high. Kalian Ledge is 
a small reef, with only 6 to 9 ft. water over it, lying a little more than a mile 
to the N.W. of Kalian Point ; from it the lighthouse bears S.E. by E., Ber- 
siap Point N. \ W., and Monopin Hill N.E. I E. 

Kalian Pass, formed by Kalian Point and Ledge on one side, and the 
Karang Hadji Reef on the other, is three-quarters of a mile wide, with 
soundings in it of 25 to 32 fathoms. This channel is generally used by 
vessels coming from the northward and proceeding to Mintok Bay, and with 
a fair wind is preferable to the passage outside the Karang Hadji ; but the 
great depth, bad anchorage, and strong currents, render it unadvisable to 
attempt to beat through. 

In using this channel, the sandy point upon which the lighthouse stands 
may be passed pretty close to ; and the lighthouse on the bearing of E. by S. 
leads through between the Kalian Ledge and the Karang Hadji Reef. 

MINTOK. — Two miles E.N.E. from Kalian Point, on the banks of a small 

MINTOK. 211 

river, is the town of Mintok, the capital of the island,* having a fort upon a 
hill, and some stone houses close to the shore, the red roofs of which are 
visible at a considerable distance. The resident and other Dutch officers 
have houses on the hill near the fort, most of the native houses being lower 
down nearer the sea. The mail steamers, which run twice a month between 
Batavia and Singapore, always call here. 

A pier nearly half a mile long, and running out to the edge of the bank, 
has been built, and is of great advantage to the trade of the place ; on the 
extremity of the pier a small fixed white light is shown all night. 

The best anchorage for large ships is in 10 to 6 fathoms, about 1 J mile 
from the shore, with Monopin Hill bearing about N. J E., and Kalian Point 
about W.N. W. or W. by N. The ordinary anchorage of the Dutch man-of- 
war stationed in Banka Strait, and of the merchant vessels trading to Min- 
tok, which are usually of a small class, is in 4^ or 5 fathoms inside the 3- 
fathoms patch lying off the spit which extends from the Binnen Bank, at 
any convenient distance and direction from the pier-head. 

The usual route to Mintok Road is across the Mintok Bank, between the 
Karang Hadji Eeef and the Amelia Bank. A vessel coming from the 
northward, and bound for the road, may proceed either through the Kalian 
Pass, or she may pass outside the Karang Hadji Reef, and then follow the 
usual track across the Mintok Bank. A good mark for crossing the bank is 
Monopin Hill in line with the flagstaff on the fort bearing N. by E. \ E., 
which will lead over it in 5 or 6 fathoms water; another good mark is 
Monopin Hill in line with the lighthouse N.E. ^ N. No ship can cross the 
bank in safety with Monopin Hill bearing to the westward of North ; with 
the hill bearing North, a ship crossing the bank would have 3 fathoms at 
low water spring tides, the bottom hard sand, coral, and shells. When over 
the bank, the water will deepen to 18 or 20 fathoms, soft muddy bottom, and 
shoal again quickly towards the inner bank and the shore. 

With a working wind, keep Monopin Hill N. J E. and N.N.E. 

To enter Mintok Road from the eastward, a vessel must work between the 
shore and the Mintok Bank, being careful not to bring Tanjong Tadah to 
the eastward of E. by N. f N., until Monopin Hill bears N. W. by N. 

A hard sandy bottom and shoal water will show when near the edge of the 

* Banka, like the adjacent countries, is now under the dominion of the Dutch, and has 
been so without dispute since 1821, M^hen it was finally conquered from the treacherous 
Sultan of Palembang in Sumatra. .\s is well known, the chief commercial product is tin : 
a government monopoly, chiefly worked by Chinese, who form more than a moiety of the 
total population- of Banka, estimated at 35,000. The island is comparatively sterile, and 
the natives rude and treacherous. There are numerous other colonies of Malays and 
Javanese, in addition to the Chinese immigrants. The chief geological feature is the range 
of volcanic and granitic hills which runs through the island, parallel to and of similar 
character to those on the Malay pcninbula. 


Mintok Bank ; while, to avoid the shallow along the coast, Monopin Hill 
must not be brought more to the westward than N.W. by N., and taking 
care not to shoal to less than 5 fathoms. 

At Kalian P(jint it is high water, full and change, in the N.W. mon- 
soon, at 8'' 17" a.m., and in the S.E. monsoon at 8 p.m.; the springs rise 
12 J ft. 

Tanjong Bersiap, 168 ft. high, beai'sfrom Tanjong Batu-brani, the north- 
western extreme of Kalian Point, N. by W. i W., distant 3^ miles. The 
coast between curves slightly inland, and is fronted by a bank extending 
nearly a mile from it, pretty close to which are 7 and 10 fathoms. Inside 
the edge of this bank, and lying some distance off Bersiap Point, is a cluster 
of rocks, some of which are above and others below water. Bersiap Hill, 
336 ft. high, is small, and stands by itself, about IJ mile N.E. of the point. 
About 2 miles N.E. of the hill, the extreme of a range running from Monopin 
to the N.W. forms a conspicuous peak 709 ft. high. 

Tanjong Oelar, 156 ft. high, is about 4 miles N. by E. from Tanjong Ber- 
siap ; nearly midway between is a remarkable yellow cliff. About three- 
quarters of a mile northward of the yellow cliff, and just to the South of a 
point with a rock off it, is a stream of water. Oelar Reefs is the name given 
to the rocky and uneven ground, with reefs and rocks above water in places, 
extending off shore between Bersiap and Oelar Points. From a mile off 
Bersiap Point, it runs in a N. by W. direction for nearly 3 miles, when it 
trends away to the north-eastward, passing about three-quarters of a mile 
outside Oelar Point, immediately off which are several rocks above water. 

Transit Rock, on which H. M.S. 7V«ws?Y was wrecked, 10th July, 1857, lies 
at the western extremity of this rocky, imeven ground, at 2J miles off shore, 
and W. I N. 8 cables' lengths from a reef which generally shows, except at 
high tides, with 6 and 10 fathoms between them. The least depth on the 
rock at low water springs is 12 ft., and from this spot Oelar Point bears 
N.E. by E. ; the highest point of Monopin Eange E. by S. f S. ; and Kalian 
Point is IJ" open of Bersiap Point S.S.E. southerly, distant from the latter 
point 2J miles. There are 20 fathoms water at a cable's length to the west- 
ward of the 12-feetline ; the depth around varying from 14 to 12, 7, and 5 
fathoms over very uneven bottom. 

A roL-k awash, at low water springs, lies E. | N. 2 cables' lengths from 
the Transit Pock ; and there are 4i fathoms (perhaps less) rocky bottom, at 
half a mile to the northward of the Transit, with 20 fathoms close-to ; the 
locality of the latter is indicated by strong ripples. 

Tanjong Batu-brani well open of Tanjong Bersiap, bearing S.S.E. ^ E., 
clears the Transit Eock to the westward; and Tanjong Biat, well open of 
Tanjong Oelar, bearing E.N.E., clears it to the northward. 

TANJONG BIAT bears N.E. | E., distant 3 miles from Tanjong Oelar, 
and, like that point and Tanjong Bersiap, has rocks above and below water, 


extending some distance off it. The line of danger which extends about 
three-quarters of a mile off Tanjong Oelar, follows the curve of the coast line 
at about the same distance towards Biat Point, where it projects rather 
farther off. In the bay between Oelar and Biat Points is a small stream of 
water, with a village close to it. 

Rocky Patches, with 20 fathoms close to them, lie off Tanjong Biat, 
having a narrow channel with 10 and 11 fathoms water in it between them 
and the rocky ground extending from the coast. From the outer patch of 3 
fathoms, Tanjong Oelar bears S. ^ W. 3 miles, and Tanjong Biat S.E. by E., 
a little over 2 miles. 

Tanjong Oelar bearing South leads nearly half a mile westward of these 
dangers; and Buh'f ^atu, a hill 708 ft. high, about 12 miles eastward of 
Tanjong Biat, bearing E. by S., leads northward of them. 

Caution. — The West coast of Banka, between Tanjong Kalian and Tan- 
jong Biat, is very dangerous to approach, owing to the rocky patches just 
described and the deep water close to them ; ships should, therefore, exercise 
great caution when in this vicinity, observing that Tanjong Bersiap, if not 
brought to the westward of South, will clear all the dangers between Tan- 
jongs Oelar and Biat; and they should be careful to regard the marks given 
to clear the Transit Rock. 

FREDERICK HElv DRICK ROCKS lie at the northern entrance of Banka 
Strait, nearly midway between Batakarang Point on the Sumatra coast and 
Tanjong Oelar on the Banka coast. They consist of two rocky patches, 
lying North and South of each other, having only 9 ft, on the northern patch, 
and 3 ft. on the southern. The two patches occupy a space about a mile 
long. North and South, and half a mile broad. 

From the 3-feet patch Monopin Hill bears nearly E. by S. 14 miles; and 
the lighthouse on Kalian Point S.E. by E. ^ B. 12f miles. 

Monopin Hill E. | S. leads about half a mile southward of the 3-ft- patch; 
and Monopin Hill in line with the remarkable yellow cliff between Bersiap 
and Oelar Points, E. by S. | S., leads 2 miles northward of the northern 

Close around the shoal are 16 to 20 fathoms water. 

A red buoy is moored on the South point of Frederick Hendrick Reef, 
in 5 fathoms, with Kalean light bearing S.E. by E. \ E., Bersiap Hill 
E. by S., and Mount Parree N E. by E. It is visible about 3 miles off ; but 
as the buoy from the strong tides frequently shifts its position, vessels are 
cautioned not to place too much dependence on it. 

Channels. — The channel westward of the Frederick Hendrick Rocks is the 
one most generally used, the depths in it being moderate, decreasing regu- 
larly towards the bank extending from the Sumatra coast ; whereas in the 
channel eastward of the shoal the water is much deeper, and the depths 


Between the shoal and the 3-fathoms line at the edge of the mud-bant 
extending from Batakarang Point, the channel is 4| miles wide, having 16 
and 17 fathoms close outside the 10-fathoms line towards the rocks; the 
depths under 10 fathoms decreasing regularly towards the bank. 

The channel between the shoal and the Transit Eoek and reefs off the 
"West coast of Banka is 8 miles wide, having 16 to 20 fathoms at 3 or 4 
miles eastward of the shoal, and 19 to 25 miles nearer Banka, which depth* 
increase to 24 and 30 fathoms close to the dangers extending from that 

Directions for West Channel. — To avoid the Frederick Hendrick Eocks, 
vessels taking the channel between them and Sumatra should keep in 4^ to 
7 fathoms water on the edge of the bank off Batakarang Point, and not keep 
more to the eastward than in 9 or 10 fathoms, while Monopin Hill bears 
between East and E.S.E. 

In working thx'ough this channel a vessel should not deepen to more than 
9 fathoms towards the Hendrick Eocks, but the bank off Batakarang Point 
may be neared to 5 or 4i fathoms. When Monopin Hill bears E.S.E., the 
vessel will be northward of the rocks. 

In the East Channel, Mounts Punyabung, Paree, and Jerankat, on the 
N.W. part of Banka, will appear like islands. To pass eastward of the 
Frederick Hendrick, keep Mount Punyabung N.E., until Monopin Hillbears- 
E. i S., when Punyabung must not be more eastward than N.E. ; and when 
Monopin is E. by S. J S., Punyabung must not be more ISorth than N.E. ^ N., 
so as to avoid in the first case the Hendrick Eocks, and in the second the 
Transit Eock. "When Monopin bears southward of S.E., Mount Punyabung 
must not be brought to the northward of N.E. 

Soundings in Banka Strait. — In Banka Strait, between Lalarie and Second 
Points, the depths are from 17 to 25 fathoms, shoaling suddenly from those 
depths to 10 fathoms on the Banka side of the strait, but decreasing regu- 
larly towards the 10-fathoms line on the Sumatra side. 

The various banks and coral patches which exist in the strait, having more 
than 5 or 6 fathoms on them, will be best understood by reference to the 
chart. The dangerous banks have been described. Indeed, throughout the 
strait, the soundings cannot alone be relied upon to conduct a vessel safely 
through ; but when associated with careful bearings and frequent references 
to the chart, a stranger need not run the least risk, or experience any diffi- 
culty in passing through the strait for the first time. 

( 215 ) 


The STANTON CHANNEL, which was surveyed, or rather discovered, by 
Mr. W. Stanton, E.N., in command of H.M.S. Saracen, in 1859-60, is a 
most important addition to our knowledge of these entrances to the China 
Sea. This is the more so, inasmuch as the Lucipara Channel to the west- 
ward of it is said to be filling up in consequence of the extension of the low 
Sumatran coast His directions which follow will be found precise and suffi- 
cient. He also makes the following general remarks : It has hitherto been 
the custom for all ships to work along the Sumatra coast, where they have 
not only a strong wind, but a constant current to contend with ; consequently 
sailing vessels have been delayed tivo and three weeks, and instances have been 
known of vessels being a month making the passage through Banka Strait. 

The Saracen frequently worked well to windward under fore and aft sails, 
when the clipper ships could not make any progress, and were compelled to 
anchor on the Sumatra side. From my past experience, I feel confident that 
a smart sailing vessel, by taking advantage of the tides and currents, and 
following the directions hereafter given, may make the passage even in the 
fall strength of the monsoon in three or four days. 

The Stanton Channel, lying along the south-western coast of Banka, is 19 
miles long, and nearly 3 miles wide at its narrowest part, with depths, mid- 
channel, increasing gradually from 7 fathoms at its south-eastern entrance to 
20 fathoms near the other extreme. The approaches to it from the southward 
are marked by the well-defined mountain of St. Paul, and the conical hills 
of Gadong and Toboe Ali Lama (page 201), and in fine clear weather by the 
more distant range of Padang, 2,217 ft. high; these cannot fail to point out 
the entrance, and the water being deep within half a mile of the Dapur 
Islands (page 200), will give strangers confidence in steering for the land. 
Prominent points and bills will also be seen along the Banka coast, bearings 
of which will enable a vessel at any time to ascertain her position. 

The channel is bounded by narrow banks extending in a N.W. by W. and 
S.E. by E. direction, and all partaking of the same formation (sand) in their 
shoalest parts, with a mixture of mud and sand between. The two marking 
the western boundary of the channel are named Smits and Melvill Banks, and 
off the latter a lightvessel would be most useful. 

Smits Bank consists of four smaller banks, nearly connected, and forming 
one long narrow ridge 15 miles in length, with its shoalest part of 3 ft., 
lying 6 miles, and the next shoalest of 9 ft., 3 miles from the north-western 
end; two other patches of 3 fathoms and 2f fathoms lie on the S.E. part of 
the bank. 

Panjang Hill, bearing N.E., leads to the north-eastward of this bank, be- 
tween it and the Nemesis Bank, in 6 fathoms at low water. Gradong Peak 


in line with Toboe Ali Point N.E. i E., or Lucipara S.W., clears the south- 
eastern end in 4 fathoms ; and Lalarie Point N.W. by W. ^ W., or not ap- 
proaching the bank to a less depth than 10 fathoms, clears the north-eastera 

Melvill Bank, 5 miles long, and nearly half a mile broad, lies a quarter 
of a mile to the eastward of the south-eastern part of Smits Bank, with a 
depth of 7 and 8 fathoms between. The shoalest part of this bank is near 
its north-western extremity, and is about 2 miles in length, with from 2 to 
3 fathoms on it. At the North end, in 5 fathoms, Laboh Point bears N.E. 
by E. ; and tlie bank is cleared to the south-eastward in 7 fathoms by the 
latter point b-^aring N. by E. i^ E. ; and to the eastward in 8 fathoms, by 
bringing Parmassang Peak to touch the West side of Banka Hill N.W. | N. 

Between the above banks and Lucipara, there are many others all trend- 
ing in the same direction, with narrow deep-water channels between ; but as 
these channels are exceedingly narrow, and no marks can be given to clear 
the banks, they are not available for vessels. 

Eastern Bank, — The bank bounding the eastern side of Stanton Channel 
is 13 miles long and nearly a mile wide, at 3 miles S.W. by S. of Laboh 
Point, which is the broadest and shoalest part. It is formed by three smaller 
banks nearly joined together, with from 2 to 3 fathoms on the north-western 
and south-eastern ones, and only 4J ft. on the middle of the centre bank. 
The north-western extremity is separated from a projecting horn, extending 
from the shore mud flat at 2 miles S.S.W. of Pulo Dahun, by a narrow 
channel of 6 fathoms. 

Gadong Peak, in line with Toboe Ali Fort, bearing N.E. ^ N., leads to 
the southward of the south-eastern part of the bank in 4J fathoms ; Dapur 
Island S.E. by E. f E. leads to the westward ; and the Mameion or Hum- 
mock, kept open to the westward of Pulo Besar, N.W., clears the West side 
of the north-western extremity of the above banks. 

A small bank of sand lies 1 mile to the westward of the south-eastern 
extreme of the eastern bank, but as not less than 4J fathoms were found on 
it at low water, it is not dangerous to ships passing through. 

Inner Channel. — To the eastward of the eastern bank along the coast of 
Banka, there is an inner channel nearly a mile wide, with 4 to 6 fathoms 
water in it, but as it is encumbered with shoals it is only navigable for small 
vessels. Dapur Island, bearing S.E. by E., leads nearly in mid-channel. 

There are also two outlets into the main channel over the western bank, 
in 5 and 4 fathoms ; the former with Pulo Dahun bearing N.N.E. ; the 
latter and southern outlet, when Pulo Puni and Gossong Point are in line, 
E. ^N. 

Nemesis Bank, lying nearly mid-channel between Pudi Point and False 
First Point, is a long ridge of sand extending 9 miles in a N.W. by W. and 


S.E. by E. direction, with irregular soundings of from 3 to 10 fathoms on it. 
The shoalest part consists of two patches of ?> fathoms, each about 2 cables' 
lengths in extent^ upon one of which the French frigate Nemesis grounded in 
1857. They lie E. S.E. and W.N. W. from each other, distant half a mile, 
and from the western patch Lalarie Point bears N.N.W. i W. 4J miles, and 
False First Point S.S.W. i W. 4^ miles. 

Casuarina Point kept open of Lalarie Point, bearing N. by W. f W., leads 
to the westward of these shoal patches, in 14 fathoms water; the Mamelon 
or Hummock, N. by E. i E., or False First Point S.W. i S., leads to the 
eastward ; and Lalarie Point bearing N.AV. | N., clears them to the north- 
ward. There is another patch of 5 fathoms lying 2 miles from the south- 
eastern extreme of the bank, with False First Point W. i S., and First Point 
S. by W. i W., distant SJ miles. 

Anchorage may be found anywhere in the Stanton Channel, but ships 
bringing up with their kedge or stream anchor must always be prepared to 
let go the bower anchor, as there will be experienced, particularly during the 
change of the monsoons, very dangerous squalls, with heavy rain, thunder, 
and lightning, which generally last for about an hour. 

TIDES. — In the S.E. monsoon it is high water, full and change, at Toboe 
Ali Point, on the Banka shore, at 8** 30™ p.m., and at 10 a.m. in N.W. 
monsoon. The ordinary rise at springs is lOf ft., but it sometimes reaches 
12 ft. The highest tide generally occurs two days after full and change. 
The rate at springs is 2^- knots. The flood stream sets to the N."W. and runs 
for about 12 hours, and the ebb the same period in the opposite direction, 
but they are both sometimes influenced by the strength of the monsoon. 
When it is blowing strong from the S.E., the flood stream often runs for 14 

A vessel may carry a fair tide all the ivay through by starting from either 
extremity of the strait at low water, as the tidal waves from the China and 
Java Seas meet near the Nangka Islands. 

At Laboh Point it is high water, full and change, at 1 1 p.m. in the S.E. 
monsoon, and the rise at ordinary springs is 10 ft. 

After rounding Lalarie Point in the S.E. monsoon the flood sets N.N.W., 
and the ebb to the S.S.E., along the Banka shore. 

The time of high water at Laboh Point being 2 J hours later than at Toboe 
Ali Puint, in the southern part of Stanton Channel, for a few days after full 
and change the tides will be found (as there is generally 12 hours' flow and 
ebb) to run in one direction all night, and the opposite direction during the 
day, with a velocity of from 2^ to 3 knots. The current also setting directly 
mid-channel, the flood N.W. by W., and the ebb S.E. by E., vessels may 
take advantage of it in light airs to drop through. 

Directions for Statiton Channel from the Southward. — Vessels from the south- 

I. A. 2 1' 


ward, intending to proceed into Banka Strait by the Stanton Channel, can- 
not fail, in approaching the coast of Banka, to recognise the mountain of 
St. Paul (page 201) by its flattish top having several nipples of nearly the 
same elevation, and Gadong and Toboe Ali Lama Peaks by their conical 
appearance. Should the weather be clear, the distant high range of Pedang 
will be visible. The highest peak of this range is quoin-shaped, attaining 
from its western shoulder an elevation of 2,217 ft., with several lower hilla 
of a rounder and more conical appearance adjoining, the two westernmost 
being about 1,200 and 1,400 ft. high. 

After recognizing Mount St. Paul and Toboe Ali Lama Peak, approach 
the latter on a North bearing, and when about 3 miles to the southward of 
the Dapur Islands, steer N.W. by W., which will lead nearly mid-channel 
to abreast Banka Point ; recollecting the marks given at p. 216, for clearing 
the Melvill and Eastern Bank. 

When off Laboh Point, the high range of Parmassang will be visible, 
rising from a gradual slope on its western shoulder to a flat-top peak, with 
two lower ones adjoining. The three hills, Banka, Panjang, and Woody, 
will also be seen ; the two former may be known by their wedge shape, and 
the latter by its isolated position. 

Prom abreast Banka Point a course may be shaped along the Banka 
shore, passing Lalarie Point at a distance not within IJ mile, and from 
thence to Second Point. When Pulo Dahun bears North, great care must 
be taken to avoid the spit which extends in a south-easterly direction from 
the shore mud flat, between the above island and Banka Point. The Ma- 
melon or Hummock, N.W., well open to the westward of Pulo Besar, clears 
this spit (page 216) ; from thence to the Timbaga Eocks the bank may be 
avoided by not shoaling towards it under a depth of 10 fathoms. 

Working through this channel from the eastward, vessels may stand towards 
the South extreme of the Dapur Islands to a distance of half a mile, as these 
islands have deep water at 4 cables' lengths from them. Between this and 
Toboe Ali the shore mud flat may be approached until Pulo Dapur bears 
S.E. by E. ^ E., and Lucipara may be neared to a distance of 5 miles ; but 
when Gadong Peak bears N.E. ^ N., or comes in line with Toboe Ali Fort, 
Pulo Dapur must not be brought to the southward of S.E. by E. | E. to clear 
the north-eastern part of the Eastern bank. 

Parmassang Peak touching the West side of Banka Hill N W. | N., will 
clear the Melvill Bank, and when Laboh Point bears N.E. J N., by not 
shoaling under 10 fathoms, all the banks on both sides will be cleared. 
Lalarie Point N.W. by W. \ W. will also clear the north-eastern part of 
Smits Bank. 

The shoal patches on the Nemesis Bank should not be approached under a 
depth of 10 fathoms until Casuarina Point comes open of Lalarie Point, and 
in rounding the latter point take care not to come into a less depth than 10 


fathoms, as the bank is here steep-to. The Timbaga Rocks may also be 
avoided by following the same precaution, and from thence it is recommended 
to work up from Second Point along the Sumatra coast. 

From the Westward.— Proceeding through Stanton Channel from the 
westward, when abreast and IJ mile distant from Lalarie Point, an E.S.E. 
course will lead nearly mid-channel between the Nemesis Bank and the 
bank extending from the Banka shore, but when Panjang Hill bears N.E. 
a more southerly course must be shaped to pass in mid-channel. When 
Dahun Point bears North, the Mamelon or Hummock open of Pulo Besar 
N.W. (the clearing mark for the spit off Pulo Dahun, page 216), also leads 
directly through the channel. 

Working through from the westward in the S.E. monsoon, the same pre- 
caution must be taken as already mentioned to avoid the shoalest part of the 
Nemesis Bank, which will be passed when the Mamelon bears N. by E. J E. ; 
and should a strong flood tide be 'then running, it would be advisable to 
anchor in 8 or 9 fathoms, sand, on the Nemesis Bank, as the water on both 
sides of it is deep, and wait for a change of tide, or the chance of the land 
breeze, which blows generally either during the night or early in the morn- 
ing from the Banka shore. When Panjang Hill bears N.E., Lalarie Point 
must not be brought to the northward of N.W. by W. \ W. to avoid Smits 
bank, and the same directions as already given in not approaching the banks 
under 10 fathoms until Laboh Point bears N.E. j N., will be quite sufficient 
to enable any vessel to work through. 

LTJCIPARA CHANNEL. — The South entrance to this channel is between 
Lucipara Island and Lucipara Point, nearly West, 9 miles distant from it. 
The western side of the channel (p. 193) is bounded by the mud flat which 
projects from the coast of Sumatra for 2 miles and more, and its eastern side 
by various hard and dangerous sandbanks, which narrow the breadth of the 
passage to IJ and 2 miles. 

Mr. Stanton is of opinion that this channel will, within a few years, be- 
come unnavigable for vessels of large draught, owing to the rapid extension 
of the mud flat projecting from the Sumatra coast on the western side, and 
to the extension, also of the sandbanks on the eastern side. 

Round Shoal. — The southern sandbank in this channel is nearly 2 miles 
long W N.W. and E.S.E., and about a mile broad, the least water, 1^ 
fathoms, being near the middle of it. From its southern edge, in 3 fathoms, 
the summit of Lucipara Island bears S.E. ^ E. 1\ miles, and from the 
western edge S.E. ^ E. 9 miles. The narrowest part of the Lucipara Channel 
is between the lightvessel off the western extreme of this bank and the 
mud flat extending from the Sumatra coast. 

LIGHTVESSEL. — In 1870 the Lucipara Channel Lightvessel, showing a 
fixed bright light, elevated 28 ft., and visible 10 miles off, was placed in the 
position formerly occupied by a buoy, in the narrowest part of the channel, 


off the N.W. side of Round Shoal. She is painted yellow, and carries one 
mast with a black ball on the top. From the lightvessel, Green Point bears 
N.W. f N. 4A miles nearly, Lucipara Point S. by W. ^ W., and Lucipara 
Island summit, S.E. | E. 9 miles, 

Hindostan Bank extends from close to the eastern edoje of the Round 
Shoal N.N.W. ^ W. about 3-|- miles. The depths on the southern and 
middle parts of it are 1 to 3 fathoms, but about three-quarters of a mile 
from its northern extreme is a patch of hard sand, with only 3 feet water 
over it. 

Merapie Shoal, the most northern of the banks on the eastern side of the 
Lucipara Channel, is composed, like the others, of hard sand, and is three- 
quarters of a mile in extent North and South, and more than half a mile 
broad. The least water on it is 2^ fathoms. From the middle of the shoal, 
False First Point is in line with First Point. 

In the Lucipara Channel the bottom is generally hard sand on the banks 
towards the eastern side, and soft mud on the western or Sumatra side ; yet 
close to the north-western edge of the Middle sand-bank the bottom is also 
soft, with 5^ and 6 fathoms. It is, therefore, advisable not to keep in too 
bard or in too soft bottom, but in the middle of the channel. 

Directions for Lucipara Channd from the Southward. — When bound towards 
Banka Strait from the southward, the Island of Lucipara is generally made 
between the bearings of N. by E. and N.W., and in 5'^ to 8 or 9 fathoms. 
With westerly winds it is advisable to keep on the western side of the chan- 
nel in 4f to 5J fathoms. 

In clear weather, when the Parmassang Range is visible, the highest peak 
on the western extreme of the range in line with First Point, N. by W. ^ W. 
will lead up to abreast the lightvessel. This mark should be left when Luci- 
para Island bears about E.S.E., or S.E. by E. ; then, by keeping the Mame- 
lon Hummock (page 202) on a N. f W. bearing, it will lead through 
between the bank off First Point and the Merapie Shoal, until Lalarie. Point 
is seen well open of First Point, when a vessel may begin to edge away to 
the westward to round First Point, taking care not to approach it nearer 
than a mile, as the bank projecting from the point is steep-to, especially on 
its N.E. side. After rounding First Point at not less than that distance, 
a N.W. ^ W. course will lead midway between False First Point and the 
Nemesis Bank. 

From, the Northward. — Entering Lucipara Channel from the northward, 
First Point must be rounded with great caution, on account of its being 
steep-to, especially on its north-eastern side, and it must not be approached 
nearer than a mile ; at the same time, if the tide is running to the south- 
eastward, it will be necessary to use proper care that, in giving a safe berth 
to First Point, the vessel is not set too near the Merapie Shoal, which the 
tide will be likely to do unless guarded against. When Mamelon Hummock 


bears N. f W., keep it so, until Lucipara is S.E. by E., or E.S.E., when 
Parmassang Peak may be brought in line with First Point, N. by W. I W., 
which will lead clear of the Sumatra Bank ; or a S.E. by E. course may be 
steered, which will lead midway between Lucipara and the main. 

Working through this channel, a vessel may stand toward the Sumatra 
Bank safely by attending carefully to the lead, remembering not to go into 
less than 6J fathoms when near the elbow projecting just to the southward 
of Green Point. Lucipara must not be approached nearer than 2 miles, 
when bearing to the northward of N.E. by E. ; between the bearings of 
N.E. by E. and E. by S. it may be approached to a mile. 

Careful attention to the lead and a good look-out will also give sufficient 
warning when standing towards the banks on the eastern side. 

Caution. — Many vessels passing through the Lucipara Channel have 
grounded on the mud flat extending from the coast of Sumatra, especially a 
short distance to the southward of Green Point, where the flat extends far- 
ther out, and all have been obliged, before they could get off, either to trans- 
ship or to throw a part of the cargo overboard, as the anchors which were 
laid out on the soft muddy bottom to heave them oflP came home. This part 
of the flat shoals suddenly from 6 to 3 fathoms, and therefore should never 
be approached to a less depth than 6A- fathoms. 

It will also be necessary to use great caution when working through this 
channel from the southward, and standing to the eastward, to avoid being 
set on the banks by the tides, which sweep over them with great strength. 
In wofking through this channel from the northward, similar caution is 
required. With light winds it is very difficult to get into the northern 
entrance, the tides sweeping vessels away to the south-eastward amongst 
the banks. 

Directiom from Lalarie Point through Banha Strait. — Having passed through, 
either Stanton or Lucipara Channels, and brought Lalarie Point to bear 
about East, distant 3 miles, a N.N.W. f W. course for about 10 miles will 
lead midway between the rocky bank of 7 or 8 fathoms water, lying north- 
westward of the Timbaga Rocks, and the mud-bank projecting from Second 
Point. Continuing the same course for 6 or 7 miles further, the vessel will 
be 1^ to If 'mile outside the horn or spit projecting from the Sumatra Flat 
(page 194). Still continuing the same course for another 14 or 15 miles 
Third Point will bear S.W., distant about 2 miles. 

If a vessel following this track, after having passed Second Point, should 
shoal the soundings under 6 fathoms, she wiU be getting too near the Suma- 
tra Flat, and should haul out more to the eastward ; remembering that 
Second Point must not be brought eastward of S. by E. f E. until Par- 
massang Peak bears E.S.E., to clear the spit or horn projectino' from the 

From the above position ofi" Third Point, a W. by N. I N. course may be 


steered for about 28 or 29 miles, which, if the vessel be not affected by- 
tides or currents, will place her in a position from which Fourth Point 
will bear about S.E. f S. distant 7 miles, and Monopin Hill N. i E. t» 

N. JE. 

From thence steer about N.W. by W. for Batakarang Point— paying par- 
ticular attention to the tides, which frequently set strong into or out of the 
Palembang Eivers (pp. 191-2) — and the vessel will soon pass over a narrow 
bank of sand, having 7 fathoms on it, and again deepen the water to 13 
and 16 fathoms. Having run 15 or 16 miles, the soundings will again de- 
crease under 10 fathoms, and she will be on the edge of the bank extending 
from Batakarang Point, and may proceed along the edge of it in from 8 to 6 
fathoms; the directions given at page 214 must then be followed to pass 
westward of the Frederick Hendrick Rocks, which channel is recommended 
as being the best and safest, especially at night. 

Through Banla Strait from the Northward. — A vessel having passed the 
Toedjoe, or Seven Islands, and steering to the southward for the entrance 
of Banka Strait, will find no difiiculty in clear weather in fixing her position 
which can be readily done by cross bearings of Mount Punyabung or Saddle 
Hill, and Monopin Hill ; under such circumstances the strait can be entered 
on either side of the Frederick Hendrick Pocks by attending to the directions 
given at page 214. But in thick weather it often happens that no land can 
be seen until the vessel has arrived very near to the entrance of the strait, 
and at such times it is important to get hold of the bank extending from the 
Sumatra coast, and then proceed along its edge in 8 to 6 fathoms, carefully 
attending to the lead. Sometimes Monopin will be seen, but no other land, 
in such case it will be prudent to proceed as before, keeping along the edge 
of the bank. 

Working through Banha Strait. — Directions have been given in pages 
217-18 and 220, for working into the strait from the southward, and in page 
214 for working into it from the northward by the channels on either 
side of the Frederick Hendrick Eocks ; it may, however, be as well to remark 
again here that the passage westwai-d of the Frederick Hendrick Shoal is 
much to be preferred at night, or when the land is obscured and reliable 
bearings cannot be obtained. 

The bank fronting the Sumatra coast may be conveniently approaced when 
well between the points, by common attention to the lead ; but off' the pijints 
and for a few miles on either side of them great attention must be paid to 
the soundings. The most dangerous part of the bank is from Fourth Point 
for about 6 miles to the westward of it, which must be approached with the 
utmost caution. 

Mr. Stanton strongly recommends vessels working in either direction 
through the strait, or proceeding through with a fair wind and_^contrary tide, 
to avoid the Sumatra coast and keep on the Banka shore, between Lalarie 


Point and Tanjong Tadah. He observes that hitherto it has been the cus- 
tom for all ships to work along the Sumatra coast, where they have not only 
a strong wind but a constant current to contend with, consequently, sailing 
vessels have been delayed two or three weeks, and instances are known of 
vessels being a month making the passage through Banka Strait, whereas a 
smart sailing vessel, by keeping on the Banka side, taking advantage of the 
tides, and following the directions given below, may make the passage even 
in the full strength of the monsoon in three or four days. 

The advantages gained by keeping on the Banka coast are as follows : — 

A vessel may carry a fair tide all the way through by stai-ting from either 
extremity at low water, as the tidal waves from the China and Java Seas 
meet near the Nangka Islands ; prominent hills and points, with a gradual 
decrease in the soundings, give confidence to mariners when steering for the 
land ; a strong land wind will be generally experienced during the night, 
when the regular monsoon is blowing in the middle of the strait and near the 
Sumatra coast ; and in the strength of the monsoon regular tides will be met 
with on the Banka shore, while strong currents will invariably be found set- 
ting to leeward along the Sumatra shore. 

From the Soidhward — In working between Lalarie Point and the Nang- 
ka Islands, the lead is a good guide, as the soundings decrease regularly, 
except near Lalarie Point and the Timbaga Pocks, where they decrease 
rather suddenly from a depth of 10 fathoms ; if, however, Lalarie Point is 
not brought South of S.E. ^ S. until Brani Peak bears E. by N, | N., a ves- 
sel will keep clear of all danger near the Timbaga Rocks. Having arrived 
within 3 miles of the Great Nangka, the spit extending from the South end 
of that island should not be approached under a depth of 7 fathoms ; and to 
avoid the rocky ledges extending from Middle and West Nangka, West Eeef 
(6 ft. above water, page 205), should not be brought to the westward of North 
after the peak of Great Nangka bears N.E., until the vessel is to the north- 
ward of the Nangka Group, 

From the Nangka Islands to Tanjong Tadah the shore may be safely ap- 
proached by the lead, as the soundings are shoal with a gradual decrease. 
When Tanjong Tadah bears N.E. f N. (which clears the eastern side of the 
Brom-Brom Eeef), vessels should cross over towards Fourth Point on the 
Sumatra coast. 

From the Northioard. — Coming from the northward, it is merely necessary 
to reverse the order of the above directions. Vessels should keep towards 
the Sumatra coast until past Fourth Point, which they should not approach 
nearer than 3 miles. When Tanjong Tadah bears N.E. f N., they may cross 
over to the Banka side, taking care not to bring that point to the eastward of 
the above bearing. From Tanjong Tadah to the Nangka Islands they may 
stand in-shore guided by the lead ; but having arrived abreast of the latter, 
take care" not to bring West Eeef to the westward of North, until the peak of 


Great Nangka Island bears N.E., and not approach the spit off the South 
end of the island under 7 fathoms. From 2^- miles South of the Nangka 
Islands the shore may be approached by the lead to any convenient depth of 
water, but when Brani Peak bears E. by N. ^ N. the vessel will be nearing 
the Timbaga Rocks, and must not then come under 10 fathoms. Lalarie 
Point bearing S.E. | S. clears all the dangers near the Timbaga Pocks, and 
the point should not be brought to the southward of that bearing until 
Casuarina Point bears East. From thence to Lalarie Point the shore may 
be again approached by the lead ; but when nearing the point the soundings 
decrease more suddenly, and a vessel should not go into a less depth than 
10 fathoms, and should round the point at the distance of about 1^^ mile. 
From thence she can proceed to the southward through either the Stanton 
or Lucipara Channels, according to the directions at pages 217 — 219 and 222. 


BTJLO, or Jibuse Bay. — The N.W. coast of Banka is 43 miles in extent, 
from Tanjong Oelar to Tanjong Malalu, the bay of Bulo or Jibuse occupy- 
ing more than half of that space. From Tanjong Biat (p. 212), the south- 
western point of the bay, to Tanjong Ginting, its north-western point, the 
direction is about N.E. f N., and the distance 17^ miles ; the depth of the 
bay is 7 miles. 

The whole of this bay is shallow to a distance of 3 miles from the shore, 
except to the southward of Ginting Point, where the shoals do not appear to 
extend farther than a quarter of a mile. The rivers Bulo and Jibuse disem- 
bogue in its N.E. part. The bay is much visited by coasters, and occasion- 
ally by larger vessels, for the purpose of loading tin. 

The anchorage is in 5 or 6 fathoms, on soft muddy bottom, with Ginting 
Point N. by E. J E., Songi Bulo E. i S., and the watering place N.E. by 
E. 5 E. ; or in 5 fathoms off the Bulo River, with the village N.E. ^ E., and 
Ginting Point N. by W. f W., 3 miles from the shore. 

Water — Fresh water can be obtained in a small bay about li- mile to 
the eastward of Tanjong Ginting. — Commander J. W. King, R.N., says it is 

TANJONG GINTING, the N. VV. point of Bulo Bay, is a long, low point, 
having a reef projecting 2 miles from it, close to which are 8 fathoms water. 
The position of the point may be easily recognized by the three hills, Paree, 
Funyabung, and Jerankat, which at a great distance appear like islands. The 
first, 858 ft. high, is the most southern one of the three, and rises 4 miles 
East of the point ; Punyabung, a remarkable saddle-shaped hill, 794 feet 
high, very conspicuous from seaward, rises close to the coast, about 3 milea 


south-eastward of Ginting Puiut ; Jerankat, 657 ft. high, is about 4 miles 
E.N.E. from Punyabung. 

The Coast between Grinting Point and Punyabung Hill forms a small bay, 
which appears to be nearly filled with rocks. It then trends E.N.E. about 
18 miles to Tanjong Melalu. The whole coast between Punyabung Hill 
and Tanjong Melalu is fronted by a reef which projects 1 or 2 miles from 
the shore. 

Malan Hyu, Malan Boyang, and Malan Guntur, are three rocks lying off the 
coast between Tanjong Dugong and Tanji>ng Melalu. Malan Hyu is about 
the size of a boat, and covered with white guano. It lies about 3 miles 
North from Tanjong Dugong. Malan Doyang is not much above water, and 
only the size of Malan Hyu. it lies about 3 miles off shore, with Punya- 
bung Hill S.W. J S. Malan Guntur is nearly midway between Malan 
Doyang and Tanjong Melalu, and about a mile off shore. It is larger 
than the other two rocks, and lies within the limit of the shoal water pro- 
jecting from the coast. All these rocks appear to be surrounded to a short 
distance by sunken rocks ; and a sunken rock lies southward of Malan 
Doyang, midway between it and the shore. 

ZLABAT BAY.— Ta)iJo>ig Melalu, in lat. 1° 31^' S., long. 105° 38i' E., is 
the western point of entrance of Klabat Bay, and upon it is a pretty high 
hill, known as Mount Melalu. Here the N.W. coast of Banka terminates, 
as the coast line on the other side of entrance of Klabat Bay trends to the 
eastward, and forms the North shore of the island. 

Klabat Bay runs up into Banka Island about 27 miles in a S.E. direction, 
but being encumbered with many rocks and shoals, there is only a narrow 
passage left, of 4 or 5 fathoms water, by which vessels of heavy burden pro- 
ceed as far as the mouth of the Lyang Eiver. Over the inner end of the bay 
hangs the highest of the Banka Mountains, called Gunong Marass, or Maradi. 
This beautiful mountain is easily recognized by its three peaks, the summits 
of which may often be seen when passing through Banka Strait, presenting 
somewhat the appearance of a crown. The highest of the peaks, 2,320 it. 
high, is in lat. 1° 61' S., and long. 105° 53' E. 

Tanjong Penyusu, the eastern point of Klabat Bay, is a long, low projec- 
tion, with an islet and some rocks extending nearly 2 miles from it. 

Karang Trasseh Laout is a reef with only 2 or 3 fathoms water over it, 
and 10 and 11 fathoms around it, lyiug about 3 miles N.W. J N. from Tan- 
jong Punyusu. From the reef the West point of Punyusu Islet is in line 
with the hill near Monkubur Point, bearing S.S.E., Moncudu Islet East, and 
Mount Melalu S.W. by W. \ W. 

Vessels coming to Klabat Bay for cargoes of tin, usually anchor outside 
the entrance, between its eastern point and the Trassie Eeef, in 9 J or 10 
fathoms, soft muddy bottom, having Punyusu Islet in line with Mount 
I. A. 2 G 


Harass S.S.E. i E., Klabat Hill S.S.W. ^ W., Melalu Point W. by S. i S., 
and Moncudu Island E. J N. 

The Coast from Tanjong Punyusu takes, with a slight curve inland, a 
direction about E. by N. for 10 miles, to a point abreast of a small islet 
named Fulo Moncudu; and from thence East for 2^ miles to Tanjong Crassok, 
the northernmost point of Banka, in lat. 1° 29' S., long. 105° 56^' E. Many 
rocks lie close to this part of the coast, and shoal water extends nearly a mile 
from it. From Tanjong Crassok the coast trends to the south-eastward, 
forming the N.E. coast of Banka. 

A reef, having 2 fathoms water over it, lies about 2 miles off shore, with 
Moncudu Islet bearing East, and Gunong Chundong S.E. ^ S. Eocks are 
also marked on the chart, one at 3 miles E.S.E. from Tanjong Crassok, and 
another at 2i miles farther to the south-eastward, and 1^ mile off shore. 

( 227 ) 



The channels between Banka and Lepar on the West and Billiton to east- 
ward are collectively known as the Strait of Gaspar. Captain Huddart 
says that the first ship which passed through was the Macclesfield galley, 
Capt. Hurle, in March, 1702. This is the westernmost channel. The name 
Gaspar is that of the Spanish commander from Manila, who passed through 
it in 1724. Besides the first-named channel westward of Pulo Leat, there 
is a second, called the Middle Pass, on the eastern side of that island. The 
third is the Clements Channel, named after the Commodore of the homeward 
bound English East India Fleet, in 1781, which passed through between, 
the islets south-eastward of Pulo Leat ; and the fourth, the Stohe Channel, 
to the eastward of these islets, is named after the Dutch officer who first 
surveyed it. Of these the first and fourth are most used, as will be explained 

Banka or Gaspar Strait ? — From the earliest times of our China commerce 
Gaspar Strait has been preferred to Banka Strait, by ships coming from 
China. But it is of much more dangerous approach, both from North and 
South, and the new and excellent Stanton Channel in the latter may lead 
to a preference being given to it. Upon this subject the following is given 
in the China Sea Pilot. 

Banka Strait possesses unquestionable advantages over those of Gaspar 
and Carimata, and is without doubt the best and safest route into the China 
Sea. Although of much greater length, and not so direct for vessels bound 
to China as Gaspar Strait, yet it is manifestly superior to that strait ; for it 
is easy and safe of approach. It affords convenient anchorage in every part, 
which enables vessels to avail themselves of favourable winds and tides ; and 
it leads into a part of the China Sea free from danger. Gaspar Strait, on 
the contrary, is difficult and dangerous of approach, rocks and shoals ex- 
tending for 35 miles to the southward. The depths of water are too great to 
afford convenient anchorage ; and it conducts into a part of the China Sea 


very imperfectly explored, and abounding with hidden dangers, amongst 
■which vessels are liable to be set by uncertain currents. No serious accident 
has occurred within the last few years to vessels passing through Banka 
Strait ; whereas many fine ships, with valuable cargoes, have been lost in or 
near Gaspar Strait. 

For vessels proceeding to Singapore there can be no doubt that Banka 
Strait is in all respects to be preferred, and it has in fact become the recog- 
nized highway of the trade passing between Sunda Strait or Batavia, and 
Singapore. But for ships to China, Gaspar Strait being shorter and more 
direct, is still preferred, and will no doubt continue to be by many navi- 
gators, especially those who are anxious to make quick passages, even at 
the expense of incurring additional risk. It is certain that a vessel arriving 
off the entrance of Banka or Gaspar Strait in the morning, and favoured 
with a commanding breeze, would gain some advantage in point of time by 
passing through the latter ; but in calms and light airs, or against the N.E. 
monsoon, there is good reason to believe that vessels will make quick, and 
often quicker passages, by proceeding through Banka Strait, and they will 
always be assured of much greater safety. In thick or bad weather, it is 
possible to proceed through Banka Strait without risk ; but Gaspar Strait 
can never be approached at such times without incurring considerable 

The fast clipper ships, which every season contend for the honour of land- 
ing the first of the year's teas in England, usually proceed through Gaspar 
Strait, as do most homeward-bound ships, to whom saving of time is of the 
first importance, and there can be no doubt but they will continue to do so 
in preference to the more circuitous, although much safer, route of Banka 
Strait. Until, however, the correct positions of the shoals and dangers 
known to exist to the northward of Gaspar Strait are determined, and this 
space properly explored, vessels must keep a vigilant lookout when ap- 
proaching the strait from the northward, and be prepared for the possibility 
of meeting with some danger not marked on the charts. Nor must they 
relax their vigilance when getting near to Pulo Leat, and when passing 
through the strait. No opportunity should be lost of determining the ship's 
exact position ; and the greatest attention should be paid to ascertaining the 
Bet of the current, and to guard against its effects. Many fine ships have 
been lost in Gaspar Strait — not a few on the Alceste Eeef, from wrongly 
estimating their distance from the land ; but in the majority of instances 
from causes which might have been guarded against by the exercise of due 
care and judgment. 

Gaspar Strait was surveyed in 1854 by the officers of the United States 
Navy attached to an exploring expedition. 

The territory on either side of the strait being in possession of the Dutch, 
the names in strict propriety should be in accordance with that orthography. 


But as the strait is a common highway for the whole world, only those names 
which might be otherwise ambiguous will be thus denoted. 

BILIITON ISLAND, or in Malay Blitung, is only one-half the size of 
Banka, but it resembles it in its geographical structure and in the produc- 
tion of tin, which is worked by a Dutch company. This is the south-eastern- 
most extremity of the mining fields for this important metal, the northern- 
most being at Tavoy, on the Tenasserim coast, a range of 20 degrees of 

The following description of and directions for the strait are taken from 
the China Sea Pilot. 


Dangerous shoals extend for about 35 miles to the southward of Gaspar 
Strait, rendering great caution necessary when approaching the strait from 
that direction.* 

Sharpshooter Shoal. — The British merchant ship Belted Will, Captain 
Alexander Locke, in July, 1869, during her passage from Canton to London, 
slightly touched on a shoal patch lying S. |^ E., 34 miles from entrance point 
in Gaspar Strait. The ship was going 9 knots at the time, but the state of 
the weather, occasioned by the monsoon blowing very strong, prevented an 
examination of the danger beyond two casts of 9 fathoms, which were ob- 
tained shortl}' after the shoal was passed. Observations obtained on the 
same day, as well as the reckoning carried from Entrance point, place this 
patch in lat. 3° 3o' 35" S., long. 106'^ 56' E. 

Near this position the Sharpshooter Shoal, of 12 ft. water, and lying 12 
miles W. f S. from the Hancock Shoal, was unsuccessfully searched for by 
Staff Commander Edward Wilds of H.M.S. Sivallow, in 1866. It is pro- 
bably the same danger, and the name has therefore been retained on the 

HANCOCK SHOAL, in lat. 3^ 34i' S., long. 107° 4' E., is a small patch 
about a quarter of a mile in extent, but whether composed of sand or coral 
does not aj)pear on the chart. It has only 1 fathom of water over it, and 6 
to 7 fathoms around it. 

HIPPOGRIFFE SHOAL was so named after an American ship lost on it. 
Mr. Wilds, R.N., in H.M.S. SwaUoiv, searched for the Hippogriffe Shoal, 
and found it in lat. 3° 23' 36" S., long. 106° 54' 30" E. It is a dangerous 

* Doubtful Dangers. — A doubtful rock was marked in former charts at 3f miles S.W. 
by W. 5 W. of the Hancock Shoal ; a small shoal of 6 feet water, named Mary Goddard, 
at 4^ miles S.S.E. of the Hancock ; but a careful search having been made for these dan- 
gers in May, 1866, by Mr. Wild-, Master commanding H.M. surveying-vessel Stcallow, 
without the slightest indication of their existence, thej' have been expunged from the 


boulder rock, with only 3 ft. over it at low water, of circular shape, and 
about 150 ft. in diameter, having large branches of coral upon it. It was 
not seen until close to, and at the time it was examined there was not the 
slightest swell or ripple to indicate its position ; the weather being fine and 
clear, and the wind light from the S.S.E. Regular soundings of 8 fathoms, 
sand and shell, were found around it, and the water in that depth was of a 
pale colour. 

TURTLE SHOAL lies about 2 miles N.E. by E. from the Hancock Shoal, 
and is of about the same extent ; it has but 3 ft. water over it, and 8 to 12 
fathoms around it. There are tide ripples over this shoal. 

LARABE SHOAL, in lat. 3° 33' S., long. 107° 10' E., and distant nearly 
6 miles E. by N. | N. from the Hancock Shoal, is about a third of a mile in 
extent, having 3^ fathoms of water over it, and 5 to 8 fathoms around it. 

SAND ISLAND is the name given to a small patch of sand, just awash at 
high water, with 8 to 14 fathoms water around it, lying about 4 miles 
northward of the Larabe Shoal, in lat. 3° 29' S., long. 107° 9' E. At a mile 
E.N.E. from Sand Island is a shoal patch about a third of a mile in extent, 
having 2^ fathoms water over it, and 8 to 9 fathoms around it ; the tide also 
ripples over this bank. 

There is a danger, named Padang Reef, marked on the chart about 2 J miles 
W. ^ N. of Sand Island, but we have no information about it. 

MIDDLE REEF, lying N.N.E. | E. nearly 2^ miles from Sand Island^ 
appears to be a rock, just above water, on the North end of a small sand 
patch having 2 fathoms water over it, and 8 to 9 fathoms around it. ' 

BRANDING SHOAL {BreaUng, Dutch).— North-west, nearly If mile from 
Middle Reef, are two small patches occupying a space about two-thirds of a 
mile in extent, E.N.E. and W.S.W., and with 12 fathoms water between 
them. The western patch has 1 \ fathom water over it, the eastern one only 
3 ft. ; all around them are 7 or 8 fathoms. 

FAIRLIE ROCK, in lat. 3° 27}' S., long. 106° 59' E., was discovered 
by the East India Coinpany's ship of that name grounding upon it in 1813. 
It is of coral, about a cable's length in diameter, nearly awash at low water, 
and 6 or 7 fathoms close around it. The sea breaks over the rock, and all 
around are overfalls caused by the rocky and uneven character of the bottom. 
From it Entrance Point, the south-eastern extreme of Pulo Lepar, bears 
N. by W. h W., distant 26^ miles, and Shoal-water Island N.E. by E. 15 
miles, and just in sight from the deck of a large ship ; therefore, to avoid 
this rock, Shoal-water Island must, from the deck of a large ship, be sunk 
below the horizon by the time it bears N.E. by E., this island being the only 
land distinctly visible from the rock. 

SHOAL-WATER ISLAND and SHOALS form a group amongst which it 
would not be prudent to venture. Shoal-water or EinUeton Island, in lat. 
3° 19i' S., long. 107" llf E., is a little more than half a mile in diameter, 


and from it Middle Eeef bears S. f W., distant 8 miles. Hancock is a 
small islet, lying N.E. ^ N., three-quarters of a mile from Shoal-water 

Dangerous reefs surround both these islands, among which are some deep 
but very narrow and intricate channels. From Shoal-water Island a reef 
extends from half to three-quarters of a mile, on its S.E., South, and S. W. 
sides ; and about half a mile off its West side is a small detached reef, having 
10 fathoms between it and the reef bordering that side of the island. Off its 
East side reefs extend nearly 1^ mile. The reefs surrounding Hancock 
Island are separated from those around Shoal-water Island by a very narrow 
channel, with depths of 6 to 10 fathoms on it. On the N.E. side of Hancock 
the reef extends about a third of a mile, and on its N.W. side about three- 
quarters of a mile, with some rocks above water on its outer edge. 

One-fathom Patch. — A patch having but 1 fathom water over it, and 7 to 
9 fathoms around it, lies W. J N. nearly 2 miles from Shoal- water Island. 

Embleton Rock is just above water on the N.W. extreme of a bank of hard 
sand, which nearly dries, distant 2 miles N.N.W. f W. from Shoal-water 
Island; there are 12 to 14 fathoms around it. 

Bliss Shoal, lying N.E. by E. nearly a mile from Embleton Eock, and 
N. f W. 2i miles from Shoal-water Island, is about a third of a mile in ex- 
tent, N.W. and S.E. ; it has only a quarter of a fathom water over it, and 6 
to 14 fathoms at a short distance from it. 

There appear to be no dangers between the reefs contiguous to Shoal- 
water and Hancock Islands, or between One-fathom Patch, Embleton Eock, 
and Bliss Shoal, the soundings being from 6 to 14 fathoms ; but vessels had 
better keep well outside, as there is nothing to be gained by venturing among 
those dangers. 

BLAS MATEU ROCK is said to lie right in the fairway track of vessels 
proceeding through Gaspar Strait by the Macclesfield Channel. The American 
surveyors searched for it without success, but their chart does not exhibit 
many soundings in that vicinity, and it would be very unsafe to disregard 
its reputed existence in the face of the following circumstantial account : — 
The Bias Eock was first discovered on September 23, 1839, by the Spanish 
brig San Joaehim, Captain Bias Mateu. Having anchored in 12 fathoms, 
coarse sand, he took the boat and found three rocks, each about 10 ft. in 
diameter. Upon the northei*n rock he had 9 ft., on the southern 12 ft., and 
on the western 17 ft. water, and between them passages of 4^ fathoms. 
Shoal-water Island bore E. \ N., the opening between the two hill on 
Lepar Island N.N.W. ^ W., and the latitude determined by the sun's meri- 
dian altitude 3° 20' 38" S. The whole extent of the three rocks is about half 
a cable's length, and round them the depths were 12, 13, and 14 fathoms; 
but there was reason to believe that there were more rocks, because the chain 
parted while the anchor was being weighed. 


Another Spanish captain, M Aldon, who examined these rocks afterwards, 
gives them a similar description, and states that the light colour of the water 
over them was distinctly visible at a considerable distance N.N.W. of them. 
He places them in 3° 21' S., with Fairlie Rock S.S.E. % E., Shoal-water 
Island East, and the hills of Lepar Island N.N.W, 

To avoid this danger, Entrance Point must not be brought more to the 
westward than N. ^ W., when Shoal-water Island bears between E. ^ S. and 
E. i N. 

Sand Banks. — At 12 miles South of Entrance Point is a patch of 5 fathoms ; 
and at 2^ miles W. ^ S. of this is another of the same depth ; between them 
the depth is 7 fathoms. These spots appear to be on the eastern end of one 
of the long sand ridges which lie to the southward of Banka (page 200), 
probably an extension of the strip upon which is shown the following 
sounding of 4^ fathoms. 

A Bank, in 3° 19' S., with 4^ fathoms water, lies South from a remarkable 
hummock in Banka ; and there are two other banks of 5 fathoms, from 
which a hummock upon the low long point of Baginda bears N.N.W. i W, 
To avoid these banks, the low land which unites the hills of Banka, must be 
kept from a vessel's deck below the horizon, till Entrance Point bears N. by W., 
when a vessel may steer towards the strait ; taking care not to bring thia 
point more to the northward than N. by W. or N. ^ W. 

VANSITTART SHOALS are a collection of rocky patches divided into 
groups, lying between the bearings of S.E. ^ E. and E. f S., distant about 
12 miles from Entrance Point, and extending from lat. 3° 10' to 3*^ 4' S. At 
their southern part are two patches, lying E. ^ S. and W. ^ N. from each 
other, their inner edges being about 2^ miles, and their outer edges nearly 
3^ miles apart. From the western patch of 1^ fathom water, Entrance 
Point bears N.W. i W. 12 miles. Shoal- water Island S.E. i E. 14 miles, 
and Barn Island N.N.E. J E. 12 miles ; from the eastern patch of only 3 ft. 
water, Shoal- water Island bears S.E. J S. 11^ miles, and Barn Island 
N. by E. iE. U miles. 

Nearly the centre of the space occupied by these shoals are a group of 
patches extending N.E. and S.W. about a mile, some having but 1 fathom 
over them, and one patch, the north-eastern, dries at low water. 

The patches at the northern end of the shoals lie close together, and 
extend in an E.N.E. and W.S.W. direction, about 2^ miles. One or two of 
thorn are dry, and others have but 3 ft. water over theoi at low tides. Erooi 
the S.W. patch, which dries. Barn Island bears N.N.E. h E., distant 6^ 
miles ; the South extreme of Saddle Island is open of the South extreme of 
Low Island, N.E. by E. i E. ; and Pulo Jelaka bears N. by W. f W. 13 
miles. From the N.E. patch, of 2 fathoms water. Low Island is distant 2-J 
miles, with its South extreme in line with the middle of Saddle Island, bear- 


ing N.E. by E. ; and Sand Island is just open of the East extreme of Piilo 
Leat, bearing N. ^ "W. 

The marks to clear the Vansittart Shoals are given hereafter. 

GEORGE BANKS is the name given, on the American chart, to four or 
five patches, under a depth of 5 fathoms, lying southward and south-westward 
of the western Entrance Point. The southern extreme of one of these patches, 
which is about H mile long North and South, half a mile broad, and has 3 
fathoms water on it, lies S.W. § W. 4 miles from Entrance Point. About a 
mile S.W. of this patch is another, but smaller one, of 3J fathoms water ; 
and 5 miles S.W. by W. i W. from this last patch, or S.W. i W. 9 miles 
from Entrance Point, is a patch ot 3J fathoms water, but this latter lies 
quite out of the ordinary track of vessels. All these patches lie within the 
edge of the 10-fathoms line, which, passing Entrance Point about Ij mile oj6F, 
runs with an irregularly curved outline to the south-westward. 

A bank, under a depth of 10 fathoms, 9 or 10 miles long, which assumes 
on the chart the form of a shoulder of mutton, N.E. and S.W., with its 
small end to the north-eastward, lies nearly 2 miles outside the 10-fathoms 
line extending from Pulo Lepar. Between it and the shore banks the depths 
are 13 to 17 fathoms. 

Two-and-a-half Fathoms Bank. — ^About the middle of the above shoulder 
of mutton bank, and about a mile from its eastern or outer edge, is a patch 
of only 2 1 fathoms water. This was formerly known as the George Bank, 
because the ship Royal George had, in 1813, passed over its edge in 5^ 
fathoms. It was afterwards explored by Capt. D. Eoss. From it Entrance 
Point bears N. \ W., distant 6| miles ; and Baginda Peak, on Banka Island, 
W. by N. I N., 121 miles. To avoid this bank, keep the high trees near 
Klippige Point, or Eocky Point Hill, open to the eastward of Entrance 

About 2 miles West of the 2^-fathom8 bank is a small patch with 5 
fathoms water over it. 

Two-fathoms Patch. — It would appear from the following report of Capt. 
Keay, of the ship Falcon, March 13th, 1862, that a patch having but 2 
fathoms water over it, lies about 3 miles to the southward of Round Island, 
off the South point of Pulo Lepar : — 

Clear, light, northerly, and smooth sea ; steering towards Entrance Point, 
Caspar Strait ; Round Island bearing N. ^ W. by compass,' apparently 3 
miles distant, the Falcon drawing 18 ft., ran aground on a small sand patch, 
with 12 ft. least water over it, the diameter of the shallowest part being 
about 30 ft. The position of this was not properly ascertained by cross- 
bearings, but it seems as if it was not one of the previously known shoals off 
the entrance of the Lepar Strait. 

I. A. 2» 



The approacli to the Macclesfield Channel, the westernmost of those 
through Gaspar Strait from the southward, is bounded on the eastern side 
by the Hippogriffe Shoal, the position of the Doubtful dangers (page 229), 
the Fairlie Rock, and the Vansittart Shoals ; and on the western side by the 
outermopt of the George Banks. The Bias Mateu Eock, if it exists, lies 
right in the fairway. 

The Sharpshooter, Hancock, and Turtle Shoals, may be said to form a 
point, from which the shoals already mentioned as bounding the eastern 
limit of approach to Macclesfield Channel diverge in one direction, whilst 
those forming the western limit of approach to Stolze and Clements Channel 
diverge in another ; these last may also be said to form the eastern limits of 
the southern entrance to Macclesfield Channel, as vessels may stand to the 
eastward of the Fairlie Eock over towards them, if they should find it con- 
venient to do so. 

EAST COAST of BANKA.— From Tanjong Baginda (page 199), th& 
south-western limit of Gaspar Strait, the coast of Banka turns sharp to the 
northward, and after running 4 miles in a northerly direction, forms a large 
bay, the northern limit of which is Brekat Point, which is also the north- 
western limit of Gaspar Strait. There are several rivers upon this part of 
the coast, the principal of which, the Medang, is sometimes visited by coasters, 
but little is known of it. 

LEPAR STRAIT, between Banka and Pulo Lepar, is 6 or 7 miles wide 
at the entrance, but narrows to less than 2 miles some 4 or 5 miles within. 
The entrance appears from the chart to be barred, although there seems to 
be deep water inside. It is said to be so crowded with small islands and 
reefs, as to be available only for small coasters. The most southern of these 
islands, named ISugar-loaf, is very conspicuous, rising to a peak 650 ft. high. 

PULO LEPAR is an irregularly shaped island, about 12 miles in diameter, 
lying close off the southern part of the East coast of Banka. On its southern 
part are several ranges of hills of moderate elevation, viz : Six Peak Ranges 
781 ft. high; Maroon Rill, 850 ft. ; Four Peah Range, 750 ft. ; and two hiUs 
not named on the chart, 650 ft. high ; further to the westward is a hill, 700 
feet high, named False Sugar-loaf. 

Entrance Point, the south-eastern extreme of the island, is in lat. 3° 1|' S., 
long. 106° 53' E. The land over it is hilly, and the point is bordered by a 
reef, extending 1 or 2 cables' lengths from it. Per gam or Round Island is a 
small islet surrounded by reefs, lying W.S.W. 2| miles from Entrance Point, 
and ab lut half a mile off the South coast of the island. False Rocky Point 
bears N. f E., distant 4 miles from Entrance Point. Immediately to the 
northward of it is a small stream named Eed Eiver. 


Rocky Point and Light. — Tmyong Lahoe, Klippige, or Rocky Point, the 
N.E. extreme of Pulo Lepar, is distant 1^ mile N. ^ E, from False Rocky 
Point. Eocky Point Hill, 622 ft. high, stands If mile to the westward of 
the point. The light on Rocky Point was first shown in October, 1870. It 
is affixed hright light, elevated 39 ft., and visible in every direction seaward 8 
miles off. 

At 1| mile N.W. f W. from the lighthouse is Tree Point, from which the 
coast runs nearly straight to the north-westward for about 6 miles. 

Shore Reef. — The whole coast from Entrance Point to Tree Point is fronted 
by a reef, which at about 2 miles northward of Entrance Point, just to the 
southward of the entrance of Fresh-water River, extends ofi' to the distance 
of 1^ mile; it then runs nearly straight to the northward, and rounding Rocky 
Point at a quarter of a mile, turns to the north-westward, and beyond Tree 
Point projects but a short distance from the shore. 

Water. — To the northward of Entrance Point the coast forms a bay, in 
which are two small rivers. Vessels may anchor about a mile to the north- 
eastward of the point, abreast of which position is a sandy beach. Captain 
Ross watered here, and found the water a little tinged with a red colour, but 
it produced no pernicious effect upon the crew. 

KLIPPIGE SHOALS is the name given to three or four reefs, with rooks 
above water on them, and deep channels between them, lying off Rocky 
Point. The outer reef lies E. by N. | N. 2 miles from the point ; the 
southern reef, over which is a depth of 4 fathoms, lies E. i N., 2 miles from 
False Rocky Point. 

Close to these shoals are depths varying from 9 to 14 fathoms, and there 
appears to be a channel three-quarters of a mile wide, with 6 to 10 fathoms 
in it, between them and the shore, but it would be a very unwise proceeding 
for vessels to venture to use it. 

Discovery Rocks appear on the American chart as two rocks lying N.N.E. 
^ E. 3f miles from Rocky Point, with a shoal bank extending nearly half a 
mile north-eastward of them. Close to the rocks and bank are 6 to 10 
fathoms, with 13 to 15 fathoms at a short distance all around them. 

Capt. D. Ross, in the Discovery, was the first to determine the exact posi- 
tion of these rocks, and he says they have only 2 ft. least water over them. 

A rocky Patch, with only 3 ft. water over it, lies about l^ mile W. by S. 
from the Discovery Rocks. In the channel between the soundings are from 
10 to 16 fathoms. 

There is also a 4-fathom patch lying midway between Rocky Point and the 
rocky patch, and a 4|-fathom bank 3^ miles N by W. from Rocky Point. 

PULO LEAT, or Middle Island, which separates Macclesfield Channel from 
Clements Channel, is about 5f miles long. North and South, and 4J miles 
wide. Upon it are several hills, 400 to 600 ft. high, which appear at a 
distance like a group of islands. 


LIGHT. — Pulo Jelaka is a small islet lying about a quarter of a mile north- 
westward of the West point of Pulo Leat, to which it is connected by a reef 
of rocks. Since the year 1870 a. fixed hright light has been shown from Pulo 
Jelaka over the Macclesfield Channel to the westward from N.E. by N. 
round by North and West to S.S.E. It is elevated 39 ft., and visible 8 
miles off. A dangerous reef surrounds both Pulo Leat and Pulo Jelaka, in 
addition to which are numerous outlying rocks, in many places extending 
far from the shore. 

The South and S.W. coasts of Pulo Leat are fronted by a reef which pro- 
jects from the shore in a convex form to seaward for the distance of a mile. 
Off the S.E. point of the island are outlying rocks and dangers extending in 
a S. by W. \ W. direction, to the distance of nearly 2J miles. A rock also 
lies about three-quarters of a mile South of Jelaka, just outside the edge of 
the reef extending from the shore, but there are no other outlying reefs on 
the S.W. coast of the island. 

When three-quarters of a mile distant from Jelaka, outside the reef ex- 
tending from the shore, is a 3-fathoms patch ; and N.W. by W., more than 
a mile from that islet, is a rock near the water's edge, with 11 fathoms 
water between it and the shore reef. All along the N.W. shore of Pulo 
Leat, and at little less than 2 miles from it, are numerous outlying rocks and 
patches of reef, between which and the reef extending from the shore are 
some dry sand-banks.*' 

ALCESTE REEF.— The Alceste Rock, upon which H.M. ship of that name 
was wrecked in February, 1817, when returning from China with Lord Am- 
herst and suite, is the outer patch of a coral reef which projects N.N.W. 
nearly 2 miles from the North point of Pulo Leat, and has but 2 fathoms 
water on its shallowest part. It is the same reef upon which, in 1816, the 
Portuguese ship Amelia was wrecked, the remains of both her and the 
Alceste being still visible, with only a few yards between them, at the time 
the reef was surveyed by Captain D. Ross. The wreck of the Alcede was 
lying li mile from the North point of Leat, with the West point of Jelaka 
in one with the southern sand-bank West of Leat ; the northern sand-bank 
in one with a white rock which lies between Jelaka and the N.W. point of 
Leat and close to it ; and a white rock near the N.W. point open to the east- 
ward of a high tree on the centre of the eastern hill of Leat. 

Many ships have since been lost on this reef, or on some of the coral 
patches contiguous to it, and they have generally furnished bearings which 

* Captain Joass, of the British ship Lammermuir, reports that at 2*^ 20™ a.m., December 
Slst, 1863, when proceeding through the Macclesfield Channel, his vessel struck on a rock, 
the position of which, from bearings taken, is lat. 2° 53' S., long. 107° E. H.M.S. Rifleman 
has since searched for this rock, but could find no danger in the vicinity of the position 
ascribed to it. 


would show them to have been wrecked some distance from these dangers; 
but the wrecks of several of them have afterwards been found upon, or close 
to the Alceste Reef ; and two such wrecks, the Cornelius Haja^ and the Mem- 
71071, have found a place on the American chart. There is good reason to be- 
lieve that there is no danger in the fairway of the Macclesfied Channel in this 

A reef ia placed by Dutch authorities 2 miles E. by N. from Alceste Eeef, 
with only 6 ft. water. From a position three-quarters of a cable northward 
of the shoal, the northern point of Pulo Leat bears S.W., and the eastern 
point of Bulo Anak, or Selagin, S. by E. ^ E. 

The soundings round Alceste Eeef do not by any means afford a certain 
guide, although to the north-eastward they appear to be a few fathoms shoaler 
than elsewhere. Close-to on the West side are 17 fathoms, and from 15 to 
21 fathoms at the distance of 1 or 2 miles ; close-to on the North side 12 fa- 
thoms, with 16 to 18 fathoms at 1 or 2 miles ; and close-to on the N.E. side 
16 fathoms, with 12 to 17 fathoms at 1 to 2 miles. f 

KILAPAN and SENIOR are two hilly islands lying 2 or 3 miles North of 
Pulo Lepar. Kilapan is about 1^ mile in extent East and West, and a mile 
wide, and bears from Eocky Point light, N.W. by N. 6| miles. Senior 
is not quite so large as Kilapan, from which it bears W. by N. 2 miles. 

Wilson Bank, discovered by Captain Lestock Wilson, of the Carnatic, in 
February, 1787, has but 1 fathom water on its shoalest spot, although Capt. 
Wilson did not find less than 3 fathoms. From the 1 -fathom spot the ex- 
treme of Brekat Point, the N.W. point of Macclesfield Strait, bears N.N. W. 
\ W. 6| miles ; the hummock just inside the point, which is more conspicuous, 
bearing N.W. by N. The bank extends about a mile to the northward of 
the shoal patch, having 2f fathoms over that part of it ; to the southward it 
extends about a quarter of a ndle. Close-to on the East side are 13 or 14 
fathoms, but to the N.N.E. 8 to 10 fathoms for about If mile, when the depths 
suddenly increase to 19 or 20 fathoms. The extreme of Brekat Point bearing 

* This vessel was reported to have struck on a rock in lat. 2° 441' S., long. 107° 1' E.— 

t The barque Carl Eonneberg, Captain C. L. Lied, is reported to have struck upon a rock 
about 6 miles to the northward of the Alceste Eeef, in lat. 2"^ 42' S., long. 107° 5' E. It is 
said to be about a cable's length in circumference, having from 4 to 20 ft. water on it, and 
surrounded by depths of 19 fathoms. The American chart exhibits many soundings in the 
locality ascribed to this danger, which were obtained in searching for the rock on which the 
Cornelius Eaja was reported to have been wrecked, said to lie W.S.W., distant 4 miles 
from the reported position of the Lied Rock. llr. Richards, in H.M.S. Saracen, also 
searched for the Cornelius Haja Rock without discovering any danger in that locality : for 
these reasons the Lied Rock is not placed upon the Admiralty charts, and the wreck of 
the Cornelius Haja (as mentioned above) was subsequently found by the American surveyors 
upon the Alceste Reef. 


N.W. by N., or the hill over it N.W., leads a mile outside Wilson Bank, as 
does also the eastern extreme of Kilapan Island, bearing S. by W. I W. 
The same bearings also clear the elbow of Brekat Bank. 

Brekat Bank. — A long, narrow strip of bank, which appears to have from 
3 to 4 fathoms water over it, and deeper water inside of it, runs in a S. by W. 
direction for 3 or 4 miles to the southward of Wilson Bank, and, passing 
about li mile westward of that shoal, forms to the northward, about a mile 
farther on, an elbow projecting to seaward, with Ij fathom water on it, and 
a small patch which dries at low water ; it then takes a N. by W. ^ W. 
direction, until it joins the bank extending from Brekat Point, which bears 
from the elbow N.N.W., distant 4 miles. 

The soundings in the channel between Brekat and Wilson Banks are 4^ 
to 8 fathoms. Near the elbow they decrease suddenly from 10 fathoms; 
there are 9 or 10 fathoms at 2^ miles eastward of the elbow, and 12 and 15 
fathoms at a mile N.E. of it. 

BREKAT POINT, in lat. 2° 34' S., long. 106° 50' E., has a rock off it 28 
feet high, and forms the eastern extreme of Banka, and the north-western 
limit of G-aspar Strait. The land from the inner part of the projecting point 
falls away to the southward, and has a hill or hummock 620 ft. high upon 
it. Immediately off the point are some rocks, and shoal water extends 
nearly a mile from it to the eastward. The point should not be approached 
nearer than 2 miles, the soundings off it being deep and irregular, 14 to 21 

AKBAE SHOAL. — The American ship Akhar struck, in 1843, upon a shoal 
having only 12 ft. water upon it, in lat. 2° 39' S., long. 107° 11' E. In the 
American chart the position of this shoal is marked doubtful, so that the 
American surveyors did not succeed in finding it. 

The ship Scaivfell reports that, on March 23rd, 1864, she passed close to 
the Akbar Shoal, which had apparently very little water on it, though no 
breakers, as the sea was quite smooth. It appeared to be a narrow ridge of 
coral, about 2 cables long, North and South, and not half a cable wide. Its 
position is given as 2° 38' S., long. 107° 13^' E. 

This places the shoal 3 miles N.E. by E. from the position ascribed to it 
by the Akhar ; in either case it is much in the way of vessels proceeding 
through Clements or Stolze Channels, and until its exact position is deter- 
mined, it will be necessary to keep clear of the localities in which it is re- 
puted to lie. 

TREE ISLAND [Bootnpjes Mland), distant 10 miles N.E. | E. from Brekat 
Point, and 7 miles S.W. by W. ^ W. from Gaspar Island, is a barren rock, 
40 ft. high, with two or three trees on the summit, giving it the appearance 
of a ship under sail, and making it visible 15 miles off. It is surrounded 
by a coral reef, and a rock about as high as a boat lies a third of a mile 
south-eastward of it. There is a cave upon this island where the Mahiys 


come to collect birds' nests, which are probably found also on the other 

A detached coral reef lies more than half a mile N.E. of the island, and 
another about the same distance S.E. of it ; between these reefs and the one 
surrounding the island are narrow channels, with deep water. 

GASPAR ISLAND, or Pulo Gelassa, in lat. 2° 24|' S., long. 107° 3J' E., 
bears N. \ E. 24^ miles from the North point of Pulo Leat, and N.E. | E. 
nearly 17 miles from Brekat Point. Its centre rises to a peak 812 ft. high, 
which may be seen in clear weather at a distance of 30 miles, and is the 
principal mark for avoiding the shoals in sailing to or from the northern 
part of the strait. It is nearly surrounded by a reef, which projects from 
the South and East points of the island about a third of a mile. The West 
and North points are bold close-to. The soundings near the island are 
variable, 12 to 19 fathoms. 

Fresh water is to be found upon this island, but the chart does not point 
out the particular spot where it may be obtained. 

Glassa or Gelassa Rock, 24 ft. high, with some trees on it, and rocks^ 
contiguous to it, lies about a mile westward of Gaspar Island. It is sur- 
rounded by a reef extending about a third of a mile south-eastward and 
eastward from it, but not quite so far in other directions. 

Gaspar Island, Glassa Eock, and Tree Island, form the northern limit of 
Gaspar Strait. The Canning Eock, Warren Hastings Eeef, Belvidere Shoals, 
and other dangers, are described hereafter. 

TIDES and CURRENTS.— It is high water, full and change, in the Mac- 
clesfield Channel, at 2^ 30'", and the ordinary rise is only 4 ft. The Vmi- 
sittarth boat is roperted to have found at Tree Island a perpendicular rise of 
18 it., between the hours of 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. ; but there is probably some 
mistake in this, as 12 ft. is an extraordinary rise in Banka Strait, into which 
some very large rivers disembogue. 

The currents greatly depend upon the strength of the monsoon. When* 
the monsoon is strong, the current will generally be found setting in the- 
same direction at the rate of 2 or 3 knots an hour, but aflFected somewhat by 
the tides. In light winds and calms the tides are seldom very regular. 

Directions from the Southward. — Proceeding towards the Macclesfield 
Channel during the S.E. monsoon, having passed the Two Brothers (^p. 185), 
steer N. by E. J E., or N.N.E., keeping midway between the Clifton Shoal 
and tlie Brouwers Eeefs. The depths in this track are pretty regular, 10 tO' 
15 fathoms, soft bottom. In thick weather, or if uncertain of the vessel's 
position, the entrance of Gaspar Strait should be approached with great 
caution, keeping a good lookout for broken or shoal water. 

Be also guarded when in the vicinity of the Bias Mateu Eock, for although 
the American surveyors could not find that danger, yet, for reasons given at 
p. 231, it would be unsafe to conclude that it does not exist. The Six-peak 


range (the first clump of hills to the westward of Entrance Point) kept 
N. by W., will lead 3 miles westward of this rock, and when Baginda Peak 
bear N.W. ^ N., and the water has deepened from 8 or 9 to 11 or 15 
fathoms, steer to the north-eastward until the highest trees on Klippige or 
Eocky Point, or Rocky Point Hill, are well open of Entrance Point, which 
will lead clear of the 2^-fathom bank. 

Being 3 or 4 miles to the northward of the Bias Mateu Rock, a N. i^ E. 
course — guarding against currents — for 14 miles, will lead about 5 miles 
eastward of Entrance Point, and in this track the depths Avill be 13 to 18 
fathoms ; if the vessel gets too far to the eastward the water will deepen, 
and if to the westward, it will shoal to 12, 11, or 9 fathoms. Prom 5 miles 
eastward of Entrance Point, a North course for about 16 miles will lead 
nearly midway between the shoals West of Jelaka and the Discovery Rocks. 
In this track there will be from 14 to 25 fathoms till abreast of Klippige or 
Rocky Point, when there will be 23 or 24 fathoms, deepening to 30 or 33 
fathoms between Pulo Jelaka and the Discovery Rocks, having passed which 
they will decrease to 25, 19, and 16 fathoms. The vessel will now have 
arrived in a position with Pulo Kilapan bearing S.W. by W., and the 
North point of Pulo Leat S.E. by E., and may steer N. by E. ^ E. for 
Gaspar Island, in which track she will have 16 to 21 fathoms. 

Since the survey of the sandbanks South of Banka by Mr. Stanton, it no 
longer appears dangerous to approach the coast to a less distance than 14 
miles, and it might be convenient for a vessel to make Entrance Point on a 
N. by E. or N.N.E. bearing, and pass inside the 2^-fathom bank by keeping 
Klippige and Entrance Points in line. 

To work through from the Southward. — During the northern monsoon it is 
very difficult, almost impossible, to work through Gaspar Strait, even in the 
latter part of the monsoon, about March, when vessels are obliged to an- 
chor often on account of the faintness of the wind and the rapidity of the 
southerly current. In the southern monsoon vessels will often meet with 
light, variable winds, rendering it impossible for them to preserve a straight 

Macclesfield Channel does not afford convenient objects as marks to keep 
vessels clear of danger, but the following have been taken from the Ameri- 
can chart as being, so far as we are able to judge, the best that can be given 
for that purpose ; as, however, some of the objects are at a considerable 
distance from the dangers, navigators are cautioned not to depend too im- 
plicitly upon having made out, or being able to make out, such distant 
objects, but rather to rely upon a more general exercise of judgment, paying 
attention to the soundings, frequently referring to the chart, «S:c. It is indis- 
pensable that the greatest vigilance be observed, and careful regard had to 
the set of the tides and currents, in order to work a vessel safely through 
this dangerous channel. 


Standing to the eastward. — A vessel having passed eastward of the Fairlie 
Eoek may stand on, keeping a good lookout, until she is about 2^ miles 
from Sand Island, or 1 mile from Branding Breakers, and will have from 
13 to 7 fathoms water. Sand Island is just awash at high water, and Shoal- 
water Island, bearing N.N.E. i E., leads a mile to the westward of the 
Branding Breakers. Shoal-water Island should not be approached nearer 
than o miles, on account of the 1 -fathom patch lying about 2 miles westward 
of it. 

The Java Guide gives the following directions to clear the Vansittart 
Shoals : — 

" To avoid the Vansittart Shoals with a contrary wind, do not bring 
Entrance Point more to the westward than N.W. ^ N. before the peak of 
Saddle Island bears N.E. by E., or rather keep Leat Island a little to the 
eastward of North. When near the N.W. part of these shoals, the West 
end of Leat may be brought N. | W., but not more westerly, until South 
Island is open to the northward of Low and Saddle Islands. The northern 
extremities of these two islands, and the southern part of South Island in 
one, E. by N. % N., just clear the northern part of the shoals." 

It appears, however, by the American chart, that Entrance Point bearing 
N W., and the peak of Saddle Island N.E. | E., will keep a vessel nearly 
\h mile clear of the S.W. prong of the shoals. Leat Island a little eastward 
of North, seems rather an indefinite mark, unless it be known how much of 
the island is visible ; but, taking it to mean the highest point, viz., Putat 
Hill, 613 feet high, and which would appear from the southward nearly in 
the middle of the island, it should not be brought to the northward of 
N. ^ E., until the peak of Saddle Island bears N.E. i E., when it may be 
brought to bear North. The North extremes of Saddle and Low Islands 
in line, bearing N.E. by E. f E., clears the northern end of the shoals 
nearly a mile. 

Being to the northward of the Vansittart Shoals, Low Island must not be 
brought South of E. by S. J S., or Sand Island West of North, to avoid the 
shoals between those islands ; and to clear the patches lying southward of 
the S.E. point of Pulo Leat, keep Barn Island East of E.S.E., until Middle 
Point, or Putat Hiil, bears N. by W. \ W., when Barn Island may be 
brought to S.E. by E. i E., which will clear the reef extending from Middle 
Point. To clear the reefs South of Jelaka, the S.E. point of Leat should 
not be shut in by Middle Point, until Pulo Jelaka bears N.N.E. ; and to 
avoid the reefs westward of that islet, keep Middle Point East of E.S.E., 
until Jelaka bears East. Jelaka bearing East also leads northward of the 
Discovery Hocks. 

Having arrived 2 miles West of Jelaka, and to the northward of the 
Discovery Eocks, Entrance Point must not be brought West of S.S.W. j W., 
I. A. 2 I 


nor Klippige Point West of S.W. f S., until Pulo Kilapan bears W.8.W., 
which will lead outside the dangers extending from the N.W. coast of Leat, 
and 1^ mile to the northward of the Aleeste Reef. Rocky Point Hill in 
line with Tree Point, S.W. j S., leads about a mile north-westward of the 
Aleeste Reef. 

Standing to the westward. — To avoid the 2i-fathom bank, keep the high 
trees on Klippige or Rocky Point, or Rocky Point Hill, well open of En- 
trance Point, bearing N. by W. i W., or keep Entrance Point West of N. by 
W. i W., until Baginda Peak bears W. by N., when a vessel may stand 
over until Entrance Point bears N. by E. 1 E. 

To clear the Klippige Shoals, do not bring Entrance Point South of S.W. 
I S., until the right extreme of Pulo Kilapan bears N.W. by W., Klippige 
Point S.W. by W., or Pulo Jelaka N.E. by E., leads about half a mile 
northward of the Klippige Shoals. 

When standing towards the Discovery Rocks, do not bring Entrance Point 
South of S.S.W., or Klippige Point South of S.W. i S., until the right 
extreme of Kilapan bears W. by N. ^ N., or Pulo Jelaka, East, when 
a vessel will be northward of the dangers, and may stand westwards towards 
the bank into 10, or even 8 or 7 fathoms, until she nears Wilson Bank. 

The Saddles, two hills on the Banka coast, 912 It. high, bearing W.N. W., 
or the Padang Hills W. by N. i N., lead about 1:^ mile southward of the 
Wilson Bank ; and the extreme of Brekat Point, N.W. by N., leads more 
than half a mile eastward of that danger, and will also keep a vessel clear of 
the elbow when standing inshore between Wilson Bank and Brekat Point. 

Directions from the northward. — In the early part of the N.E. monsoon, 
northerly and north-westerly winds prevail about the entrance of G-aspar 
Strait, when strong south-easterly currents will generally be experienced 
between Gaspar Island and Pulo Leat. It appears certain that the frequent 
accidents happening to vessels in the vicinity of Aleeste Reef arise princi- 
pally from neglecting to guard against the effects of this current. A vessel, 
therefore, intending to proceed to the southward through Macclesfield Chan- 
nel, and having passed a mile or two eastward of Gas par Island, should 
steer to the south-westward until Gaspar Island bears N. by E. ^ E., upon 
which bearing it should be kept until Pulo Kilapan is S.W. by W., and the 
North point of Pulo Leat S.E. by E., when she will be in the fairway of the 
channel, and may steer South, carefully guarding against the effects of tides 
or currents by frequent cross bearings of the North point of Leat, Pulo 
Jelaka, Rocky Point Hill, or Pulo Kilapan. If a South course be preserved, 
when Pulo Kilapan bears West, Middle Point, the S.W. point of Leat, wiU 
be the breadth of Jelaka open of that islet, and Rocky Point will bear 
S.W. by S., which latter bearing also leads dose to the East side of the 
Discovery Rocks. If, when Pulo Kilapan bears West, Middle Point be not 
open of Jelaka, the vessel will be too far to the eastward j and if Middle 


Point should be Tnore than the breadth of Jelaka open of that islet, she will 
be too far to the westward. 

If, in consequence of light or baffling winds, it be found impossible to keep 
Gaspar Island N. by E. IE., but that as the vessel approaches Pulo Leat 
it is found to bear N. by E., or N. f E., great caution must be observed in 
passing Alceste Eeef, for Gaspar Island bearing N. ^ E. is the line of direc- 
tion of that danger, and to avoid it Pulo Kilapan must not be brought west- 
ward of W.S.W. until Pulo Jelaka bears South. 

Being in the fairway, with Pulo Kilapan bearing AVest, and Middle Point 
the breadth of Jelaka open of that islet, Entrance Point will be just in sight 
bearing about S.S.W. A ship may continue the South course, but if there 
be any doubt of her posi+ion, it will be prudent to bring Entrance Point 
S.S.W. ^ W., which will lead through nearly in mid-channel between the 
Discovery Pocks and the dangers off Jelaka, the narrowest and most difficult 
part of the channel. But great care must be taken to preserve that bearing, 
Entrance Point being at so great a distance, that any error in the bearing 
would be extremely likely to lead into danger. Entrance Point bearing 
S.S.W. i W., leads about half a mile westward of the dangers off Jelaka, 
and the same point S.S.W. leads clear of the Discovery Rocks. 

When the S.E. point of Leat is open of Middle Point, the ship will be 
southward of the Discovery Rocks, and if she has been steering for Entrance 
Point, the course must be immediately altered to the south-eastward, until 
Entrance Point bears S.W. ^ S. — which leads eastward of the Klippige Shoals 
— when a South course may be again shaped until Entrance Point bears 
about W. ^ S. ; then steer S. ^ W. for 13 or 14 miles, or until Entrance 
Point is about N. by W. i W., and Baginda Peak N.W. f W., when the 
vessel will be in about 10 fathoms on the outer edge of the bank extending 
northward of the Bias Mateu Rock, and to clear that rock must steer about 
S.W. until the Six-peak range of hills on Pulo Lepar bears N. by W., when 
a S. by W, i W. or S.S.W. course may be shaped for the Two Brothers. 

To work through from the northward, it will generally be advisable to get 
over to the westward towards the Banka shore as soon as possible, where a 
vessel will be more in the fairway of the channel, and will find more conve- 
nient depths of water for anchoring, if it should be necessary to bring up. 

If, however, when to the southward of Gaspar Island, it should be found 
advantageous to stand well over to the eastward, it is not advisable that Gas- 
par should be brought more westward than N. by W., or N. by W. \ W., 
when nearing the doubtful position of the Akbar Shoal ; and the greatest 
care should be observed in rounding Alceste Reef, not to bring Pulo Kilapan 
westward of W.S.W. until Pulo Jelaka bears South. 

Standing to the westward. — Tree Island may be approached to about a mile, 
or until Gaspar Island bears N.E. \ E., which leads that distance clear of 
the dangers extending from it. Brekat Point bearing N.W. by N., will 


lead about half a mile eastward of the Elbow and of Wilson Bank, and a 
vessel will be to the southward of those dangers when the Saddles on Banka 
bear W N.W., or Padang Hills W. by N. | N., and may then stand on to 
the bank into 8 or 7 fathoms, until the North extreme of Pulo Kilapan bears 
W. by N. I N., which leads northward of the Discovery Eocks. Klippige 
or Eocky Point, S.W. ^ S., leads eastward of the Discovery Eocks, and also 
clears the shoals extending from the N.W. coast of Pulo Leat. 

Standing to the eastward towards Jelaka, take great care not to bring En- 
trance Point anything West of S.S.W. ^ W. until Middle Point is E.S.E., 
which leads southward of the dangers off Jelaka. Jelaka must then be kept 
East of N.N.E., until the S.E. point of Leat is in line with Middle Point, 
when it may be brought to bear North. To avoid the rocks off the S.E. 
point of Leat, do not bring Putat Hill, or Middle Point, West of N. by W. 
\ W., until Barn Island bears E.S.E. The East extreme of Pulo Leat bear- 
ing North will keep a vessel clear of the dangers extending from Sand Island, 
and Sand Island, if not brought to the West of N. ^ W., will clear the dan- 
gers to the southward of it and of Barn Island. Saddle Island in one with 
Low Island, bearing E.N.E., leads about three-quarters of a mile northward 
of the northern group of the Vansittart Shoals ; Putat Hill bearing North, 
or N. :| W., leads westward of the middle group ; the same hill N. \ E. leads 
westward, and Entrance Point N.W. to the southward of the S.W. group. 
Shoal-water Island should not be approached from the westward nearer 
than 4 or 3 miles ; bearing N.N.E. ^ E., it will lead a mile westward of the 
Branding Breakers. 

The Padang, Turtle, and Hancock Shoals may be approached to a mile, if 
a good lookout is kept when in their vicinity. 

Standing to the tvestward when southward of the Discovery Eocks, the right 
extreme of Kilapan bearing N.W. f W., or Entrance Point S.S.W. ^ W., 
clears the northern cluster of the Klippige Shoals ; but when Eocky 
Point bears West, Entrance Point should not be brought South of S.W. ^ S. 
After passing Entrance Point, keep the high trees on Eucky Point, or 
Eocky Point Hill, open of Entrance Point, or keep Entrance Point West 
of N. by W. i W., until Baginda Peak bears W.N.W., to clear the 2^- 
fathom bank. ' 


This channel is much narrower and more encumbered with dangers than 
either the Macclesfield or Stolze Channels. It is separated from the former 
by the four small islands, which from their appearance are respectively 
named Low, Saddle, Sand, and Barn, and by Pulo Leat, which form its 
western limit. To the eastward, it is only separated from Stolze Channel by 
South, North, and Table Islands, three small islands lying close together, so 


that the entrances to both channels, either from the southward or the north- 
ward are common. The entrance to Clements Channel from the southward 
is, however, understood to lie to the westward of the Doubtful Dangers (page 
229), Sharpshooter Rock, Hippogriffe Shoal, Hancock and Turtle Shoals, 
Sand Island, Padang Reef, Branding Breakers, Shoalwater Island, and Em- 
bleton Rock ; whilst the entrance of Stolze Channel is considered to be to the 
eastward of those dangers ; and this order will be observed in the description 
of these channels. 

LOW and SADDLE are two small islands, a little more than half a mile 
in diameter, lying in a S.E. by S. direction about 8J miles from the south- 
eastern point of Pulo Leat. They bear E.N.E. and W.S. W,, and are distant 
a mile from each other. Low Island, the westernmost, is 123 ft. high ; 
Saddle Island has two hills upon it forming a saddle, the western hill being 
210, and the eastern 266 ft. high. Both islands are connected and surrounded 
by reefs, extending nearly half a mile from them. 

Three dangerous patches, extending a mile in aN.W. and opposite direction, 
lie between the bearings of E. \ N. and N.E. by N., distant \\ mile from 
the East point of Saddle Island. In the Java Guide a dry reef is said to lie 
1:^ mile N.E. by E. from Saddle Island, but in the American survey 1 fathom 
water is shown on the S.E. and N.W. patches, and 2 fathoms on the middle 
patch. Between the reefs and the island is a narrow channel of 8 to 14 fa- 
thoms water ; close-to, on the outside of the reefs, are 15 to 19 fathoms. 

Sand Island, lying S. by E. | E. 5 miles from the S.E. point of Pulo Leat, 
is very small and low, and surrounded by rocks to the distance of a third of 
a mile. About half a mile to the northward of it are 12 or 14 fathoms, and 
from 10 to 23 fathoms the same distance to the southward. 

Barn Island, lying about \\ mile E. by N. ^N. from Sand Island, is small, 
about a third of a mile in diameter, 154 ft. high, and surrounded by a reef 
to the distance of about a third of a mile. Between Barn and Sand Islands 
are depths of 8 to 14 fathoms. 

Dangerous reefs, dry at low water, extend nearly 2 miles between the bear- 
ings of S.S.E. i E. and S.8.W. J W. from Barn Island. 

SOUTH ISLAND, one of the islands limiting Clements Channel to the 
eastward, lies S.E. by E. ^ E. 10^ miles from the S.E. point of Pulo Leat. 
It is the largest of the islands in this vicinity, being about a mile in diameter ; 
the highest hill upon it is 200 ft. high. It is surrounded by a reef extending 
from it in most parts about a third of a mile, but off its South end dangers 
project three-quarters of a mile. Close to the reef are from 5 to 14 fathoms, 
and 18 and 24 fathoms a short distance to the westward. 

Table Island, lying E. by S. 1 J mile from South Island, more properly 
belongs to Stolze Channel. It is surrounded by reefs projecting nearly half 
a mile from it, and in the middle of the channel between it and Soutli 
Island, is a 2 1 -fathoms patch. 


North. Island, lyin?: 1| mile northward of South Islanrl, is also siirroundfld 
by a reef, which extends from it ahoiit a third of a mile. At two-thirds of a 
mile E.N.E. from the East end of the island is a dry bank with 16 fathoms 
close-to, and 12 fathoms between it and the reef extending from the island. 
A mile S.E. from the same end of the island is a patch of 3 fathoms. 

Sunk Rock is 16 yards only in diameter, with 9 ft. water on it, and 10 fa- 
thoms around it. From it Saddle Island bears S. bv W. } W., 4J miles, 
North Island E. by N. 2\ miles, Barn Island W. by S. 3:^ miles, a reef near 
Saddle Island South, the centre of Table Island and the North point of South 
Island are in one, and Sandy Island is entirely hidden by Barn Island. 

From its position as placed upon the American chart, the southern extreme 
of North Island bears Eist, distant 2^ miles; the south-western extreme of 
South Island S.E. by E. southerly ; and the northern point of Barn Island 
W. by S. southerly. A quarter of a mile S. ^ E. from it is a patch of 5 fa- 
thoms, with 13 fathoms between it and the rock. 

Middle Pass Shoals are three coral patches lying: close together, and ex- 
tending nearly a mile in a N.E. by N. and opposite direction. From their 
southern extreme Barn Island bears S. f E. 3 miles ; and the south-eastern 
point of Pnlo Leat bears N.W. by W. | W. 2| miles. Barn Island, bearing 
S. f W., leads about two-thirds of a mile to the eastward of the shoals ; the 
southern extreme of North Island S.E. by E., clears them about the same 
distance to the north-eastward, and bearing E. by S. ^ S., clears them to the 
southward ; the S.E. point of Pulo Leat bearing W. I S., clears them to the 

Coral Bank is a small patch just awash, with 12 to 19 fathoms around it, 
lying If mile nnrth-westward of the Middle Pass Shoals. From it the S.E. 
point of Pulo Leat bears S.W. by W. i W., nearly If mile ; and Pulo Anak 
N. by W. I W. westerly, 2| miles. The S.E. point of Leat hearing W. by 
S. J S., leads to the southward of the bank, but over a 2J-fathom bank which 
lies between Rocky Bank and the S.E. point of Pulo Leat. The eastern ex- 
treme of Pulo Anak, N.W. by N., leads to the north-eastward. 

HEWITT SKOAL, upon which, in August, 1820, the ship General Hewitt 
struck, and remained fast for half an hour, lies 5 miles N. by "W. :J W. from 
the western extreme of North Island. When aground the western extremes 
of South and North Islands were in one ; the extremes of Leat Island bore 
from W.N.W. to W. by S. i S. ; Barn Island S.W. by S. ; and the hill on 
Brekat Point was well open of Pulo Leat. It is about a ship's length in 
extent, and 16 to 20 yards in breadth. The coral rocks were visible under 
the vessel with only 14 (or 18) ft. water over them, and near the shoal 12 to 
15 fathoms. 

The high part of South Island open of the West extreme of North Island 
leads westward of Hewitt Rock ; and the same object open of the East ex- 
treme of North Island leads to the eastward. 


PULO LEAT. — The western coast of this island and Jelaka light are no- 
ticed on pp. 235-6. The eastern coast takes a northerly direction for 3j miles 
from its S.E. point, when it runs about N.W. ^ N. 3| miles to the northern 
point. The whole of this coast is fronted by a coral reef, which commences 
about half a mile northward of the S.E. point ; in front of the bay, abuut 
three-quarters of a mile northward of the S.E. point, the reef extends half a 
mile, but not quite so far from the eastern extreme of the inland. Close to 
the northward uf the eastern extreme, upon the dry reef exteudiug from the 
shore of the island, is an islet called Pulo Anak, or Selagin. 

According to the American chart, fresh water may be obtained in the small 
bay, about half a mile to the northward of the S.E. point of Ijeat, just where 
the dry reef begins to project from the shore. 

Rocky Shoal, lying N.E. by E. -^ E. If mile from the S.E. point of Leat, 
is before described on page 246. 

Of the N.E. coast of Pulo Leat, besides the reef projecting from the shore, 
are numerous outlying coral patches, extending nearly 2 miles from it, and 
rendering this part of the coast exceedingly dangerous. The north-eastern 
of these dangers — which bound this part of Clements Channel to the west- 
ward — lies with the S.E. point of Leat in line with the eastern extreme of 
the island, distant nearly 2 miles from Pulo Anak ; from whence the dangers 
take a S. 5^ W. direction until they join the reef which projects about half a 
mile East of Pulo Anak. 

A vessel will pass eastward of these dangers by keeping the S.E. point of 
Leat West of S. by W. | W. ; and North Island bearing S.E. |- S. will lead 
to the north-eastward. 

Akbar Shoal is noticed on page 238. 

The MIDDLE PASS, which unites Macclesfield and Clements Channels, 
is bounded on the S.E. by Sand Island, Barn Island, Sunk Kock, dLUii ISurth 
Island ; and on the N.W. by the dangers projecting from the boutheru end 
of Pulo Leat and the Middle Pass Shoals. 

To proceed from the Macclesfield Channel through the Middle Pass from 
the south-westward, steer between Entrance Point and the Yansittart Shoals 
towards Sand Island, the channel between which and the shoals extending 
from the southern end of Leat, is clear, with depths of 14 to 20 fathoms ; 
Entrance Point kept bearing W. by S. i S., leads through in mid-channel. 

In the event of meeting with baffling winds, so that the vessel cannot pre- 
serve a straight course, the foliowiug may prove useful : — The Ea&t extreme 
of Pulo Leat bearing North, clears the dangers extending from the West 
side of Sand Island ; the North extreme of Barn Island bearing East, clears 
the dangers extending frum the North side of Sand Island ; Barn Island 
E.S.E., clears the shoals projecting trom the southern end of Leat; Middle 
Point of Leat W.N. W., clears the Middle Pass shoals; and the North ex- 
treme of Barn Island S. W. by W. J W. leads North of Sunk Eock. 


The Channel between Low Island and Sand Island is narrowed to the 
breadth of Ig mile by the shoals extending to the southward of Barn Island. 
It is not easy to see what advantage is to be gained by using this channel. 

The Channel between Vansittart Shoals and Low Island is 2 miles wide, 
and may be used by bringing Sand Island to bear N.N.W., which will lead 
through in mid-channel. 

CLEMENTS CHANNEL from the Southward.— Proceeding through Cle- 
ments Channel from the southward, having passed the Pairlie Rock, steer 
about N. by E. or N. by E. ^ E., if the vessel has passed on the South side 
of the rock, or about N.E. by N. if she passed on the North side. When 
the summit of South Island is made out, bring it N.N.E., which will lead 
between the Embleton Rock and the Vansittart Shoals ; take care, however, 
not to mistake South Island, remembering that Low and Saddle Islands will 
be seen to the westward of it. Low Island bearing N.N.E. leads over the 
eoulh-eastern prong of the Vansittart Shoals. 

Approaching South Island on a N.N.E. bearing, the soundings will be 9 to 
13 fathoms until well up with Low Island, when they will deepen to 16 and 
18 fathoms, and to 24 or 25 fathoms when abreast of Saddle Island. When 
Saddle Island bears West, steer N. by W., which will lead more than a mile 
clear of the reefs off the north-eastern end of Saddle Island, and midway be- 
tween North Island and Sunk Rock, and in this track the soundings will be 
22, 24, 17, 24, and 23 fathoms. When the North extreme of North Island 
bears East, steer N.W. by N. for 5 or 6 miles to pass between Middle Pass 
Shoals and Hewitt Shoal, in depths varying from 22 to 32 fathoms ; when 
the S.E. point of Leat bears about W.S.W., a N. J W. course may be shaped 
for Gaspar Island. 

To pass westward of Sunk Rock, keep the summit of South Island 
N.N.E., until Saddle Island bears W. by S., when steer N.W. ^ W., which 
will lead clear of the shoals north-eastward of Saddle Island, and between 
Barn Island and Sunk Rock, and between Middle Pass Shoals and Hewitt 

No vessel would from choice attempt to work through Clements Channel, 
as Macclesfield and Stolze Channels are much better adapted fur that purpose; 
but it is possible that a vessel, embarrassed by light baffling winds, may find 
it convenient to proceed through some part of this channel. 

From the Northward. — For the convenience of navigators, the directions 
for proceeding through this channel from the southward, with a fair wind, 
are here reversed ; but for working through, it will not be necessary to give 
other directions than merely to observe the bearings of objects to avoid the 
various dangers, and which eqtially apply to vessels proceeding in either 

Having passed a mile or two eastward of Gaspar Island, steer to bring it 
N. by W., and kept on that bearing, steering S. by E., it will lead clear of 


the dangers lying off the N.E. coast of Pulo Leat. When the North ex- 
treme of Palo Leat bears West, its S.E. extreme should bear S.W. by S. 
Continue the S. by E. course until the S.E. extreme of Leat bears W.S. W., 
when Saddle Island should be seen just on the starboard bow with Barn 
Island and Low Island to the right of it ; South Island should be about two 
points on the port bow, with North Island close to the left of it. The West 
extreme of South Island, S.E. by S., will lead between Sunk Eock and the 
dangers extending from North Island. When the North point of North 
Island bears East, steer S. by E. to pass between South Island and the shoals 
off the N.E. end of Saddle Island ; and when the South extreme of Saddle 
Island bears West, bring the peak of South Island N.N.E., and keeping 
it on that bearing will lead between Embleton Eock and the Vansittart 

If intending to pass westward of Sunk Eock, preserve the S. by E. course 
until the S.E. extreme of Leat bears West, when Saddle should bear, or 
must be brought to bear, S. ^ E., which leads between Sunk Eock and Barn 
Island. When North Island bears E. ^ N., steer, S.E., taking care that the 
North end of Barn Island is not brought to the North of N.W. by W. | W., 
to clear the dangers north-eastward of Saddle Island ; when the peak of 
South Island bears N.N.E., steer S.S.W., and. proceed as before. 


STOLZE CHANNEL is rather wider, less encumbered with dangers, and 
furnishes objects more convenient for guiding vessels safely through it, than 
the Macclesfield Channel. The southern entrance is 15 miles broad, bounded 
on the West by the Larabe Shoal, and the dangers described on pp. 229-30, 
and on the East by the Carnbee Eocks, Naga Eeef, Aanvang Bank, Cooper, 
and Three-feet shoals. These latter shoals are very much against this channel 
in making it from the southward, for the Carnbee Eocks — the most southern 
of the dangers — are 20 miles distant from the land, so that in thick or hazy 
weather, when a ship might be uncertain of her exact position, she would 
not be able to make Billiton with nearly the same safety that she would be 
able to make Pulo Lepar or the South coast of Banka. These shoals would 
appear to form the only drawback to the adoption of this channel, and in 
fine weather even this would almost disappear, for the hills on Billiton are 
high, and may be seen at a distance of 30 or 35 miles ; and when in the 
vicinity of these dangers, not only are the hills on Billiton clearly distin- 
guishable, but Kennedy and Otan Islands are weU in sight.* 

* Stolze Channel it easy for a stranger ; but the nature of the bottom, and the depth of 
water in it is against anchoring, in the event of calms or thick weather. North of Gaspar 
I. A. 2 K 


Heroine Shoal. — The positions assigned to this shoal, in lat. 3° 33^ 8., 
Ions'. 107" 52' E., also in lat. 3" 37' S., long. 107" 46' E., were examined by 
H.M.S. Nassau, in 1876, when soundings of not less than 15 fathoms were 
obtained, with no indication of shoal water in the vicinity ; the exact posi- 
tion is, however, doubtful, but it is still placed on the charts in lat. 3° 37' S., 
long. 107° 46' E. 

Carnbee Eocks, in lat. 3° 33' 15" S., long. 107° 39' 40" E., are of coral 
formation, 400 yards long in a North and South direction, and 300 yards 
broad. Ihese rocks are covered at high water, and are thus difficult to dis- 
tinguish, when the water is smooth, from a distance of more than 1 cable ; 
but a portion dries 5 ft. at low water; there are 12 to 15 fathoms 1 cable 
from them. 

Naga Eeef is placed on the chart in lat. 3° 26^' S., long. 107° 36' E., 7 
miles N.N.W. from Carnbee Eocks, and S. by E. f E. 4J^ miles from Aanvang 
Bank. A rock above water is marked on the Dutch chart at 3^ miles S.S.E. 
of the Aanvang Bank. 

AANVANG BANK {Commencement Bank), discovered in 1822 by Lieut. 
J. Stolze, is half a mile in length W. by N. ^N. and E. by S. ^ S., and about 
a cable broad. It consists of large black rocks, some of which are visible at 
low water springs ; close to them are 5 to 13 fathoms, and about 1^ mile 
westward of them are 22 fathoms. Erom the western extreme of the bank, 
Gunong Bolo, on the South point of Pulo Selio, bears N.N.W. f W. 10^ 
miles, and Blantoe Hill N. by E. \ E. 

Cooper Shoals, lying N.N.W. \ W. 2^ miles from Aavang Bank, have 
only 2 ft. water over them, and 7 to 10 fathoms close-to. Gunong Bolo bears 
from them about N.W. by N., and Blantoe Hill N.N.E. 

Three^feet Shoal is a patch having only 3 ft. water over it, and 10 to 13 
fathoms around it, lying N.W. by W. J W. 4f miles from Cooper Shoals, 
with Gunong Bolo bearing N. ^ W. 4^- miles, and Blantoe Hill N.E. \ N. 
13^ miles. 

Kennedy or Masar is a small island, lying 7 miles to the N.E. of the Aan- 
vang Bank, in lat. 3° 19' S., long. 107° 40' 10" E. There is a small islet at IJ 
mile to the N.W. of it. 

Otan Island is rather smaller than Kennedy Island, and lies about 1 J mile 
E.S.E. from it. Other dangers and islands lie to the southward of Billitun, 

Strait we always found a soft bottom, whereas in Stolze Channel, besides the inconvenient 
depth, it is of rock or coral. The strength of the current probably prevents the accumula- 
tion of mud. Hij^h or Hoog Island, off the N.W. coast of Meudanao, shows conspicuously, 
axid is a good distinguishing mark ; at night we found it an easy object to see."— Capt. the 
Hon. C. G. J. B. Elliot, H.M.S. Syhillc, 1855. 


but thpy are to the eastward of the track of vessels bound through Gaspar 


'■/ The West Coast of Billiton, forming the eastern limit of Gaspar Strait, 

is fronted by numerous islands, separated by narrow and, for the most part, 

unnavigable passages. Pulo Selio, with the dangers westward of it ; the 

group named the Six Islands ; and Pulo Mendanao, the largest of the islands, 

form the eastern limit of Stolze Channel. 

At the S.W. end of Billiton a^e the Unycorhs, or Gunong Beginda, two 
remarkable hills, 496 ft. high, which, when coming from the southward, ap- 
pear as islands. Five miles north-eastward of the Haycocks is Blantoe Hill, 
1,166 ft. high ; and to the eastward of Blantoe are Luda, Pyramid, and South 
Peak, all of which serve to determine a ship's position when approaching the 
strait from the southward. 

Seven miles northward of Blantoe diVQ Eliang, 1,198 ft., and Noi^e 1,090 ft. 
high. Ten or eleven miles N. by E. from Blantoe is Agong, 1,242 ft. high, 
and which appears to be the highest hill on the island. Seven miles north- 
ward of Agong, in lat. 2° 53', is Tadjem, 1,096 ft. high. The whole of the 
hills just mentioned are visible from the southward and south-westward. 
Three miles S.S.E. ^ E. from Tanjong Bienga, a high bluff forming the 
north-western extremity of Billiton, is Gunong Tehalo, the highest part of 
which, Round Mount, is 541 ft. high. 

A little to the northward of Tamelang Point, on the S.W. side of Billiton, 
there is a small rivulet of good water, which may be easily approached by 
boats. Fresh water is also to be found in the northern part of the bay on the 
West side of Selio. 

PULO SELIO is surrounded by a reef, and separated from the south- 
western point of Billiton by a narrow channel, in the middle of which is the 
small island of Seriboe ; a mile south-eastward of Seriboe is a reef which 
partly dries. Close to the shore of Billiton are the small islands Goenting 
and Proet. 

The South point of Selio is in lat. o° 14' S., long. 137° 30' E., and the 
conspicuous hill, 242 ft. high, upon it, is named Gunong Bolo. 

White Rock, 28 ft. above water, stands on the outer edge of a rocky 
patch, lying nearly 3 miles W. \ N. from the South point of Selio ; a mile 
S.E. by E. from it are some rocks above water. There is no channel betwepn 
White Rock and Selio, and shoal water extends nearly 1^ mile southward of 
that island. A 4f-fathom patch lies 3 miles S.S.E. from White Rock. 

A Shoal, about a third of a mile in extent, having but li ft. of water over 
it, and 10 to 16 fathoms close-to, liesN.W. nearly 2 miles from White Rock. 
Between this shoal and White Rock, and between both and the Koerier 
Bank, are channels of 5 to S fathoms water. 

Koerier Bank, of sand, about a mile long, and a quarter of a mile broad, 


dries at low water at 3 miles North of the White Eock, and 4 miles "West of 
the North point of Pulo Selio. 

The 3-fathoms edge of the bank surrounding Selio forms a sort of bay on 
the West side of that island, where a ship may anchor to fill up water. 
The entrance to it is between the IJ-feet shoal and the Koerier Bank; 
Gunong Bolo bearing S.E. by E. A E. will lead into it, midway between 
those dangers. 

Foul ground and shallow water extends to the westward from Billiton, 
nearly to a line drawn from White Eock to Eoss Island, the most southern 
of the Six-island Group ; within this line, 2^ miles N. by W. J W. from the 
Koerier Bank, is Gull Roch. 

The large bay to the northward of Selio, and eastward of the Six Islands, 
is crowded with small islands and reefs. 

The SIX ISLANDS, or Pulo Lima, are small, low, and surrounded by 
reefs, between which are narrow passages having depths of 10 to 20 fathoms 
water. The southernmost of these islands, named Ross, after Captain Eoss, 
I.N., is 42 ft. high, and lies in lat. 3° 5' S., long. 107° 20' E. The others 
are named Benolo, 94 ft. high ; Kasengo, 58 ft. ; Bago, 146 ft. ; Belong, 170 ft.; 
and Binget, 158 ft. high. They may be approached to the southward and 
westward as near as 1 mile; but dangerous patches extend from Eoss Island 
in a S.E. direction for nearly 2 miles ; and from Kasengo, the north- western 
island, reefs, some of which dry at low water, extend in a N.N.W. direction 
to the distance of \\ mile, and for three-quarters of a mile in a southerly 
direction. The western extreme of Mendanao bearing North a little easterly 
leads close to the reef extending N.N.W. from Kasengo, and bearing N. \ E. 
or N. ^ E., clears all dangers near the Six Islands. 

TABLE ISLAND, 116 ft. high, forms the western limit of the narrowest 
part of Stulze Channel, the reef extending N.N.W. from Kasengo, forming 
the eastern limit. The island is about a third of a mile long N.N.W. and 
S.S.E., and nearly a quarter of a mile broad. It lies nearly 2 miles E. by S. 
from South Island, and, from its isolated position, serves as an excellent 
mark to guide vessels in steering for the narrow part of Stolze Channel when 
approaching it either from the southward or from the northward. It is sur- 
rounded by a reef to the distance of nearly half a mile, and at two-thirds of 
a mile S.W. of it is an outlying patch of 3 fathoms. 

SOUTH ISLAND is about four times as large as Table Island, and a hiU 
on its northern part is 200 ft. high. It is bordered by a reef, and dangers 
extend three-quarters of a mile in a southerly direction froaa its South point. 
On its North side are some rocks not far from the shore, and a patch with 
only 3 ft. water over it lies half a mile N. by W. from its eastern point. 

A Two-and-a-quarter Fathoms Patch lies nearly in mid-channel between 
Table Island and South Island, which makes that passage dangerous ; else- 
where are soundings of 14 to 21 fathoms. 


A 3-feet patch lies 2J miles W.S.W. from Table Island, and three-quarters 
of a mile off the South side of South Island. 

NORTH ISLAND, 240 ft. high, is separated from South Island by a 
channel 1| mile wide, which, from the reefs projecting from both islands, is 
narrowed to three-quarters of a mile. Th% channel is clear, with soundings 
of 7 to 18 fathoms. The two islands are in one on a N. by W. and opposite 
bearing. Three-quarters of a mile E.N.E. from the N.E. point is a dry patch ; 
there is also a patch of 3 fathoms lying S.E. ^ E., distant a little more than 
half a mile from the same point. 

PULO MENDANAO, or Long Island, lying 15^ miles to the eastward of 
Pulo Leat, is much the largest of the numerous islands which front the West 
coast of Billiton. It is about 8 miles in extent North and South, and about 
the same distance East and "West. The island is for the most part low,' but 
has some hills 600 to 700 ft. high upon it. 

Pulo Ayam is a very small islet, lying S.S.E. 2J miles from West Point. 
There is a rock on the outer edge of the reef extending from Mendanao 
from which the South point of the island bears E. ^ S. 2f miles, and Pulo 
Ayam N.N.W. f W. At three-quarters of a mile from the rock in the 
direction of Pulo Ayam is a dry patch. 

Pulo Gala, or Low Island, lies off the S.E. coast of Mendanao, from which 
it is separated by the Nado Passage, about three-quarters of a mile broad. 

The Nado Passage, between Mendanao and Gala Islands, is said to be 
entirely clear, and very deep, but this is doubtful. 

A huoy is moored on the eastern side of the channel, about a mile wide, 
which separates the dangers extending from Pulo Gala from those extending 
westward from the islands which lie southward of Tanjong Roe, off the 
western side of Billiton Island, The buoy lies 2| miles south-eastward of 
the southern extreme of Pulo Gala. 

Brown Reef. — The English barque Victor, when proceeding through Stolze ^ 
Channel, struck on a rock with only 8 ft. water on it, and 14 fathoms close- 
to, Pulo Betong (the easternmost of the Six Islands) bearing S.S.E., and 
Table Island W. ^ S. These bearings would place this reef near the position 
of a danger named Brown Eeef on the Dutch chart. 

As there appear to be other dangers besides Brown Reef in this locality, a 
vessel will do well to pass westward of a line drawn between Kasengo Island 
and the West point of Mendanao. 

Hoog Island {High Island), or Pulo Kumhong, is a small islet, 100 ft. high, 
and in the form of a sugar-loaf, lying nearly 1^ mile to the northward of 
West Point ; a reef surrounds it, which on the eastern and northern sides 
projects nearly half a mile. 

PULO BATU BINDING lies off the North coast of Mendanao. On the 
western side of the island is a deep bay, but it is quite tilled up with coral 


Bhoals. Half a mile off the north-eastern end of the island is a small round 


Rotterdam Island, lying about IJ mile northward of the S.W. point of 
Batu Dindinff, is small, and more than half a mile "West of it is a very small 
islet half a mile S.W. of which are some rocks. A bank of sand and rocks 
surround both island and islet, between which and the reef exteuding from 
Batu Binding is a narrow channel with 6 to 9 fathoms water in it. 

The whole coast between Mendanao Island and Tanjong Bienga, theN.W. 
point of Billiton, is fronted by dangers, and vessels should use extreme cau- 
tion in approaching it ; the outlying dangers only will be described. 

Perlak Shoal, or Kalang Serat, is a rock nearly awash, with a 2-fathoms 
patch about a third of a mile north-eastward of it. A monster hwij, painted 
Mack, is placed in 7 fathoms water on the North side of the bank, and W.S.W. 
cf Tanjong Pandang (Billiton). From it a remarkable tree on Pulo Kal- 
manbang bears N. 87° 20' E. ; the N.E. point of Palo Sihongkok (on 
Hoorn Island), S. 75° E. ; and the South end of Pulo Kalmanbang on with 
the North point of Gunong Tadjem. 

Fulo Ealmanlang is a small island lying E. A N. 6! miles from the N.E. 
point of Batu Binding. It is surrounded by an extensive reef, on the 
western extreme of which, U mile "W.S.W. from the S.W. point of the 
island, a huoy is placed. About a mile North from Kalmanbang, and 2 
miles N.N.E. from the last-named buoy, is another buoy, which lies off the 
middle of a narrow bank, named Tohul (Toekoel), which extends 2 miles in 
a N.E. and S.W. direction, and is separated from the reef lying off the 
North side of Kalmanbang by a narrow channel. A 5-fathom bank of small 
size lies 2 miles N.W. from the latter buoy. A shoal, named Pinang, lies 
off the South and S.E. sides of Kalmanbang, distant \^ mile from it. 

Tieroetioep Bay and River. — This bay is to the northward of Kalmanbang 
Island and the Toekoel Shoal, between the latter and the Karang Panjang, 
or Bakka Shoal. The river falls into the eastern part of the bay, but reefs 
extend off its entrance to a distance of nearly 4 miles. The small island of 
Kalmoa, 150 ft. high, lies directly off the entrance, 3 miles within the reefs. 
Pandan, the town on the North entrance point of the river, is joined with 
Blantoe, 22 miles to the southward, by a railway. 

The outer edges of the reefs which lie on either side of the entrance of the 
river form a sort of bight, within the horns of which a vessel may anchor in 
6 or 7 fathoms. The best anchorage appears to be a little further out, with 
Kalmoa Island bearing about E.S.E., and Kalmanbang Island S. by W. ^ W. 
But it is not a safe anchorage in the N.W. monsoon, and even during the 
N.E. monsoon there are heavy gales from the N.W. 

B^wyf:. — There is a conical buoy lying on the North side of the entrance to 
the channel between the reefs, at 2 miles W.N.W. from Kalmoa Island. 
There is also a can buoy lying 1 mile further out, and marking the eastern 


side of a rocky 5-fatliom patch, which should by avoided by vessels anchoring. 
It is advisable to lay the kedge out to the northward, as vessels often foul 
their anchors, either by the currents or winds. To enter and anchor in this 
bay, having passed the West point of Mendanao at a distance of 2 miles, 
Bteer North or N. by E. till Rotterdam Island or the N.W. point of Binding 
bears S.S.E., then steer N.E. by E., E.N.E., or E. by N., till Kalmoa Island 
bears S.E. by E. ; steer then direct for that island till Kalmanbang bears 
S.S.W. J W., and anchor in 7^ fathoms, with the mouth of the river S.E. 
by E. i E., 4 miles distant, and the nearest rocks S.E. f E., 3 miles. By 
the American chart, Kalmoa bearing S.E. by E. leads just to the southward 
of the Bakka Shoal. 

When near the N.W. point of Binding, the wind sometimes flies round to 
the eastward ; and if bound to this bay it is better to anchor and wait for 
the sea breeze from the southward or south-westward, as the current runs to 
the N.W. with an easterly wind. 

The water, which is fetched from a little way up the river, is very good ; 
it may be procured also on the right bank of the river, near the entrance, 
but it is not so good. 

Karang Pandjang, or Bakka Shoal, bounding Tieroetioep Bay to the 
northward, is about three-quarters of a mile in extent, with 1 J fathom water 
over it. Tanjong Koeboe (Kubu), or Billiton, bears from it E. by S. :^ S. ; 
Kalmoa Islet S.E. i E. ; and Kalmanbang S. by W. 

Argo Shoal, about 1| mile in extent, with only a foot of water over the 
middle of it, lies N.N.E. ^ E. 4^ miles from the Karang Panjang, and from 
its outer edge Tanjong Bienga bears N.E. f E. Several shoals are reported 
to lie westward of the Argo Shoal. 

Numerous detached patches lie eastward of the line joining Argo Shoal 
and Karang Pandjang. 

A small shoal, with two fathoms water over it, lies If mile N.E. ^ N. from 
the Argo Shoal, with Tanjong Bienga bearing N.N.E. , distant 2 miles ; and 
N.W. Island N. f E., 3^ miles. 

TANJONG BIENGA is a high bluff point, forming the north-western ex- 
treme of Billiton ; from this point the coast trends away north-eastward. 

Eleven Islands are a cluster of small islands lying off the north-western 
extreme of Billiton. The names of some of them are the Sailor's Hat, Bamboe, 
Sampit, and Burong ; the latter is the largest of the group, and lies N.N.E. 
nearly 4 miles from Tanjong Bienga. 

N. W. Island or Langwas, the outer and most north-western of the islands, 
lies just inside the edge of the coral reef which extends from the shore, and 
surrounds the entire group, its North end is in lat. 2° 31A' S., long. 107° 
38i' E. 

Alwina Shoal. — The ship Alwina passed close to a rock lying N.N.W. 1^ 
mile Irom the north-westernmost of the Eleven Islands. It appeared to be 


a detached danger, with a depth of 6 to 9 feet on it, and deep water all 

Directions for Stolze Channel. — No soundings appear on the charts for a 
distance of 7 or 8 miles southward and south-westward of the Carnbee Eocks 
(p. 250), nor yet close to those dangers, so that a vessel cannot be guided by 
the lead when approaching them. Between the Carnbee Rocks and the 
Aanvang Bank are 13 to 18 fathoms. The Aanvang Bank, Cooper Shoals, 
and Three-feet Shoal appear to lie just within the edge of the line of 10 fa- 
thoms, running from a position 4 or 5 miles south-eastward of the Aanvang 
Bank, outside the shoals just mentioned. 

Towards the shoals on the western side of the entrance to the channel the 
depths are much less, and they decrease more regularly, the 10-fathom line 
extending some 5 or 6 miles to the eastward of them, so that they may be 
approached by proper attention to the lead. 

The bottom, through the entire length of Stolze Channel, appears to be 
composed principally of sand and broken shells, with here and there broken 
coral. To the north-westward of Billiton the bottom is mostly soft, black 
mud, with sand and broken coral and shells in places. 

From the Southward. — As soon as Blantoe, 1,166 ft. high (the highest hill 
on the South coast of Billiton), can be recognized, it should be brought to 
bear about N.N.E., and with it just in sight on that bearing, if the weather 
is clear, a vessel will be about 33 or 35 miles distant from it, in the fairway 
of the Stolze Channel, with the Carnbee Rocks about 15 miles to the north- 
eastward, and may shape a course North or N. ^ W. As the vessel proceeds 
to the northward, Luda Hill will come in sight, and shortly afterwards 
Pyramid and South Peak, all of which will be seen to the right or eastward 
of Blantoe. Soon the Haycocks will be visible, at first a little to the left of 
Blantoe, and by the time they are in line with it, Gunong Bolo, on the South 
end of Selio, will be well in sight, bearing about N.N.E., and distant 14 and 
15 miles. Shoal- water Island will also be in sight, not perhaps from the 
deck, but from the mast-head, or a little way up the rigging, bearing about 
N.W. by W., and distant 15 or 16 miles. 

From this position a N. by W. f W. course will lead up to Table Island. 
Passing 6 or 7 miles westward of White Rock, Saddle and South Islands will 
be seen on the port bow ; soon Low Island will also rise in sight on the port 
bow, and the Six Islands on the starboard bow ; and as they are approached 
— if the N. by W. f "W. course has been preserved — Table Island will be 
seen right ahead in mid-channel. 

Table Island should be approached on a N. by W. |^ W. bearing until the 
West point of Mendanao bears N. by E. or N. by E. I E., which will lead 
between Table Island and the reefs extending N.N.W., from Kasenga. 
When the North point of North Island bears W.N.W., either steer N.N.W. 
for Gaspar Island, which will lead 3 miles eastward of the Hewitt Rock, and 


2 miles westward of the western of the two positions ascribed to the Akbar 
Shoal ; or bring North Island S. by W. J W., and steer N. by E. f E., or 
N.N.E., which will lead 4 or 5 miles westward of the dangers extending 
from Eotterdam Island, and into the China Sea eastward of the Akbar and 
Canning Shoals. 

Working through from the Southicard. — When standing to the eastward, to avoid 
the Cambee Eocks, Blantoe Hill must not be brought North of N. by E. ; 
and to clear the Aanvang Bank and Cooper Shoal, Gunong Bolo must not 
be brought West of N. by W. When Blantoe bears N.E. f N., or the 
Haycocks N.N.E. f E., Gunong Bolo must be kept East of N. by E., to avoid 
the Three-feet patch. 

The dangers southward of Selio should not be approached under a depth 
of 10 fathoms, or White Eock brought to the West of N. by W. i W. ; and 
■when Gunong Bolo bears N.E. by E. ^ E. White Eock must be kept to the 
East of North, to avoid the edge of the bank which lies S.S.E. nearly a mile 
from it. White Eock should not be approached nearer than a mile, nor to 
a less depth than 14 or 13 fathoms ; when northward of White Eock, it must 
not be brought anything South of E.S.E. until the North point of Pulo 
Selio bears E. by N. i N., to clear the H ft. patch lying nearly 2 miles N.W. 
of it. The Koerier Bank should not be approached under a depth of 10 
fathoms, or White Eock brought South of S.E. by S. 

Gunong Bolo kept East of S.E. by E. will lead clear of the Koerier Bank, 
and to the S.W. of the foul ground between it and the Six Islands. Eoss 
Island bearing N.N.W. \ W. leads westward of the foul ground, and also 
clear of the dangers lying S.E. of Eoss Island. Kasenga bearing North 
clears the dangers extending from the West side of Eoss Island ; and the 
hill on the West point of Mendanao, if not brought to the North of N. 2- E., 
will lead well clear of the rocks which extend more than a mile N.N.W. 
from Kasenga, and will also clear all danger contiguous to the Six Islands. 
AVhen Table Island bears W. by N. a vessel will be northward of the dan- 
gers extending from Kasenga, and may stand eastward until the hill on the 
West point bears N. % W. 

As Pulo Ayam is neared, the hill on West point must not be brought to 
the West of North, and the islet must not be approached nearer than a mile. 

To clear the dangers about Hoog Island, West point should not be brought 
to the South of S.S.E. until Eotterdam Island bears N.E., when Hoog 
Island, in line with West point bearing South, will lead clear of the dangers 
westward of Eotterdam Island. Eotterdam bearing S.W. leads clear of the 
shoal bank extending from the North point of Batoe Binding. 

The dangerous coast of Billiton northward of Mendanao should not be 
neared under 5 or 6 miles ; the summit of the North range of hills on Men- 
danao S.S.W., or Taling, the highest hill on Mendanao, on the same bearing 
will lead well clear of ail danger. N.W. Island and Boerong Island should 

I. A. 2 L 


not be approached nearer than 2 miles, and caution must be observed to 
avoid the position of the Alwina Shoal (see p. 255). 

When standing to the westward, Shoal- water Island, if not brought to the 
East of North, will clear all danger from the Larabe Shoal to the Middle 
ileef, and the lead will also give good warning when standing towards them, 
as they lie some 4 or 5 miles within the edge of the 10-fathom line. Shoal- 
water and Hancock Islands must be approached with caution, as the lead 
does not give much warning when nearing their ledges ; they should on no 
account be approached under a depth of 10 fathoms, or within 2^ miles. 
Hancock Island bearing South leads clear of the Bliss Shoal, between which 
and South Island a vessel may stand to the westward until the summit of 
South Island bears N.E. by N., which will lead clear of the Vansittart Shoals 
and the dangers about Saddle and Low Islands. 

Saddle Island bearing W. \ S., leads southward of the dangers extending 
from South and Table Islands. When near Table Island, its South point 
should not be brought to the eastward of North, to avoid the o-fathom patch 
lying three-quarters of a mile S."W. of it. The East side of Table Island 
may be approached to a mile ; but the East side of North Island has dan- 
gers l^ing nearly a mile off it, and to clear them Table Island must not be 
brought eastward of S.S.E. The East extreme of South Island just open of 
the East extreme of North Island bearing S. by E., leads a mile eastward of 
Hewett Shoal. 

Through Stohe Channel from the northward. — Having passed eastward of 
Gaspar Island, bring it to bear N.N. W., and keep it so, steering S.S.E., and 
it will lead into the fairway of Stolze Channel, midway between West point 
and the Hewett Shoal, and in this track the soundings will be 14, 16, 20, 
22, 28, and 26 fathoms. When West point bears East, distant 4 or 5 miles, 
Table Island will be seen on the starboard bow, with North and South 
Islands to the right of it. Continuing the S.S.E. course, the Six Islands 
will soon be visible on the port bow, and, after passing Table Island at about 
2 miles on the starboard beam. West point will soon bear N. by E. or N. by 
E. y E. ; when an opposite course may be steered to pass between Table 
Island and the dangers extending N.N.W. from Kasenga. 

When Table Island bears N. by W. f W., all danger will be cleared near 
the Six Islands, and if kept upon that bearing it will lead mid-channel 
between White Rock and Shoal-water Island, having passed which, the most 
convenient course may be shaped to the southward, giving a good berth to 
the shoals extending from Branding Breakers to the Larabe Shoal, on the 
western side of the channel, and to the Aanvang Bank and Carnbee Rocks 
on the eastern side. 

Entering Stolze Channel to the eastward of the Akbar Shoal, between it 
and the N.W. coast of Billiton, steer to the S.W., giving the Billiton coast 
a berth of 4 or 5 miles ; and as soon as North Island can be made out, bring 


it S.S.W., and it will lead well to the westward of the dangers near Rotter- 
dam Island. When Table Island bears a little East of South, a S.S.E. course 
may be steered until West point bears N. by E. or N. by E. ^ E., which 
leads midway between Table Island and the reefs off Kasenga ; when pro- 
ceed as before. 

Worldng through from the Northward. — When danding to the eastivard, the 
N,W. coast of Billiton should not be approached nearer than 5 or 6 miles, 
or the summit of the North range of hills on Mendanao brought westward 
of S.S.W. (pp. 257-8). Rotterdam Island, bearing S.W., will lead clear of 
the reefs extending from the North side of Batoe Binding, and the islet off 
the N.E. point of the latter island, bearing East, will clear the dangers 
northward of Rotterdam. West point bearing South will clear the rocks, 
&c., which lie westward of Rotterdam, and bearing S.S.E. will clear the reef 
surroimding Hoog Island. 

West point and Pulo Ay am should not be approached much under a mile, 
as a reef extends about a third of a mile outside them. After passing Pulo 
Ayam, the hill near the extremity of West point, if not brought North of 
N. ^ E., will keep a vessel outside the dangers between Mendanao and the 
Six Islands. Kasenga bearing North, leads westward of Ross Island ; and 
Ross Island N.N.W. \ W., or Gunong Bolo, on Pulo Selio, bearing S.E. 
by E., leads clear of the dangerous elbow of foul ground to the westward of 
Gull Rock, and also clear of the Koerier Bank. 

To avoid the li-feet patch at 2 miles N.W. from White Rock, do not 
bring White Rock South of E.S.E. after the North point of Selio bears 
E. by N. ^ N. White Rock should be passed about a mile off, and after- 
wards not brought West of N. by W. ^ W., to avoid the edge of the bank 
about a mile S.S.E. from it. Gunong Bolo N. by E., leads westward of 
the Three-feet Shoal ; and the Haycocks N. by E. ^ E., or Blantoe Hill 
N.N.E. I E., leads westward of Cooper Shoal and the Aanvang Bank. To 
avoid the Carnbee Rocks, Blantoe Hill must not be brought to the North of 
N. by E. 

Standing to the westicard towards Hewitt Shoal, take care not to shut in the 
East point of South Island behind the East point of North Island ; these 
points just open lead a mile eastward of the shoal. North Island should not 
be approached on the East side nearer than H mile, or Table Island brought 
to the East of S.S.E., to avoid the dangers off it ; and Kasenga bearing 
S.E. i E. will clear the reef off the East side of Table Island. Table Island 
should not be brought to the East of North until Saddle Island bears W. 4 S., 
when a vessel will be southward of the dangers extending from Table Island 
and South Island ; after which she may stand to the westward until the 
summit of South Island bears N.N.E. 

Hancock Island bearing South leads eastward of Bliss Shoal, but Han- 
cock and Shoal-water Islands must on no account be approached nearer than 


2^ miles, or to a less depth than 10 fathoms, which will be not far from the 
shoals, the lead giving very little warning in this locality. When to the 
southward of Shoal-water Island Shoals, Shoal-water Island kept to the 
West of North will clear the dangers extending from the Branding Breakers 
to the Larabe Shoal ; the lead, also, will give sufficient warning, as the 
10-fathom line, on the edge of the bank, is 4 or 5 miles to the eastward 
of them. 


CAUTION. — The mariner cannot be too cautious in approaching this ex- 
ceedingly dangerous coast. It was surveyed by the late Lieutenant James 
Eobinson in 1819, but many dangers which front it are very imperfectly 
known, their positions depending for the most part upon the accounts of 
commanders of vessels who have found themselves too close in and entangled 
amongst them when running for Graspar Strait in thick weather. 

There are many hills along this coast near the sea, and some mountains 
inland ; one of these, called the Saddles, 912 feet high, rises about 9 miles 
westward of Tanjong Brekat. At 9 miles westward of the Saddles is the 
conspicuous range of the Padang Mountains, the highest summit of which is 
elevated 2,630 feet. About 21 miles westward of Tanjong Eiah, or in lat. 
1° 50' S., long. 105° 53' E., is the double-peaked mountain Gunong Marass, 
2,300 feet high, the largest mountain on the northern part of Banka. 

The Coast from Brekat Point trends W. by N. 21 miles to LanJca Pointy 
4 miles westward of which is Koha village. This part of the shore may be 
approached as near as 4 miles in 7 to 8 fathoms water, as the shoals are not 
more than 2 or 3 miles from the land. 

About 16 miles N.W. by W. from Lanka Point is the large village of 
Koeraw, from whence the coast trends N. by W. and N.N.W. to the River 
Marawang, near which stands the village of Pankal Pinang. The mouth of 
the river is in 2° 4J' S. 

Tetawa Bank. — Fronting the coast between the village of Koeraw and the 
Marawang Eiver is an extensive chain of banks, 15 or 16 miles long, and 
from 1 to 5 miles broad, known under the general appellation of Tetawa 
Bank, upon which are several scattered islands. Many of the patches become 
dry, and but few have as much as 4 fathoms water over them. 

Pulo Boear, or Colowy, the outermost of the above islands, is very small, 
and lies near the S.E. end of the bank, in lat. 2° 14^' S., long. 106° 11' E. 

Pulo Passir is a small sandy islet lying W.N.W., distant 43 miles from 
Pulo Boear. 

Pulo Tetawa is about the same size as Boear, from which it bears West- 
northerly, distant 8 miles. It lies near the S.W. extreme of the bank, the 


edge of which, is half a mile to the southward and 2 miles to the westward 
of it. 

Pulo Panjang, the largest, lies on the northern part of the bank, N. by E. 
^ E., distant 7 miles from Tanjong Poyang, and E.S.E. 8 miles from the en- 
trance of the Marawang Riven The bank extends about three-quarters of a 
mile to the northward of this island, but other shoals, known as the Sullivan 
Patches, &c., extend to a distance of 5 miles between the bearings of N.E. 
and N.W., and for the distance of 3^ miles in a W. by N. direction towards 
Tanjong Bunga, the nearest point of Banka. 

Horse, Mentawa, and Goat Shoals, are to the eastward of Tetawa Bank. 
The Horse, lying E. J S. 3J miles from Pulo Boear, is a small patch, nearly 
dry at low water. 

The Mentawa Eeef, lying about a mile N. by W. from the Horse, and 
E.N.E. 3 miles from Pulo Boear, is more extensive than the Horse. Goat 
Shoal lies 3 miles northward of the Mentawa Eeef, and N.E. by N. 6 miles 
from Pulo Boear ; 9 ft. is reported upon this shoal. 

The Cha^mel between Pulo Boear and the above shoals is shown on the 
charts to be about 21 miles wide, with depths of 7 or 8 fathoms in it ; but it 
would appear that either other dangers must lie in the channel at the dis- 
tance of a mile from Pulo Boear, or that the Mentawa or Horse Eeef must 
extend much further to the westward than was supposed, thus rendering the 
channel exceedingly narrow : — 

Fathool Barie Shoal.— The Fathool Barie struck on a rocky bank, with 2^ 
fathoms on it, in lat. 2° 4' S., long. 106° 28' E., with Mount Pouak bearing 
N.W. i W., Pulo Panjang W.S.W., Pulo Tetawa S.S.W., and Pulo Boear 
S. by E. J E. 

General Elliott Reefs. — The General Elliott, in August, 1811, found herself 
entangled among some reefs, with. Panjang Island S. by W ^ W., 5 miles, 
and a point of Banka, being the eastern foot of the hill South of Koba, 
S.S.E. ^ E., then being in 8 fathoms. More to the northward, this vessel 
ran over some 7-fathoms banks with probably shoaler spots ; they lie in 
1° 55' S., 12 miles from Banka. 

Sullivan Reefs, Hillsborough Rock. — The Sullivan, on returning from 
China, December, 1784, and trying to get sight of Banka during thick 
weather, ran as far in as 1 3|^ fathoms, rocky bottom, and there saw three 
patches of breakers, one bearing S.S.W. 3 miles; another S.E. by S. the 
same distance ; and the third E.N.E. 4 miles. Between the breakers a few 
rocks were visible above water. The weather being thick prevented Banka 
being seen ; but it was supposed the rocks were in 2° 3' S., and North from 
Panjang Island. 

The Hillshorough, in March, 1788, returning from China, and steering for 
Gaspar Strait, struck on a rock having 3 ft. water on its shoalest part, and 
while the bow was aground there were 13 fathoms under the storn. When 


the vessel floated, she anchored in 14 fathoms to the westward of the rock, 
with the extremes of Banka N.N.W. and S.E., five small islands about 
South, and in about 2° 3' S., thereof extended S.E. and N.E. from the vessel. 
It is manifest that the positions of these dangers are altogether uncertain. 
The soundings near the Sullivan Patches, whete they are placed upon the 
chart, are but 7 and 8 fathoms. 

The Diederiha Shoal, with 3 ft. water over it, and 1 3 to 1 4 fathoms around 
it, is thought to lie 11 miles north-eastward of Pulo Panjang, and 5 miles to 
the southward of Palmer Reef, in lat. 1° 59' S., long. 10f^° 28' E. 

Roberts Shoal lies about 4^- miles to the westward of Diederika Shoal. It 
has 12 ft. water over it, and 10 fathoms near it. 

Between these shoals and Pulo Panjang, and from thence to the coast, 
there are numerous rocky shoals, with from 7 to 5 fathoms water between 
them, but, as before stated, their exact positions are unknown. 

Palmer Reef, lat. 1° 54|' S., long. 106° 27^' E., is probably part of the 
northern bank over which the General Elliott passed. 

Caution. — All these dangers may be avoided by keeping in not less than 16 
fathoms, where there is generally a muddy bottom, whereas in 15 fathoms it 
generally becomes rocky. 

TANJONG RIAH, on Banka, in lat. 1° 52' S., long. 106° 14' E., is distin- 
guished by two hills, and from its S.E. and South sides an extensive reef pro- 
jects, which makes it necessary to keep 6 or 8 miles in the offing. 

Blach Rock Reef, lying 5^ miles to the South and S.E. of Tanjong Riah, is 
very extensive, with only 3 ft. water over it in some places. Tate Rocks, 4 
miles S.S.E. from Tanjong Riah, are 14 ft. above water. Other shoals lie 
S.E. by S. 8 miles from Tanjong Riah ; and E.N.E., 4 miles from it, is a 
patch of 5 fathoms water. 

To avoid these dangers, keep Panjang Island to the westward of South, 
and go no nearer the shore of Banka than 7 fathoms water, when approach- 
ing Marawang Road. 

Marawang, or Pankal Pinang, the chief town of one of the tin districts, is 
situated a few miles up the Marawang River, the entrance of which lies 
about W.N.W. 7 miles distant from Pulo Panjang, and can only be ap- 
proached by vessels with the greatest caution, on account of surrounding 
dangers. Good water can be obtained at Pankal Pinang. 

DIRECTIONS.— Vessels bound from Macclesfield Channel to the ports of 
Pankal Pinang or Roessah, pass between Tree Island and Brekat Point, 
and to the westward of the Columbian and Dutch Shoals, in 12 to 14 fa- 
thoms water, but in not a greater depth— as the Columbian lies in the stream 
of 17 fathoms — till Boear Island bears S.W. by S., and Panjang Island 
West ; a depth of 16 fathoms must then be kept till Riah Point bears "West. 
Prom thence steer direct for that point till in 7 or 8 fathoms, having Panjang 
Island S. 2 W., on which bearing the island may be approached till the 


N.W. peak of the Lappa Hills bears S.W. i W., which course leads direct 
to the anchorage. 

LIAT BAY, formed between Tanjong Lyang to the N.W., and Tanjong 
Eiah, to the S.E., affords good anchorage with shelter from southerly and 
westerly winds in 5 fathoms, white stiff clay, about three-quarters of a mile 
off shore ; but in the eastern monsoon the swell is very heavy. The an- 
chorage is in 4^ fathoms, with the mouth of the river W. by N. northerly, 
Lyang Point N.N. W. I W., and Riah Point S.E. by S. From the river, 
nearly to the S.E. point of the bay, a fine sandy beach lines the shore, 
with gradually decreasing soundings. The town of Liat, usually known as 
Songi Liat, stands a short distance up the river, and is a chief town of one 
of the tin districts. 

Fresh water here is very difficult to be procured, on account of the rocks 
in the mouth, of the river, which can only be entered at high water. Wood 
and spars of any dimensions may easily be obtained on the South side of the 
bay, within half a mile of the shore. 

The three following dangers are very much in the way of vessels frequent- 
ing this bay. I^iat Reef, lying E. by S. | S. 85 miles from Tanjong Lyang, 
has but 6 ft. water over it. 

Circe Reef, discovered by H.N.M. schooner Circe, has 2^ fathoms over it, 
and 6 or 7 fathoms around it. From the reef the hill on Lyang Point bears 
W. by N. J N., Simbang Island N.W. \ W., and the hill on Tanjong Riah 
S.W. I s. 

At full and change it is high water in Liat Bay at 5 p.m., and the rise of 
tide is 9 ft. 

Approaching Liat Bay from the northward, 5^ or 6 fathoms will be 
found at 2 miles from Lyang Point, and in a southerly direction towards the 

Coming from the eastward, and being in 10 and 11 fathoms, bring Riah. 
Point S.W. by W , and keep towards it till Lyang Point is N.W. by W. l W., 
then steer W.N.W. and W. by N. towards the anchorage. A rock is marked 
on the charts If mile S.S.E. from Lyang Point and a mile off shore; the 
anchorage recommended is southward of the rock in 4^- or 4 fathoms water. 

The Coast from Tanjong Dyang runs N.N.W. to Tanjong Tuen, in lat. 
1° ;i5i' S., which has a hill on it, and there are several hills further inland. 
Close to the point is Pongoh Islet, which can be approached to half a mile. 
The coast to the southward of it forms a very shallow bay, in which, at about 
6 miles S.S.E. from Tanjong Tuen, is a small island named Pulo Simbang. 
This part of the coast may be approached to 13 fathoms, and even less. 

The coast from Tanjong Tuen runs about N.W. by W. for 10^ miles to 
Tanjong Crassok or Moncudu, ihQ northernmost point of Banka, where it turns 
sharply to the westward. A reef, with only 7-^- ft. water, lies about 1^ mile 
from the shore, and nearly midway between Tanjong Crassok and Cape Tuen. 


From the shoal, Crassock Point bears W. by N. f N., Pulo Pongoh off Cape 
Tuen S.E. J S.. and Pakoe Point S. by E. A second reef is marked at 3 
miles S.E. by E. from Tanjong Crassok. Nearly a mile off shore, distant 
2 J miles W. by N. from Tanjong Crassok, is the small island of Moncudu, 
before described, page 226. 


CANNING ROCK, in lat. 2° 23' S., long. 107° 13' E., on which, in April, 
1825, the East India Company's ship of that name struck on returning from 
China, lies directly in the route of vessels proceeding towards Gaspar Strait, 
and therefore is very dangerous, there being only 3 fathoms on it, with 17 
to 20 fathoms close-to. From the spot where this ship grounded, Gaspar 
Island bore W. by S. 10 miles ; Brekat Point S.W. by W. | W. ; the hum- 
mock near that point S.W. by W. J W. ; the summit of Mendanao Island 
S.S.E. ; and Hoog Island S. by E. ^E. 

The danger consists of many coral heads, extending N.E. and S.W. about 
100 yards, and East and West 60 yards. As it is greatly in the way of 
vessels coming from the northward toward the strait, Gaspar Island ought 
to be made bearing well to the southward, and should be approached within 
5 miles, or nearer, before it is brought to bear W.S.W., in order to give a 
wide berth to this danger. 

Sowerby Shoal, seen by Capt. J. Sowerby, of the ship Montmorency, April 
1st, 1861, with apparently not more than 2 fathoms water over it; by good 
cross bearings the middle peak of Mount Tebalo (North end of Billiton 
Island) bore S. 32° E., and peak of Gaspar Island S. 66° W., which places 
it in lat. 2° 13' S., and about long. 107° 35' E. (or 107° 28'). This shoal is 
about 3 miles long N.W. and S.E., and a third of a mile broad, and is very 
dangerous, as it lies right in the track of vessels beating out of the Stolze 
Channel to the northward in the northerly monsoon. 

Pare Joie Shoal. — A rock was marked doubtful on the charts, with the 
peak of Gaspar Island bearing S.S.E. | E. 6J miles, and Tree Island 
S. by W. f W. 9 miles. It is probably the same as that on which the Pare 
Joie struck in 1869. It is now placed in lat. 2° 19' S., long. 107° 3' E., or 
nearly 3 miles eastward of the position assigned to the doubtful danger. 
From the Pare Joie Shoal the summit of Gaspar Island bears S. i E., distant 
5 miles, and Tree Island S.W. by S. 10 miles distant. 

Warren Hastings Reef is supposed to extend about Z\ miles N. by W. 
and S. by E., and to have but 2 to 9 ft. water over it in some places. In 
1788 the Warren Hastings, returning from China, grounded upon the S.E. 
projecting point of this reef, having a short time previously had regular 
soundings from 20 to 22 fathoms. Under the stem there were only 2 ft. 


•vrater, 4 fathoms amidships ; the high land of Banka bore S.W. by W., the 
most distant visible land S.S.W. and S.W. by W. ^ W., the centre of Gas- 
par Island S.E. by E. | E., Tree Island, S. by E. ^ E., the latitude by the 
sun's meridian altitude being 2' 23' S. On examining the shoal with the 
boat there were in some places 3 and IJ fathoms. In 1845 the English ves- 
sel Gondolier was wrecked on this reef. The French vessel Joseph places it in 
2° 21' S., and 106^ 56' 45" E., with the centre of Gaspar Island S.E. by E. ; 
Belvedere Eock, N.N.E. ; and the wreck of the Gondolier S.S.W. 

Chrysolite Roch, said to lie If mile eastward of the southern part of Warren 
Hastings Eeef, is stated by Dutch authority not to exist. The following 
account is given of it : — " On the 10th of September, 1851, the Chrysolite, 
of Liverpool, while working between the Belvedere and Warren Hastings 
Shoals, saw a rock, which apparently did not carry more than 4 ft. water, 
with Tree Island bearing S. | E. ; Brekat Point S.S.W. ^ W. ; and the 
centre of Gaspar Island E. by S." 

Columbian Shoalis marked doubtful on the chart, N. by W. J W., distant 
14 miles from Brekat Point, from the following report by Capt. G. Wakem, 
of the ship Columbian, who stated that his vessel struck upon it in April, 
1845, but without being brought up, although the reef had not more than 
10 ft. water upon it. Anchored immediately with Gaspar Island E. by S. 
distant 16 miles, and Tree Island S.E. by E. i E. 12 miles. The next day 
the vessel was left in a sinking condition. 

Belvedere Shoals. — The south-western end of these shoals is a reef under 
water, in lat. 2° 14' S., long. 106^ 59' E., and from it Gaspar Peak bears 
S.S.E. ^ E., distant 11 miles ; from thence they extend to the north-eastward 
4^ miles. Near their middle is a sand-bank awash ; there are besides on 
them many coral patches with 6 to 10 ft. water, and on their north-eastern 
extreme a black rock 10 ft. high and 40 ft. long. When there is a heavy 
swell the sea breaks on them, and by day they may easily be avoided by a 
good lookout, particularly as some of the patches are dry at low water. How- 
ever, a vessel from New York was wrecked on these shoals, and shortly after- 
wards a Chinese junk. It was probably their breakers which were observed 
from the ITawk in 1785, bearing N.E. 6 miles, and E. by N. 3 miles, Gaspar 
Island S.S.E. ^ E., and part of Banka S.W. 

A reef was discovered lying N.N. W. 3f miles from the Belvedere Eock, 
also 17 miles distant from Gaspar Island, and 28 miles from Brekat Point, on 
Banka Island. The position given is in lat. 2° 8' S., long. 107° 1' 15" E. 

Dutch. Shoal {Vansittart Shoal), lies in lat. 2° lOJ' S., long. 106° 44' E., 
with the peak of Gaspar Island bearing about S.E. by E., distant 24 miles. 

The Vamittart, Capt. Lestock Wilson, struck on this shoal, and was with 
great difficulty run upon a sandy beach of Banka, to save the lives of the crew. 

K shoal oi& ft. water is marked on the Dutch chart N.W., distant 11| 
miles from the Dutch shoal. 

I. A. 2h 


Magdalen Reef, discovered in November, 1806, by the American vessel 
MagdaleUy is very dangerous in thick weather for vessels bound to Gaspar 
Strait from the northward, for when the reef was first seen the vessel was 
only half a cable's length from it. The boat found it to consist of two coral 
rocks, about 160 yards in length and 30 yards in breadth, with deep water 
between them, 1 1 ft. upon them, and at half a cable's length from the shoal 
19 to 21 fathoms. 

Capt. Ross, in 1818, determined the position of this reef to be lat. 1°59'S., 
long. 107° r E., the peak of Gaspar Island bearing from it S. | E., distant 
nearly 26 miles. 

Lanrick or Newland Shoal, with only 9 ft. water over it, lies 8 or 9 miles 
northward of the Magdalen Shoal. The clipper brig Lanrich, Capt. T. B. 
White, struck upon this shoal in 1852 ; and the ship u4s?'a, Capt. Newland, in 
October, 1853. Both vessels took great pains to determine its exact position, 
and the mean of their observations places the danger in lat. 1° 52' S., long. 
107° r 30" E. Capt. White says : — " It is of very small extent, and exceed- 
ingly dangerous, the soundings giving no warning, for the next morning at 
anchor, and not more than IJ mile from its position, the boats after a two 
hours' search could not find, nor did they see any discoloured water, or get 
less than 17 fathoms." Capt. Newland remarks also that no discoloured 
water could be seen at the distance of a mile from the shoal. 

Atwick Rock was discovered by an English vessel of that name, in August 
1831. Its position was given in lat. 1° 48' S., long. 107° 30' E., or N.N.E. | E. 
44 J miles from Gaspar Island. 

Pratt Rock, in lat. 1° 32' S., long. 107° 26' E., is described as dangerous, 
extending N. and S. half a mile, and apparently level with the water's edge, 
having a rock (or dead tree, many of which were floating about) on its 
northern end. 

Catharine Reef -^diS dii^covexedi in 1840, by the ship Catharine, which an- 
chored at 1 p.m. in lat. 1° 31' S., long. 107° 1' E., in 18 fathoms water. They 
observed breakers in a N.N.E. ^ E, direction, at half a mile distant, on a 
reef which seemed to extend about 3 miles E. by S. Though the vessel re- 
mained at anchor till 5 p.m., it does not appear that any further observations 
were made. Its position is marked doubtful on the charts. 

ActaeonRock. — H.M.S. Actceon, when proceeding to the northward through 
Gaspar Strait, passed Gaspar Island at sunset, July 7th, 1857, and at mid- 
night, running 8 knots, struck on an unknown coral reef, which, when ex- 
amined the next day, was found to be between 2 and 3 cables' lengths in 
extent, steep-to, with patches of 7 ft. on it, and 17 fathoms all around. Its 
position is lat. 1° 39' 48" S., long. 106° 37' 58" E., or East about 8 miles from 
the Severn Shoal. The land was observed from the masthead, whereas from 
the Severn Shoal the hills on Banka are said to have the appearance of 
separate islands. 


Severn Shoal, discovered in May, 1802, by the American ship Severn, lies 
exactly in the track of vessels from Toty Island towards Gaspar Strait. It 
is placed on the chart in lat. V 39' S., long 106° 30' E., but from the follow- 
ing account its exact position is very doubtful. 

At sunset, Gaspar Peak bore S.E. f S., 14 miles distant. From this 
situation the Severn steered N.W. ^ N. 35 miles, and at daybreak struck on 
a coral reef, but got ojff after being lightened of 30 tons of ballast. The reef 
seemed to extend 2 or 3 miles N.N.E. and S.S.W., but where the vessel 
grounded there were 10 ft. water. The hills on Banka had the appearance 
of separate Islands, above which the Marass Mountain was visible, and the 
nearest land was computed to be about 20 miles distant. The Columhian, of 
New York, was wrecked on this shoal in March, 1824, when returnino- from 
China. The crew reached the harbour of Mintok in the long-boat, after 
having suffered much from deprivation and fatigue. 

Ivon Shoal,^ with 2f fathoms water over it, appears on the charts at 7 miles 
West of the Severn Shoal, in lat. 1° 39' S., long. 106° 21' E. Like the Severn 
and Actseon Shoals, it is much in the way of vessels passing between Graspar 
Strait and Toty Island. A douhtful danger is marked at 3 miles AV. by S. of it. 

Scheweningen Shoal. — The ship Scheweningen struck on an unknown bank 
in lat. 1° 19- 12' S., long. 106° 39' 48" E., about 14 leagues E. by N. from 
Crassock Point, the North extremity of Banka Island. Immediately after 
the ship struck, a sounding of 4 fathoms was obtained, and a second sound- 
ing showed a depth of 15 fathoms. 

Celestial Reefs. — The American ship Celestial saw abed of rocks under water 
in lat. r 16' S., long. 106° 50' E. ; sounded in 3 fathoms, but there appeared 
to be less water on the rocks ; the next cast of the lead was 17 fathoms. 

Vega Shoal was discovered in September, 1826, by Capt, Jose Antonio de 
Vega, of the Spanish frigate Vellos, which struck on it, but by carrying out 
an anchor she was hove off. It was described as being not more than a ship's 
length in extent, with 18 to 21 ft. water over it, and 9, 11, 17, and 22 fathoms 
around it. Capt. de Vega placed it in lat. 1° 10' S., long. 106° 34' E., by 
chronometers regulated the day previously at Gaspar Island. 

The barque Marquis of Hastings, Capt. Ingram, grounded upon this bank 
in May, 1830, who placed it in lat. 1° 6' S., and 106° 31i' E., by chronome- 
ters. Horsburg says that this ship struck on this shoal in April, 1832, and 
that Mr. Harris made it at the same time in 1° 4' S. and 106= 37' E. 

H.M.S. Rifleman, in December, 1863, was employed with her tender for 
three days in searching for the Vega Shoal, but without success. A small 
rocky patch, with 7 fathoms water over it, and 13, 15, and 17 fathoms all 
around, was discovered in lat. 1° 5' 30' S., long. 106' 35 J' E. Bad weather 
compelled the Rifleman to relinquish the search. 

A southerly current, varying from 1 to 1 J knots an hour, was experienced 
the whole time the Rifleman remained in this vicinity. 


Hawkins, or Wild Pigeon Shoal, we have no account of, and its position is 
also very doubtful. On the chart three positions are given : the first in lat, 
r 8' S., long. 106° 43' E. ; the second in lat. 1° 9', long. 106° 41^, with two 
fathoms marked against it ; and the third in lat. 1° 1 1', and the same longi- 
tude as the second position. 

Deva Eeef.— The ship Deva, Captain J. Pollock, at 5*> 30™ p.m. 23rd May, 
1859, struck on a coral reef in about lat. 1° 9' S., long. 106° 52' E. The reef 
appeared to be about 60 yards in extent, N.E. and S.W., about 30 yarda 
broad, with 3 J fathoms on it, and 15 and 17 fathoms close-to. At daylight 
the next morning two reefs were in sight from the masthead ; the one the 
vessel grounded on, and the other, which was much the largest, considerably 
to the westward. 

Caution. — Probably the Deva and the Celestial are the same reefs, but 
until examined, this neighbourhood must be navigated with great caution ; 
and the whole group of the Vega, Hawkins, Celestial, and Deva Shoals, 
should be given a berth of 9 or 10 miles. 

vessels bound to the northward from Gaspar Strait, prefer passing eastward 
of Gaspar Island, which is the safest route ; but some vessels, especially when 
bound to Singapore by Ehio Strait, prefer the less safe but more direct 
route through the shoals westward of that island. 

To proceed Eastward of Gaspar Island with a fair wind, as before directed 
in pages 239, 240, and 256, 257, steer about N. by E. ^ E. if she passed 
through Macclesfield Channel, or about N. by W. or N.N.W. if she passed 
through either Stolze or Clements Channels, to pass 2 or 3 miles eastward of 
Gaspar Island, and 5 or 6 miles westward of Canning Rock. Having passed 
Gaspar, steer to the northward until it bears S. f "W., upon which bearing it 
should be kept as long as it can be seen. A N. | E. course from Gaspar will 
lead midway between Catharine Reef and Pratt Eock, and if Gaspar be 
brought on the opposite bearing soon after it is passed, it will afford a good 
opportunity to judge of the effect of the current, by noting the course that 
must be steered to preserve the proper bearing of the island ; and will also 
assist in forming a judgment as to the proper course to steer to pass midway 
between Catharine Eeef and Pratt Eock, after Gaspar Island has sunk below 
the horizon, and will no longer serve as a guide. 

If the wind should prevent a direct course from being steered, Gaspar 
Island should not be brought westward of N.N.W., until the vessel is north- 
ward of the Akbar Shoal ; and, after Gaspar is passed, it must be kept west- 
ward of S. by W., in order to avoid the Pare Joie Eock, the Belvedere, 
and the Magdalen Shoals. 

To proceed Westward of Gaspar Island between the Glassa Eock and Tree 
Island, from a position midway between them, steer to the northward until 
the peak of Gaspar Island bears S.E. j when a N.W. course will lead be- 


tween the Warren Hastings Reef on the port hand, and tlie Pare Joie 
Rock and Belvedere Shoals on the starboard hand. When Brekat Point 
bears S. by W., or the Saddles S. W. by S., a vessel will be westward of the 
Warren Hastings and Belvedere Shoals, and a N. by W. or N.N.W. course, 
according to the set of the tide, will lead westward of the Magdalen and 
Newland Reefs, and eastward of the Actseon Rock. When nearing the 
Actaeon Rock, the soundings should not be shoaled under 20 fathoms ; 
after passing it, a course may be shaped for Toty Island. 

Gaspar Island, when 3 or 4 miles distant, kept between S.E. and S.E. by 
E. i E., will keep the vessel clear of the Pare Joie Rock, and of the Warren 
Hastings Reef. 

Brekat Point bearing S. by W., or the Saddles S.W. by S., leads westward 
of the Warren Hastings and Belvedere Shoals, and Gaspar Island S.E., 
leads 3 miles eastward of the Dutch Shoal ; but when westward of the 
Warren Hastings and Belvedere Shoals, it will be wise to edge away to the 
northward — always carefully guarding against tide and currents — taking 
care not to bring Gaspar Peak to the South of S. by E. ^ E., to avoid the 
Magdalen Reef. 

If proceeding between B*-ekat Point and Tree Island, the point may be passed 
at the distance of 3 or 2 miles, and the island at a mile ; then proceed to the 
N.N.W., taking care not to bring Tree Island to the South of S.E. by S., to 
avoid the S.W. end of Warren Hastings Reef. Brekat Point bearing S. by 
W. \ W., leads clear to the N.W. extreme of that reef ; and bearing S. J E. 
leads eastward of the reported positions of the Columbian and Dutch Shoals. 
When Brekat Point bears S. i W., a northerly course may be steered, pro- 
ceeding as before to pass eastward of the Actseon Rock. 

Horsburgh states that Capt. R. Scott, in the Warren Kastings, after passing' 
Brekat Point, coasted along to the northward, keeping generally in 11 or 12 
fathoms water, without any appearance of danger, but a good mast-head 
lookout was kept. The passage, bowever, near the Banka coast is so beset 
with dangers, whose exact positions are unknown, and there may be others 
of which we at present know nothing, that we would strongly advise vessels 
to give this exceedingly dangerous coast a wide berth, especially as nothing 
is to be gained by approaching it. At p. 262 directions are given to proceed 
along this coast to Tanjoing Riah. 

Directions to approacli Gaspar Strait from the Northward. — In consequence 
of the northern entrance of Gaspar Strait being so near the equator, the 
winds, even in the strength of the monsoon, are very uncertain, producing 
a corresponding uncertainty in the direction and force of the tides and cur- 
rents. A vessel approaching the strait from the northward will, therefore, 
bave to be principally guided by the winds and currents which she may 
herself fall in with, rather than by relying upon experiencing those which 
are here mentioned as most likely to be met with at certain seasons. 


In the early part of the monsoon, that is, from the middle of November 
to the middle or end of December, northerly and north-westerly winds are 
said to prevail, but Horsburgh mentions an instance of vessels meeting with 
strong West and W.S.W. winds in December. As the monsoon gathers 
strength and becomes more regular, the wind draws to the eastward of 
North, and late in the monsoon, easterly and south-easterly winds are often 
met with between Banka and Billiton. 

In thick weather it will always be an anxious time for the navigator 
whilst approaching Gaspar Strait, for unless good sights can be obtained, 
he can never be certain of his exact position ; and we would again strongly 
advise him, under any circumstances, to steer for Banka Strait, where the 
soundings on the edge of the bank extending from the Sumatra coast will 
enable him to proceed with safety, although he may be quite unable to 
distinguish the land. 

Vessels returning from Singapore or China early in the northern monsoon, 
and intending to go through Gaspar Strait, prefer the Macclesfield Channel, 
passing between Toty and Docan Islands; but it is better to go 12 or 14 
miles to the eastward of the latter, and even more, when the wind is easterly ; 
but early in the monsoon the wind is generally North or N.W. 

Having passed Toty Island, steer about S.E. by E., so as to get on the 
meridian of Caspar Island before reaching the parallel of 1° 50' S. Caspar 
is visible in clear weather at a distance of 30 miles. Directly it is seen, steer 
towards it on a S. f W. bearing, and, passing eastward of it, steer to the 
south-westward for the entrance of the Macclesfield Channel. 

The above directions apply only to vessels returning from China early in 
the monsoon. In general, and especially returning late in the monsoon from 
China, when the S.E. and easterly winds are often met with between Banka 
and Billiton, it will be better to go 10 or 12 miles to the westward of St. 
Barbe Island, and endeavour as soon as possible to get on the meridian of 
Gaspar Island, but not to the westward of it when near the parallel of the 
Catharine Eeef, which should never be passed at night. When Gaspar is 
seen, bring it on a S. | W. bearing, and proceed as before. 

Eeturning from China late in the monsoon, S.S.W. winds are often met in 
the southern part of the China Sea, and oblige vessels to pass between the 
islands near the West coast of Borneo. If this should happen in May or 
June, it would be very tedious to get to the southward ; in such case, steer 
for the north-western end of Billiton, and pass through Stolze Channel. 



Carimata Strait, the easternmost of the channels leading between Sumatra 
and Borneo, is bounded on the eastern side by Carimata, Soruetou, and the 
other islands adjacent to the southern part of the West coast of Borneo ; 
and on the western side by the East coast of Billiton, with the adjoining 
islands and dangers. It is often used by vessels from Malacca Strait, pro- 
ceeding to China by the eastern passages, but although much broader than 
either Banka or Caspar Straits, it is not nearly so much frequented as either 
of those channels by vessels proceeding to and from China by way of Sunda 
Strait. It is, however, not unfrequently used by vessels returning from 
China, which, from the effects of winds or currents, find it difficult to get to 
the westward. 

This strait has not been properly surveyed. Capts. Ross and Maughan, 
of the Indian Navy, determined the positions of many of the dangers on each 
side of it, but much of the information which we possess has been derived 
from accounts furnished by vessels that have passed through it. In using it, 
therefore, a vessel must keep a good lookout, and be as far as possible pre- 
pared to meet with unknown dangers. 

Besides the Main Channel, limited to the south-eastward by the islands of 
Soruetou and Carimata, and to the south-westward by the Montaran Islands 
and Billiton, there are several other channels between the numerous islands 
lying eastward and north-eastward of Carimata, between it and the Borneo 
coast, through which vessels have occasionally passed. One of these, known 
as the Inner Channel, and situated between the islands of Panambungan and 
Mayang, is much frequented by vessels working through the strait against 
the monsoon, for a regular tide will be found near the Borneo coast, which 
enables them to work through the Inner Channel when it is quite impossible 
to work tlirough the Main Channel against a strong monsoon, and a con- 
tinuous rapid current setting to leeward. 

Currents and Tides. — The currents in Carimata Strait appear to set mostly 


to the southward in the northerly monsoon, for many ships have found it 
almost impracticable to beat to the northward in that season. Captain Ross, 
in the Discovery, found a constant southerly current in this stuait ; on Febru- 
ary 15th he was off Pulo Mankap, and from hence continued beating along 
the West coast of Borneo, and afterwards on the South and West sides of 
Carimata and its adjacent islands until March 16th, when he got round the 
western end of Soruetou. In the southerly monsoon it does not appear to 
be so difficult to get to the southward, for there are regular tides along the 
West coast of Borneo, and also oflf the East coast of Billiton in this season, 
which seem to extend in some degree across Carimata Strait, the flood appa- 
rently setting 12 hours to the northward, and the ebb about 12 hours in the 
opposite direction. The rise of tide, as experienced by Captain Ross, was 
about 9 or 10 ft., at full and change of the moon. 

A DESCRIPTION of that portion of the dangers southward of Billiton, 
which lie contiguous to Gaspar Strait, in given at page 250. The following 
islands and dangers lie nearer Carimata Strait, and are important to vessels 
approaching it from the southward. 

KEBATOE, or SHOE ISLAND, in lat. 3° 48' S., long. 108° 4' E., is nearly 
half a mile long in an East and West direction, and 400 yards broad ; it is 
conical in shape, thickly wooded, 346 ft. high, and visible 18 or 19 miles 
from a ship's deck in clear weather. The island is steep-to, with a coast or 
fringing reef extending 1 cable from the North and West sides ; and half a 
cable from the South and East sides. White Island, 57 ft. high, having a 
few stunted trees on the top, lies S.W. 1 mile from Kebatoe Island. A small 
shoal, with 6 ft. water, lies N.E. | E., 3 cables from White Island. 

Zephyr Hock, supposed to lie W. J S., 4 miles from Kebatoe Island, was 
searched for by the boats of H.M.S. Nassau in 1876, when a depth of 
14 fathoms (mud bottom) was obtained in that position ; but, at three- 
quarters of a mile W. by S. from Kebatoe, and 6 cables N.N. W. \ W. from 
White Island, a rock, on which the sea generally breaks, having 3 feet over 
it, was found, and this position has been assumed for that of the Zephyr 

A roch, said to exist N.W. by W. ^ W., 8 miles distant from Kebatoe 
Island, was carefully searched for by the boats of H.M.S. Nassau, but could 
not be found. The depth of 14 fathoms, mud bottom, was obtained. From 
the nature of the examination non-existence of the rock in the position 
assigned to it is assured. 

Karang Kawat, or Grace Reefs, consist of two coral reefs, the centres of 
which lie N.E. by N. 4^, and 6^ miles respectively from Kebatoe Island. 

The southern reef, on which the sea breaks heavily in moderate weather, 
is awash at low water ; this reef is 3| cables long in an East and West 
direction, and 2 cables broad, with 12 to 17 fathoms at the distance of three- 
quarters of a cable. The northern reef is 3 cables long in an East and West 


direction, 2 cables broad, dries 4 ft. at low water, and has 13 to 16 fathoms 
at the distance of half a cable. 

Between Kebatoe Island and the southern Karang Kawat there is a clear 
channel 3f miles wide, with depths of 14 to 17 fathoms, mud bottom ; and 
between the southern and northern Karang Kawats there is a channel If 
mile wide, having also 14 to 17 fathoms, mud ; the holding ground in both 
these channels is good. 

A ship ought never to attempt the passage inside Shoe Island, except in 
very clear and favourable weather. 

Heroine Shoal is in lat. 3° 37' S., long, about 107° 52' E., or in lat. 3° 37' 
S., long. 107° 49' E. ; its exact position is, however, doubtful, and it was not 
seen by the officers of H.M.S. Nassau in 1876. It is reported to be an ex- 
tensive shoal with breakers upon it. It was passed at about the distance of 
1^ mile, when Two-peaked Mountain on Billiton bore N.N.W. ; a small 
island N.E. by E. ^ E. ; and shoe Island, seen from the mizen-shrouds, S.E. 
Katapang Island, in lat. 3° 23' S., long. 107° 57^' E., is low and wooded, 
about a third of a mile in diameter, and surrounded by a reef. Around it 
are soundings of 8 and 9 fathoms, and the same depths between it and the 
shore, where, however, no vessel should venture. 

The whole of the coasts of Billiton are but very imperfectly known, but it 
is certain that they are fronted by many dangers, and vessels are strongly 
fidviaed to avoid them. 

SOUTH COAST of BILLITON.— From Karawang Point, the S.W. ex- 
treme of Billiton, the coast trends to the eastward for 2 or 3 miles, and then 
turns sharply to the north-eastward, forming a deep bay, the eastern horn 
of which is the most southern point of the island, and is distant 21 miles 
eastward from Karawang Point. This bay is named Teloh Batoh, which in 
the Malay language signifies rocky bay, and it appears from the chart to be 
full of dangers, with others extending some 2 or 3 miles outside its chord. 
Southward and westward from the eastern horn of the bay are some small 
islets lying within the margin of the reef which projects from the j)oint. 

EAST COAST.— From the eastern point of Telok Batoh Bay the coast 
trends East-northerly for 6 or 7 miles, to the S.E. point of the island, 9 or 10 
miles N.E. of which is a prominent point named Sakapar. Between these 
two latter points is a bay, in which are several islands ; and fronting it are 
also several islands. N. by E. i E. 17 miles from Sakapar Point is Mangar 
Point, having a hill upon it, the coast between forming a bay 2 or 3 miles 
deep. Northward of Mangar Point is another small bay. 

The East and N.JE. sides of Billiton are fronted by several groups of small 
islands, most of them being surrounded with or connected by rocks, sands, 
and shoals ; the outernmost of these shoals has been recently reported in 
25° 9' S, 108° 21' E., or 13i miles N.E. by E. from Sakapar Point. 

I. A. 2n 


These dangers are so imperfectly known, that it is not possible to give 
any accurate description of them here. They do not lie in the track of 
ordinary navigation, and if a vessel ventures near them she must do so with 
caution and judgment, and without placing too great confidence in the 


SCHARVOGEL ISLANDS are a group of seven islands, the easternmost 
of which by the chart is in lat. 3° 18' S., long. 108° 28' E. The islands are 
from 90 to 120 ft. high, and thickly wooded, having between them numerous 
reefs and sandbanks. The relative positions of these islands with each 
other is uncertain. Between the northern island and the Meray group is a 
channel 3 or 4 miles wide, with 5 to 9 fathoms water in it. It is bounded on 
either side by the reefs which extend northward from the islands. 

Northern Coasts of Billiton. — From the N.E. point of Billiton the coast 
rounds gradually to the North, and then takes a general direction about 
N.W. by W. to the N.W. Hook or Point. The aspect of the coast is high, 
uneven land, visible in clear weather 24 or 25 miles off. 

Outer Bangers off the North Coast of Billiton. — Pigeon Island, lying 3 or 4 
miles off the coast, with the N.E. extreme of Billiton bearing S.E. by S., 
and the N.W. hill on Nangka Island E. by N. h N., distant 21 miles, is very 
small, and surrounded by rocks or patches of reef, which also extend 3 miles 
to the south-eastward of it. About N.E. by E. i E. 5 miles from the island, 
a small sandhanh was seen by the Bellhaven in 1857, probably at high water. 
A small rock or patch, with 2 fathoms water over it, is placed on the chart, 
N.N.E., 7 miles from the Pigeon Island, and a second at the same distance 
E.N.E. of it. At 5 miles eastward of Pigeon Island is the "West end of a 
sandbank, which thence extends for 5 miles to the E.S.E., with an average 
breadth of 2^ miles. On one spot on its N.E. side, in lat. 2° 37' S., long. 
108° 18' E., it is reported to dry. 

There are other islets and dangers between Pigeon Island and the N.W. 
point of Billiton ; their exact positions, however, are not well known. 

Krang Island lies 13 miles West from Pigeon Island, and 3 miles off shore, 
N.N.W. 2 miles from it, is a sandbank. Bjoeroh Bajong Rocks lie 2 miles 
West from the sandbank, and 2 miles N.N.E. from Maleh Island. The 
Eijdrograf Rod, of 9 ft., 6 miles off shore, is marked in 2° 28' S., 107° 53' E., 
at 5J miles N.W. of it is a rock recently discovered in 1877, the outermost 
off this coast. At 3 miles West of the Hydrograf Eock is a 3-fathom patch, 
and W.S.W. 5J miles from the 3-fathom patch is the Seloeting Eeef, of 2 
fathoms, which lies N.E. I E. 8 miles from Cape Bienga, the N.W. cape of 

( 275 ) 


Discovery West Bank {Ayer Masein), in lat. 3° 38' S., long. 108° 44' 30" 
E., was examined by Captain Eoss, I.N., in the surveying ship Discovery. 
It is of coral, about 6 cables in extent North and South, and 2 cables 
broad, having near its western edge a small sandbank, awash at high-water 
springs. There are depths of 16 to 20 fathoms around Discovery West bank 
at a distance of three-quarters of a cable. 

Discovery Reef lies N.E. by E. J E. 5i miles from Discovery West Bank, 
and is in lat. 3° 35' 45" S., long. 108° 49' 25" E. ; this reef is 2 cables in di- 
ameter, having several coral heads awash at high water, and 14 to 22 fa- 
thoms around it at the distance of 1 cable. 

Discovery East Bank* {Mampango), in lat. 3° 34' 40" S., long. 109° 12' 35" 
E., is A^ cables long in a North and South direction, and 1 J cable broad, 
having in its centre a decayed white coral ridge 2 cables long, a few yards 
broad, and 5 ft. above high water ; there are 14 to 24 fathoms, sand, around 
this bank, at a distance of 1 cable. Discovery East Bank is visible from 
aloft on a clear day at a distance of 7 to 8 miles. 

Lavender Bank {Byuruh), in lat. 3° 24' S., long. 109° 1' 30" E., was dis- 
covered by Captain Lavender, of the ship Rotnan, who passed it bearing East 
about a quarter of a mile distant, in soundings from 20 to 26 fathoms. It 
is 7 cables long in a N.N.W. and S.S.E. direction, and 2 cables broad. It 
is composed of coral, with several large boulders awash at high water. 
Around this bank there is a depth of 20 fathoms, sand and shells, at the 
distance of a cable. During a south-easterly breeze the sea on Lavender 
Bank has been observed from aloft to break at a distance of 6 miles. 

Cirencester Sandbank {Batmn), in lat. 3° Hf S., long. 108° 59' E., is 
about half a mile in extent N.N.W. and S.S.E., and 1 cable broad. It is 
chiefly composed of live coral heads, with 1 to 3 fathoms between them ; at 
1^ cable within the northern extreme of this bank there is a flat circular 
patch of dead coral awash at low-water springs, 1 cable wide, having on its 
western edge a boulder awash at high water. The depth of water increases 
towards the bank, there being 25 fathoms close off the North end, 32 fathoms 
off the South end, and 35 fathoms about three-quarters of a mile to the west- 
ward ; with a good lookout it may be seen from the mast-head about 8 miles 
at low water, but probably not above 3 or 4 at high tide. Two miles east- 

* From the following remarks in possession of Captain Stephen Stocker, R.N., who was 
mate of H.M.S. Hecate in 1813, it would appear that this bank was discovered by that 
vessel:— "Steering to the southward out of Carimata Strait, we discovered a dry sand- 
bank, 12 or 13 ft. above water, in about lat. 3' 40' S., long. 109» 4' E. Passed about three- 
quarters of a mile eastward of it, and had soundings of 21 to 25 fathoms." 


ward of the bank the Cirencester had very irregular soundings, from 1 6 to 20 
fathoms, changing at almost every cast of the lead. 

Shoal. — Captain Irwin, of the Arica, in 1869, intending to lay-to for the 
night, southward of Scharvogel Islands, came suddenly close to a rock, from 
50 to 60 ft. long, the shoalest part having about 6 ft. water, from that to 18 
feet over the remainder. Position, South from the South Island and S. by 
W. I W. from the eastern islet, in about lat. 3° 31' S., long. 108° 25' E. 

Bower Shoal, discovered by H.M.S. Nassau in 1876, is in lat. 3° 28' 45" S., 
long. 108° 40' 30" E. It is a coral patch, three-quarters of a cable in extent? 
having 9 ft. water on it, and 9 to 1 1 fathoms close around. 

Osterly North and South Shoals were examined by H.M.S. Discovery, and 
afterwards, in 1874, by Lieut W. Pearce, in H.M.S. Sylvia. Osterly South 
Shoal, in lat. 3° 19' S., long. 108° 37' E., is 2 cables in extent North and 
South, with 6 to 12 ft. water on it. and 10 to 14 fathoms close around; near 
the centre of the shoal there is a white dead coral islet, about 40 ft. long, 
and 3 ft. above high water. Osterly North Shoal, situated about 19 cables 
N.E. from the islet on Osterly South Shoal, is about a quarter of a mile in 
extent, awash at low water, and has from 10 to 15 fathoms close around. 
By day this shoal may be distinguished from the greenish tint of the water ; 
but at night it is exceedingly dangerous to vessels passing eastward of the 
Scharvogel Islands. In the vicinity of these shoals the ebb tide was observed 
to set to the southward, and the flood to the northward. 

The Discovery anchored in 1 1 fathoms, soft ground, with North Shoal East 2 
miles, when the boat had from 5 to 7 fathoms rocks on another shoal, bear- 
ing S. h W. from the ship about a quarter of a mile. From the Discovery 
the extremes of the Scharvogel Group bore "W. 15i° S. to W. 15° N., the 
nearest island distant about 8 miles, and a high distant hill N.W. When 
Discovery was anchored in the above position, breakers were seen from the 
mast-head bearing S.S.E. distant about 4 miles (?), on what is named Osterly 
South Shoal. Many eddies were also seen around. 

Cirencester Rock, or Shoal, in lat. 2° 54|^' S., long. 108° 56' E., was seen 
by the Cirencester on the same day that she discovered the sand-bank de- 
scribed above. The least depth found upon it was 2 fathoms at low water, 
and there is probably 3^ fathoms on it at high tide ; close around the sound- 
ings were 17, 16, and 15 fathoms. The shoal is narrow, and not more than 
100 yards in length, North and South. It was not discovered by the boats 
sounding for it until the rocks were seen under the bottom. 

Admiral Protet Reef, Sfc. — A reef, with about 6 or 7 ft. water, lies near the 
assigned but doubtful position (2° 58f S., 108° 34^' E., or 3° S., 108° 30' E.) 
of a shoal named Admiral Protet ; from it Slandak Island bears W. f S., and 
Liendorg, one of the Scharvogel Islands, S.S.AV. ; the position given is in 
lat. 2^ 59' S., lung. 108° 38' E. 


MONTARAN ISLANDS, lying off the N.E. part of BilHton, consist of 
three straggling groups, which, with the many dangers that lie near them, 
are very imperfectly known, and appear to be most inaccurately laid dowa 
upon the chart. The navigator is therefore cautioned to be very vigilant 
when near these islands. Lieut. W. Pearce, R.N., examined East Island, 
Catherine Eeef, and Small Island, in H.M.S. Sylvia, in 1874. 

Nangka, or Tohohemo, the largest and highest of the Montaran Islands, 
has a high hill on each extreme ; and, being low in the middle, appears like 
two islands till within 8 or 9 miles of it ; but it cannot be mistaken when a 
vessel is 17 or 18 miles to the northward, as none of the low islands near it 
are seen at that distance. Close to the North point of this high saddle island 
of Nangka lies an islet covered with bushes, and they are united by a reef 
which extends about 1^ mile to the northward ; a reef projects also about 
half a mile from the South point of the island. 

West Group. — About 2^ miles S. by E. from Nangka are three low islands, 
named West Group, with apparently much broken water about them, and a 
dry sand-bank about 4 miles south-eastward of them ; there is also a high 
white sand-bank about 4 miles south-eastward of them. 

Between West Group and Middle Group the water is shoal, and a dan- 
gerous reef very little above water lies midway between them. A second 
doubtful danger, named High Bank, is marked at 3 miles south-eastward of 
Gampal, the southern island of the Western Group. Na/pier Island lies 4 
miles W. ^ N. from Gampal; it is wooded, and 185 ft. high. Some islets 
and rocks lie between 1^ and ?>h miles southward of it, and a sandbank a mile 
long between 1 and 2 miles S.E. of its eastern extremity. 

The Middle Group consists of four or five islands, lying from 6 to 12 
miles to the eastward of the West Group. The southernmost island is in lat. 
2° ;36' S., and when approached by the Fox frigate, it appeared to be in- 
habited, and the water very shoal around. It appears to have been upon 
one of the reefs off these islands that the Ahercromhie was lost, a fine ship of 
1,200 tons burden, belonging to Bombay. 

East Island, or Pesemot, at the eastern extremity of the group, was ex- 
amined by Lieut. W. Pearce, in H.M.S. Si/!via, in 1874. It is in lat. 2° 29' S., 
long. 108° 51' 40" E., and about half a mile in extent North and South. 
The island is of coral formation, thickly wooded, and surrounded by a sandy 
beach, the trees in the centre forming a sharply pointed summit, 130 ft. high, 
making the island conspicuous and easily recognised when seen from a dis- 
tance. On the western side of the island rocks were seen above water about 
1 cable from the shore ; there is also a sand-bank about 1 mile N. by W. 
from this island. Skeletons of turtle were seen on East Island, so that it may 
be assumed they visit to deposit their eggs. 

A sand-hank is marked at 1 mile N. by W. from East Island. 

Luctor Shoal.— The Dutch barque Ludor and Eiaerfjo touched on a reef, 


from which Nangka bore West, East Island E. f N., and the westernmost 
island of the Middle Group S. by E., which places the rock in lat. 2° 32' 8., 
long. 108° 44' E. 

Small Island, IJ mile S.S.W. i^ W. from East Island, flat and covered 
with trees in the centre, appeared to be about the same length as East 
Island. The channel between these islands is said to be shallow. 

Dangers Eastward of East Island. — A sand-hanh, having a few patches 
above water, was seen from the Sylviah boat, about 1 mile E. by S. from 
East Island ; the bank appeared about three-quarters of a mile long, in an 
East and West direction, but it was not examined. 

A sand-hank, according to an old report, lies S.E. by E. J E. about 4 miles 
from East Island. About a hundred yards all round this bank the depths 
were from 10 to 18 fathoms, shoaling suddenly towards it. In the centre of 
the bank there is a coral rock (3 ft. above water.) ? 

Catherine, or Evans Reef. — On December 17th, 1840, a ship, commanded 
by Captain E. M. Smith, was wrecked on a coral reef, in lat. 2° 30J' S., long. 
108° 59^' E. In no part was it within a fathom of the surface, and in calm 
weather no breaker nor any indication of the reef could be perceived, the 
current running to the N.E. 4 or 5 knots. Again, the ship Catherine, Capt. 
Evans, at 2'' 15" p.m., struck on this ledge of rocks, with East Island bear- 
ing W. i N., distant 8 miles, and Carimata Peak N. 4° W. It is formed of 
sharp coral rocks, extends N.W. and S.E. a cable's length, and the least 
water found on it was 2 fathoms. Soundings were obtained in difierent di- 
rections ; they were 4 to 9 fathoms about N.W. of the ship, and to the S.E. 
a little less than a cable distant. Though a strong current was setting to the 
southward, there was no appearance of broken or discoloured water. Capt. 
Evans places the reef in lat. 2° 31^' S., long. 108° 57' E. 

Catherine or Evans Eeef was unsuccessfully searched for by the boats of 
H.M.S. Sylvia, in 1874, in the position given by the master of the Catherine, 
namely with East Island bearing W. ^ N., distant 8 miles, and Carimata 
Peak N. 4° W. During the examination, however, a shoal, having 4^ 
fathoms on it and 8 to 17 fathoms close around, was found at 4^ miles E. J S. 
from East Island, or in lat. 2° 31' 30" S., long. 108° 54' 30" E. (From this 
position Carimata Peak bears N. 3x° W.) Although 4^ fathoms was the 
least depth obtained by the Sylvia, it was considered probable that less 
water might be found. Also, that other shoal ground existed in the neigh- 

Corsyra Shoal. — The Corcyra, Capt. Walison, in August, 1858, discovered 
a shoal of 15 ft. water, about half a cable's length in circumference, with 
Round Hill on Billiton bearing S. 57° W., and the northernmost small 
island of Nangka, just open of the large one, N. 61° W. ; but those bearings 
will not lay down upon the chart. Eeputed position, 2° 31' S., 108° 30' E. 

Maas en Waal Shoal, discovered by the steam ship of that name, has 18 ft. 


water over it. From the shoal Pulo Sambilan is in line with the South peak 
of Pulo Naugka, bearing E. ^ N., distant about 6 miles. The position of 
this shoal was reported as lat. 2° 32' 30" S., long. 108° 27' E. It is marked 
on the Admiralty chart 6 miles westward of this position. 

Condor Reef. — The ship Condor struck on this shoal, but did not stop to 
examine it ; the ship, however, made water immediately after she struck. 
It lies N. by E. ^ E. 8i miles from Nangka Island, in lat. 2° 22' 20" S., long. 
108° 37' 15" E. Some rocks lie 8 miles S.W. of Condor Eeef. 

Ontario Reef, the centre of which is in lat. 2° 1^' S., long. 108° 39' E., is 
very dangerous, as it lies in the direct tract formerly recommended to ships 
when passing between Soruetou and Billiton. It was discovered by Captain 
Whetten, in the American ship Ontario, which was lost on it January 4th, 
1799. It is composed of sharp spiral rocks, with the tops of some of them 
dry at low water spring tides ; but the small break against their sharp points 
cannot be distinguished from the topping of a common sea ; and the shoal 
is steep-to, having 18 and 19 fathoms at a ship's length from the rocks. 
From the wreck of the Ontario the north-eastern end of the Quoin (on the 
western part of Soruetou) was just shut in with the western end of Sorue- 
tou ; the East end of Soruetou bearing N.N.E. was open about a quarter of 
a point from the West end of Carimata. No other land in sight from the 
reef. The soundings are no guide in the approach to this dangerous shoal, 
there being 23 and 24 fathoms close to it on the North and East sides, 18 
to 25 fathoms nearly close to the rocks on the West side, and 25 fathoms 
clay, at the distance of a cable's length. The shoal was examined by Capt. 
Eoss, I.N., who found it half a mile in extent W.N.W. andE.S.E. ; and one 
of the Montaran Islands was visible from the main-top, bearing S. 6J° W. 

Waller Rock. — There is said to be a coral rock, with 3 fathoms water over 
it, at 5 miles to the westward of the Ontario Eeef. 

Rival Reef we have no account of. It is marked on the chart with 5J fa- 
thoms over it, rocky bottom, in lat. 1° 47' S., long. 108" \bh' E. 

Florence Adelaide Reef. — The British ship Florence Adelaide, bound from 
Cardifi'to Singapore, in 1863, was reported to have been wrecked on a sup- 
posed coral reef, lying in about lat. 2° S., long. 108° E. The reef had 16 ft, 
water on it in the place where the vessel struck, but its extent and the least 
depth over it was not ascertained. 

Hooghly Rocks. — The master of the French ship Hooghly, in 1872, sighted 
three rocks in lat. 1° 35' S., long. 108° 12' E. They bore East and West of 
each other, and from the westward appeared as a haycock, a sugar-loaf, and 
a small tree; the haycock, 16 ft., being the highest out of the water. The 
position was determined by ooservations of the Peak of C-'rimata. 

SORUETOU ISLAND, about 6 miles long East and West, 2 miles wide, 
1,400 ft. high, and visible 28 or 30 miles otf, forms the north-eastern limit of 
the broad main channels of Carimata Strait. The western point of the island 


is in lat. 1° 42i' S., long. 108° 39J' E., and on it is a hummock, which has 
been mistaken for a small island, and called the Quoin, from its appearance. 
About 2 or 3 miles off the West end of the island the depths are 20 to 26 

Breakers are said to have been seen from the mast-head of the ship Aurora, 
bearing S. by W. ^ W., distant about 3 miles, when the eastern extremity 
of Soruetou bore E. by N. i N., the other extreme being obscured by clouds. 

At a sandy beach on the South side of Soruetou, and near the East point, 
there is a good watering place, but high tide is required for a large boat to 
get over a reef. It is said, however, that fresh water can only be got at the 
West end of the island, at the foot of a hill of moderate height, where a ship 
may anchor in 10 fathoms. 

CARIMATA ISLAND lies north-eastward of Soruetou, from which it is 
separated by a narrow channel. It is about 11 miles in extent East and 
West, 7 miles North and South, and near its centre is a peak rising to an 
elevation of 2,000 or 2,986 ft., which maybe seen at the distance of about 
45 miles. On the S. W. end of the island are some hot springs. 

Reefs and dangers extend off the East and South coasts of Carimata ; and 
at 6| miles S.S.E. from the South point of the island is a gravel patch, having 
4 fathoms water over it. Two rocks above water, with others below the 
surface, appear to lie 3 or 4 miles off the middle part of the West coast ; and 
off the N. W. point of the island are numerous islets and rocks, the outer of 
which, Tongado Island, is 3 miles westward of the point. 

The channel between Soruetou and the reef which extends from the South 
coast of Carimata is about 2 miles wide, with depths of 10 to 17 fathoms; 
but no object is to be gained by using it. 

Jamsetti Reef, with 19 ft. water over it, lies 7 miles N. by W. f W. from 
the North point of Carimata Island, and N.E. J N. lOJ miles from Tongado 

Leema Isles are a group of small islets lying North about 18 miles from 
the northern side of Carimata ; near them the soundings are 12 to 14 fathoms. 

Wellesley Shoalis said to lie in lat. 1° 18' S , long. 108^ 34J' E., but its 
position is doubtful. Crescent Shoal, also of doubtful existence, is said to lie 
in lat. 1° 10' S., long. 108° 38' E. 

Erikson Shoal, of 4| fathoms, is placed on the chart in lat 1° 5' S., 
108" 29i' E. 

China Reef. — The commander of the China reported, in 1871, that his ship 
struck on a reef, 4 miles North of the last named, on which there is 10 ft. of 
water. It is about a quarter of a mile long, and stretches out from N. W. to 
S.E. Its position is in lat. 1° 1' 15" S., long. 108° 30' E. 

GREIG SHOAL was discovered by Capt. William Greig, of the ship Lord, 
Minto, who found it to extend from lat. 0° 52' to 0° 58' S., long. 108° 37' E. ; 
the longitude, however, cannot be relied upon as being correct. Five fathoms 


water were found within the extent given above, but on the extremes of the 
shoal the vessel was often in nearly the same depth of water as she was 
drawing, 1 3 feet, and this was in steering between much shoaler spots, with 
the body of Carimata then seen from the deck, bearing between S.S.E. f E. 
and S.E. by S. ; the least water found was 12 ft. ; but, in a more recent ex- 
amination, a spot with 8 ft. water only was found, in lat. 0' 55' 30' S., long. 
108' 28' E. ; from this spot Penambungan Island bears E.S.E., and the peak 
of Carimata Island S.S.E. f E. The shoal is circular in shape, and ab .ut 
1^ cable in diameter. 

Columbus Shoal.— On the 24th of November, 1869, the ship Columbus, 
G. Croot, master, in lat. 0' 51' S., long. 108° 16' E., struck soundings in 5 
fathoms, hard sand or rock ; the ship then tacked and stood to the N.W. ; 
on standing back again, and when about 5 miles S.S.W. of the first position, 
soundings in 6 fathoms were again obtained; tacked and stood off to 17 
fathoms, after which no shoaler water was found. The weather at the time 
was squally, and no land in sight. 


The southern part of the West coast of Borneo, from Sambar Point (its 
S.W. extreme) to abreast of the Masien Tiega Islets, is very imperfectly 
known. Two of its ports Sinkawang and Pontianak, are visited by the 
Netherlands Indian Steam Navigation Company's steamers, but the trade of 
the coast is mostly carried on by small vessels, owned and commanded by 
Chinamen or Malays connected either with the Dutch settlements in Bor- 
neo or Java, or with Singapore. 

SAMBAR POINT is in about lat. 2= 56' 30" S., long. 110^ 15' E., and 
Mount Minto in 2"" 14' S., 110° 3' E., and between them the coast falls back 
and forms two bays. Mount Minto is upon the North point of the northern 
bay, and aboat 16 miles S.E. by E. ^ E. from it is a high peak. The islands 
of Mankap, Laag, Kumpal, and some smaller ones, together with several 
dangers, lie off this part of the coast, and are described hereafter. 

N. J W., distant 22 miles from Mount Minto Point, is Bree Point, the coast 
between forming a bay 5 or 6 miles deep, in which are several small rivers. 
Close to the northward of Bree Point is the Pawang River, which has two 
entrances, separated by an island 3 or 4 miles in breadth. 

From the entrance of the Pawang the coast trends with an irregular out- 
line in a general North direction for about 45 miles, to the entrance of the 
large river Simpang. On this part of the coast are several small rivers, and 
about midway between the Pawang and Simpang are the islets Sepadian, 
Tjampedak, Dato, &c., with the islands of Joanta and Batoang, 7 or 8 miles 
I. A. 2 o 


in the offing. About 7 miles southward of the entrance of the Simpang is 
the island of Palmtoan, lying close to a point of the coast, inside of which on 
a small river is the town of Pamharawang . Two or three miles southward of 
Pambarawang is the town of Succadana. 

Succadana, or Sukadana, "Parrot's Gift," is an unimportant place. It is 
a part of the Netherland province on the West coast of Borneo, and was 
once a Javanese state. 

There is good anchorage in 3 or 4 fathoms in the roadstead off these 
towns, with a group of small islands to the southward. 

The coast above described is low land, and it has seldom been approached 
under 12 or 10 fathoms, being fronted by islets or rocky ground in some 

From the entrance of the Simpang Eiver, the coast trends for about 40 
miles in a W.N.W. direction to a point about 4 miles north-eastward of the 
Masien Tiega Islands. On this part of the coast are several other islands, 
and separated from it by a very narrow channel is the large island of Mayang, 
w^hich is principally low land, but near its south-western end is a high hill. 
Mount Marang ; and near its north-western end a long range fronting the 
sea, named Mount Mayah. 

The West Coast of Borneo, from a point 10 miles northward of the Masien 
Tiega Islets, takes a general direction about N.N.W. for a distance of 50 
miles, when it trends towards the Pontianak River. Two or three small 
islands are shown on the chart as lying close to this part of the coast, and 
the entrance of the Sanjavay, one of the branches of the Pontianak, is about 
15 miles to the southward of the main entrance of the latter river. The fol- 
lowing remarkable phenomenon was experienced by Captain Pearson, of the 
brig Lady of the Lake, in the months of May and June, while sailing along 
this coast on two different voyages : — 

"June 2nd, 1833, at daylight, when sailing along the coast in 10 fathoms 
water, experienced a singular incident ; fresh water on one side the vessel, 
and salt water on the other, which continued for an hour whilst sailing about 
2 miles on the boundary line of salt and fresh water. We filled all our 
empty casks with good drinkable water on one side of the vessel, when it 
was quite salt on the opposite side ; our distance then 2^ or 3 miles off shore, 
lat. 0" 8' S., with the appearance of the mouth of a great river abreast, which 
must be navigable for large vessels, as the water deepened in crossing its 
direction." This was probably the Sanjavay River, one of the branches of 
the Pontianak, several of which reach the sea between the equator and lat. 
0° 20' S. 

PONTIANAK RIVER entrance is in lat. 0° 2' N., long. 109° 10' E., and 
distant 35 miles E. f S. from Pulo Datoe- The anchorage in the road is in 
3i to 55 fathoms, with the river's mouth bearing E. by S. h S., or E.S.E., 
Pulo Datoe W. i N. or W. ^ N., and the extremes of Borneo from S. \ E. 


to N.N.W. ^ W., oif shore about 4 or 5 miles. A shoal mud-bank projects 
some distance from the mouth of the river, and although the bar is nearly 
dry at low water, there are 8 or 10 ft. on it at high spring tides. The town 
is about 12 miles from the entrance, and has a fort; and at Balu Lasrong, 
about 7 miles up, there is a fort on each side. These two places are some- 
times visited by Bengal traders. 

Buoys. — Outside the poles which mark the channel of the Pontianak 
Eiver, two Herbert's buoys are placed. A white buoy in 3 fathoms water, 
with Pulo Batoe bearing W. 4° N., and Pulo Temadyo showing over the 
low foreland, N. 29° W. The second buoy is black, moored in 2f fathoms 
water N. 12° E. from the preceding buoy, and with Pulo Datoe bearing 
W. 2° N., and Pulo Temadyo N. 30° W. These buoys are moored about 
W.N.W. 2^ miles from the mouth of the river. 

Pontianak, a Malay town and state, is the chief place of the Netherlands 
Administration of their western province of Borneo. There is a considerable 
trade with Batavia and Singapore. The river is said to be navigable by the 
light draught steamer stationed upon it, for a distance of 200 miles. 

Some bullocks and hogs may be procured at Pontianak, and also at Mam- 
pawa ; but boats must go far up the Pontianak to procure fresh water during 
the dry season, which makes watering at this river very inconvenient. 

TANJONG MAMPAWA is in lat. 0° 19^' N., long. 108° 54' E., and bears 
N.W, 23 miles from the entrance of the Pontianak, the coast between form- 
ing a bay. About 4 miles eastward of the point is Mampawa River, which 
is only navigable for proas ; there is a fort at the town of Mampawa, a few 
miles inside the entrance. The anchorage in the road is in 5 to 8 fathoms, 
about 3 or 4 miles off shore, with the mouth of the river N. by E. |- E. ; or 
to the westward of the point at discretion, bearing in mind that the sound- 
ings decrease rather suddenly under a depth of 10 fathoms. 

H.M.S. Rifleman, in 1862, anchored off Mampawa Point, but could not 
find the landing-place mentioned in Horsburgh as being there. Her boats 
went up to the town of Mampawa, and succeeded in obtaining a few fowls 
and eggs. 

The Tides in Mampawa Eoad run about 2 miles per hour, nearly E.S.E. 
and W.N.W. 

The coast from Mampawa Point takes a general direction nearly N. by W. 
for 28 miles, to Tanjong Batoe Blad. At 9 miles from Mampawa Point is 
Tanjong Samoedin, and between these points is a bay, about 2 miles deep, 
with a small round islet in the depth of it. The western part of this islet 
was used as an observation spot by the ofScers of H.M. surveying-vessel 
Rifleman, and its position was ascertained to be in lat. 0° 24' N., long. 
108° 56' E. At 18 miles northward from Samoedin Point is Tanjong Sangoa, 
having a small islet close to it, and Samassu Island and Kran Islet lying 
about half a mile off it. On either side of Sangoa Point, the coast line 


curves gently back, forming bays, towards which the soundings decrease gra- 

Mountains. — The coast between the Pontianak River and Batoe Blad 
Point is marked by many remarkable mountains, some rising boldly up near 
the sea, and others several miles back from it. A long continuous range 
runs eastward from Tanjong Sedow Malang (5 miles north-eastward of Tan- 
jong Batoe Blad) for a distance of 12 or 13 miles. 

Pulo Sitenga, its centre in lat. 0° 22' N., long. 108° 44' 40" E., is small, 
three-quarters of a mile long N.N.E, and S.S.W., nearly half a mile broad, 
and moderately elevated. Close around it are 6 to 8 fathoms water, and 
from 11 to 16 fathoms, clay bottom, at a short distance from it. 

Pulo Damar, lying N.E. f E., 2|- miles from Sitenga, is a small, round 
islet, moderately elevated, and covered with large trees. Close around it are 
5i to 8 fathoms, increasing to 10 and 14 fathoms at a short distance to the 

PULO TEMADJOE, lying about 2| miles westward of Tanjong Samoedin, 
is about 2i miles long, North and South, and 1^ mile broad. It is consider- 
ably elevated, of an irregular shape, forming a point at its South end, and 
having its greatest breadth on its N.W. side, where are two small bays, 
with white sandy beaches ; there is also a rather deep bay on its West side. 
The soundings decrease gradually towards Temadjoe, from 14 and 12 fa- 
thoms to 7 and 6, and close to it are 4 and 3 fathoms, except on its East 
side, where a reef appears to project about a quarter of a mile. The channel 
between the island and the main is quite clear, with depths of 7 or 8 fathoms, 
decreasing regularly towards the main, and there is good anchorage any- 
where under the lee of the island 

Pulo Baroe, in lat. 0° 35J' N., long. 108° 45i' E., is only about a third of 
a mile in extent. The soundings are very irregular, 18 to 5 fathoms, close 
to it, and close to its North end is a patch of H fathom. 

A. shoal patch , of only 2f fathoms water, and 12 to 16 fathoms around it, 
lies half a mile N.N.W. from Pulo Baroe. 

Pulo Samassu, three-quarters of a mile long N. by W. and S. by E., and 
a quarter of a mile broad, lies off Tanjong Sangoa, half a mile distant from 
the coast, but some distance inside the S-fathoms edge of the bank extend- 
from the shore. The soundings decrease rather suddenly towards this island, 
which should not be neared under a depth of 8 or 6 fathoms. 

About N.W. J N., distant one-third of a mile from the North point of Sa- 
massu, is a small islet named Pulo Kran. 

Four-fathoms Patches. — X shoal patch, having this depth over it, and 8 to 11 
fathoms around it, lies with the South point of Samassu bearing East, distant 
3i miles ; and the West part of Pulo Kaboen, shut in behind the N.E. part 
of Pulo Penata Ketehil, bearing N. by W., westerly. There is another 4- 
fathoms patch at half a mile southward of Penata Ketehil. 


B0ER02f G ISLANDS are a group of five islands lying to the westward of 
Tanjong Batoe Blad and the coaft adjacent to it. 

Pulo Landean, the southernmost of the group, is a mere islet, barely a 
quarter of a mile in diameter, lying about three-quarters of a mile S. by E. 
from the South point of Lamokatan. Near to it are depths ot 4 fathoms, 
and 10 to 12 fathoms at a short distance westward of it. 

Pulo Lamokatan, the largest island of the group, is 4^ miles long N.N.W. 
and S.S.E., but its greatest breadth is only a little over a mile. It is high, 
with several peaked hills upon it, the heights of which, however , are not 
known. The water is deep, 15 or 16 fathoms, close to its West side, and 
there appears to be a deep water channel between it and Pulo Landean. 
Shoal water extends about a quarter of a mile from the North part of the 

There is anchorage in 5 or 6 fathoms abreast of two small bays on the 
East side of Lamokatan, but it will be necessary to approach the shore with 
caution, the soundings decreasing rather suddenly from 17 or 16 fathoms. 

Pulo Penata Besar, 2 miles long N. by W. and S. by E., and two-thirda 
of a mile broad, lies about 1 J mile eastward of Lamokatan, the South ex- 
tremes of both islands being in the same latitude. Close to the East and 
West sides of Penata Besar are from 4 to 8 fathoms water, except off its 
North point, where there are but If fathoms. In the channel between 
these islands the water is deep, 2'2 to 33 fathoms, but decreasing to 15 and 
14 fathoms northward of the parallel of the North point of Penata Besar. 

Pulo Penata Ketchil, about half a mile in extent, lies a mile eastward of 
the middle part of Penata Besar. A point projects in a south-easterly direc- 
tion from the island, upon each side of which is a small bay. Close to the 
island are 8 to 13 fathoms, but, as before stated, there is a patch of 4 fathoms 
at half a mile to the southward, having 6 and 7 fathoms near it. 

A Shoal or bank, over which the least water appears to be 3^ fathoms, lies 
(its southern extreme of 4 fathoms) about one-third of a mile N.N.W. from 
the North point of Penata Ketchil, and from thence extends about N. ^ E. 
1 J mile. Close to the West side of this bank are 7 to 16 fathoms, but on the 
East side, soundings of 5 fathoms extend nearly a mile from it, when the 
depths suddenly increase to 12 and 19 fathoms. 

It would seem necessary to exercise caution when crossing over or passing 
near to this bank, for the chart does not exhibit sufficient soundings to make 
it certain that the least water upon the bank has been obtained. 

Pulo Kaboen, the N.E. island of the Boerong Group, lies E.N.E. about 4 
miles from the North end of Lamokatan, and W. by N. ^ N. nearly 3 miles 
from Tanjong Batoe Blad. It is a high island, about U mile long, N.E. by N. 
and S.W. by S., and a mile broad. Close to its South end are 3J fathoms, 
and there are depths of 4 fathoms about three-quarters of a mile from it. A 


patch of 4 fathoms lies about half a mile off its N.W. point, elsewhere the 
soundings close to the island are 6 to 8 fathoms. 

TANJONG BATOE BLAD, the westernmost extreme of Borneo, is in lat. 
0° 47' 35" N., long. 108° 50' 10" E. It is a prominent point from the land 
approaching it from the southward in a N.N.W. direction, and then falling 
from it in a north-easterly direction, and also from a range of hills behind it, 
running 12 or 13 miles to the eastward. The point itself appears, from the 
Dutch chart, to be low, with three hiUs immediately behind it ; some rocks 
lie off it, and the 3-fathoms line which marks their edge is nearly half a mile 
from the point. 

A shoal, of small extent, but over which there are but 2f fathoms water, 
lies N.W. ^N. 1^ mile from Batoe Blad Point, and West-southerly from the 
North point of Kaboen Island. Around the shoal there appears to be 11 
fathoms water, and 8 or 9 fathoms between it and the shore bank ; between 
the shoal and Kaboen are 12 and 15 fathoms. 

Directions. — Vessels will frequently find it convenient to keep pretty close 
to the coast of Borneo, just described, especially when working to windward 
against the N.E. monsoon, for favourable tides will be found near the shore 
when a strong current is running to the southward some distance from it. 
Between the Massa Tiega Islets and Mampawa Point, a vessel may stand 
towards the coast, guided by the lead, into 7 or even 6 fathoms ; farther out, 
in a line between the Greig Shoal and Datoe Island, the depths are 18 or 20 
fathoms. Small vessels may pass in safety between Temadjoe Island and 
the main, the channel being a mile wide, with depths in it of 7 and 8 fathoms. 
Large vessels, however, had better pass outside that island. Between Te- 
madjoe and Samassu, vessels of any size may stand towards the coast into 
7 or 6 fathoms, and pass on either side of Baroe Island and the shoal near 
it as